Administrative Histories

NPS administrative histories look at the history of federal parks and the National Park Service as public programs and as a public trust. They analyze individual parks and their establishment and administration, as well as NPS programs and policies.

The history of the NPS is rich in possibilities for anyone interested in environmental history, natural resource conservation, federal programs for historic preservation and archeology, public attitudes toward historical memory and commemoration, debates about the uses of public land, and the nature of federal agencies and programs over the past century. From wilderness designations to the setting aside of historic sites, the NPS is shaped by and, in turn, helps to shape ideas about this country's natural and cultural heritage.

As a government agency, the NPS has reflected and participated in national discussions about the environment and its relationship to society. Parks provide specific evidence about the history of conservation and management of natural resources and about the economic, ecological, and aesthetic dimensions of the public lands. Parks illuminate changes in the very concept of nature and wilderness, the economic interests involved in the setting aside and development of public lands, and ways Americans experience nature and wilderness in shifting patterns of tourism and recreation.

The NPS also reflects changes in the kinds of historical and cultural memory we as a nation have felt worthy of preservation. NPS historic sites illuminate a variety of cultural symbols and processes of historical and cultural change. They show how we have sought to commemorate the past and establish or reaffirm aspects of a national identity. They also provide direct, tangible evidence about the past that can challenge visitors and scholars to seek new ways of understanding human activities and interests, prehistoric and historic.

Park managers bear significant responsibilities for decisions about park resources that affect how future generations will see this multifaceted natural and cultural heritage. Administrative histories inform them about the decision-making of their predecessors in the NPS, and about how NPS decisions have reflected and reflect broader social, economic, cultural, and political trends and interests.

Research possibilities abound in park-related aspects of the history of ideas about nature and culture, and the sometimes-contending interests of people who have influenced and implemented federal programs for the National Park System. We are seeking partnerships, advice, and assistance from park-goers, scholars, and others with interests in parks, conservation and preservation. As of June 2001, only about 60 of the 388 parks administered by the NPS had current administrative histories. NPS national programs for archeology, concessions, land acquisition, and recreation also present research opportunities.

To learn more about NPS administrative histories, contact the NPS Bureau Historian, at the National Park Service, National Register, History, and Education, 1201 Eye Street, N.W, Washington, DC, 20005, (202)354-2259. For additional infomation concerning the location of National Park Service Archives and Records please visit the following web sites.

The following is a list of reports, articles, and books constituting or including administrative histories, partial administrative histories, or significant administrative history data for particular parks. Most of those without publication data are National Park Service studies reproduced in limited quantity for internal distribution.

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Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site

Peterson, Gloria. An Administrative History of Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site. 107 p., 1969.

Chronological treatment to final chapter, "The Birthplace Cabin Question," which criticizes the Service's lack of candor in interpreting the cabin. Appendixes transcribe park legislation.

Acadia National Park

Dorr, George B. Acadia National Park: Its Origin and Background. Bangor: Burr Printing Co., 1942. 76 p.

Dorr, George B. Acadia National Park: Its Growth and Development. Bangor: Burr Printing Co., 1948. 46 p.

The park's leading patron and first superintendent recounts his intimate involvement in private land acquisition and donation, the initial national monument proclamation, and later park legislation. Fascinating account of personal influence by and interaction among the social elite to create and promote a national park. Little on administration beyond establishment and enlargement.

Ernst, Joseph W., ed. Worthwhile Places: Correspondence of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and Horace M. Albright. New York: Rockefeller Archive Center, 1991. 354 p.

Includes many letters regarding Rockefeller's road-building and other activities at Acadia.

Adams National Historic Site

Freiberg, Malcolm. From Family to Nation: The Old House Becomes the Adams National Historic Site. 34 p., 1986.

Paper presented by emeritus editor of publications, Massachusetts Historical Society, at Adams lecture series. Excellent short account of the Adams Memorial Society's management of the property, its decision to donate it to the United States, and early NPS custody.

Agate Fossil Beds National Monument

Cockrell, Ron. Bones of Agate: An Administrative History of Agate Fossil Beds National Monument, Nebraska. 311 p., 1986.

Clear and candid presentation of fossil discoveries and excavations, the role of the Cooks, and problems with monument establishment, land acquisition, development, and collections. Appendix includes photos, maps, legislation, personnel, visitation statistics.

Alaska Region

Norris, Frank Alaska Subsistance: A National Park Service Management History.306 p., 2002

Andrew Johnson National Historic Site

Lawing, Hugh. Administrative History: Andrew Johnson National Historic Site. 108 p., 1971.

First third adapted from uncritical biographies of Johnson. The years 1942-1954 are covered by unsynthesized random excerpts from superintendents' monthly reports. Appendix contains visitation statistics, personnel roster, recollections of Johnson's great-granddaughter.

Aniakchak National Monument and National Preserve

See Kamai National Park and National Preserve

Antietam National Battlefield

Snell, Charles W., and Sharon A. Brown. Antietam National Battlefield and National Cemetery, Sharpsburg, Maryland: An Administrative History. (PDF) 571 p., 1986.

Highly detailed account of establishment and administration, covering planning, research, development, interpretation, key personnel, maintenance, expenditures, and virtually all other aspects of park management. Topically organized within chronological periods.

Apostle Islands National Lakeshoree

Jordahl, Harold C., Jr. A Unique Collection of Islands: The Influence of History, Politics, Policy and Planning on the Establishment of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. (pdf) 863 p., 1994.

An extensive account of the establishment and enlargement of the lakeshore by a Wisconsin conservationist actively involved with the events described. Activities at the state level receive substantial coverage. Laws and other documents are appended. Indexed.

Appalachian National Scenic Trail

Foster, Charles H. W. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail: A Time to Be Bold. Harpers Ferry, WV: Appalachian Trail Conference, 1987. 232 p.

Traces the history of the trail from its conception by Benton MacKaye through its "volunteer" status to the era of governmental involvement. Much attention to cooperative federal-state-private sector relationships in trail routing, land protection, administration. Thoroughly researched, skillfully written, attractively packaged-an exemplary administrative history.

Arkansas Post National Memorial

Carrara, Gregorio S.A. Arkansas Post National Memorial Administrative History. 37 p., 1988.

First 19 pages written 1975; the final chapter covering events through 1987 was added without revising the original portion. Chapters are chronological with little topical organization. Physical development and personnel receive greatest emphasis. Undocumented.

Assateague Island National Seashore

Mackintosh, Barry.Assateague Island National Seashore: An Administrative History. 210 p. plus illustrations, 1982.

Initial chapter traces events leading to seashore establishment; subsequent topical chapters address land acquisition, planning, relations with other agencies, physical development, resources management, and public use. Appendix includes legislation, personnel roster, visitation statistics.

Aztec Ruins National Monument

Lister, Robert H., and Florence C. Lister. Aztec Ruins National Monument: Administrative History of an Archeological Preserve. Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers no. 24. 313 p., 1990.

Extensive coverage of excavation, reconstruction, stabilization, and development at the site both before and after NPS involvement, emphasizing the roles of Earl Morris and other personalities. Excellent analysis of problems posed by archeological excavation and display of remains. Appendixes reproduce proclamations, legislation, and other important documents; list superintendents and visitation statistics; and record stabilization work in detail. An outstanding contract history by a former NPS archeologist.

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Badlands National Park

Mattison, Ray H., and Robert A. Grom. History of Badlands National Monument and The White River (Big) Badlands of South Dakota. Ed. by Joanne W. Stockert. Interior, SD: Badlands Natural History Assn., 1968. 78 p.

Mostly chronological account of early exploration and settlement of area, park movement, and highlights of park development and administration. List of superintendents and visitation figures in appendix. Well documented, attractively presented with illustrations.

Shuler, Jay. A Revelation Called The Badlands: Building a National Park, 1909-1939. Interior, SD: Badlands Natural History Assn., 1989.

An undocumented but well written and illustrated account by the chief park naturalist of the establishment of Badlands National Monument, emphasizing the roles of Sen. Peter Norbeck and Ben Millard.

Bandelier National Monument

Rothman, Hal. Bandelier National Monument: An Administrative History. Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers no. 14. 167 p., 1988.

Includes coverage of original Forest Service administration of the monument, efforts then and following its transfer to the NPS to establish a national park encompassing it, its development by the CCC, wartime and later threats to its integrity, and natural and cultural resources management issues. Appendixes for visitation, superintendents, key events, legislation. A solid contract history.

Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site

Mattes, Merrill J. "From Ruin to Reconstruction, 1920-1976." The Colorado Magazine 54, no. 4 (1977): 57-101.

History of Bent's Old Fort from DAR acquisition in 1920 to its reconstruction for the Bicentenial. Traces period of state ownership, transfer to NPS, debate over reconstruction, political involvement in funding reconstruction. Little on site administration beyond the fort itself.

Big Bend National Park

Jameson, John R. Big Bend on the Rio Grande: Biography of a National Park. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. 171 p.

Scholarly study emphasizing establishment, land acquisition, community relations, and the proposal for an international park. Little on internal administrative concerns. Appendix includes chronology, legislation, visitation statistics. Revised and updated from a 1973 Ph.D. dissertation.

Jameson, John R. "From Dude Ranches to Haciendas: Master Planning at Big Bend National Park, Texas." Forest & Conservation History 38, no. 3 (July 1994): 108-17.

Traces the diverse array of proposals for development and non-development, the 1972-78 controversy over wilderness designation, and plans for the adjoining Big Bend Ranch, acquired as a Texas state park in 1988.

Welsh, Michael Landscape of Ghosts, River of Dreams: A History of Big Bend National Park Washington, DC, National Park Service, 437 p. 2002

Big Hole National Battlefield

Catton, Theodore. Commemoration and Preservation: An Administrative History of Big Hole National Battlefield. 187 p. plus appendices. 1999.

Big Thicket National Preserve

Cazine, James J., Jr. Assault on a Wilderness: The Big Thicket of East Texas. 334 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1976.

First half deals with botany, Indian habitation, exploration and settlement, lumbering and oil drilling in area; second half is detailed treatment of preservation movement and legislative history. Some discussion of preserve management problems following establishment in 1974.

Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument

Beidleman, Richard G. Administrative History of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument (pdf). 234 p., 1965.

Good description of events leading to monument proclamation; topical coverage of major developments and activities thereafter.

Blue Ridge Parkway

Jolley, Harley E. The Blue Ridge Parkway: Origins and Early Development. 305 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1964.

Deals with the planning and construction of the parkway up to its placement under the NPS in 1936.

Jolley, Harley E. The Blue Ridge Parkway. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1969. 172 p.

Explores origin of Blue Ridge Parkway idea; relates competition between North Carolina and Tennessee for route; discusses land acquisition, construction, relations with mountain people. Based on author's dissertation, with some expansion to cover parkway interpretive and recreational development since road completion. Little else on administration.

Booker T. Washington National Monument

Mackintosh, Barry. Booker T. Washington National Monument: An Administrative History. 160 p. plus illustrations, 1969.

First half is devoted to the site and its private promoters before monument establishment; second half covers NPS administration. Both private and public administration undergo critical evaluation. Appendix includes examination of the birth cabin controversy.

Bryce Canyon National Park

Scrattish, Nicholas. Historic Resource Study: Bryce Canyon National Park. 289 p., 1980.

An administrative history as much as a historic resource study, the report discusses pre-park tourism, railroad involvement in the park movement, access road building, park establishment, development for administration and public accommodation, CCC activity, and park boundary changes.

Buffalo National River

Compton, Neil. The Battle for the Buffalo River. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1992. 481 p.

A partisan account of the grass-roots campaign to save the Buffalo from damming and make it a national river, by the president of the Ozark Society, the group most closely involved. Ends with enactment of the national river legislation. Letters and other documents are extensively quoted. More a memoir than a history.

Pitcaithley, Dwight T. Let the River Be: A History of the Ozark's Buffalo River. 133 p., 1987.

Final chapter contains a short account of initial land acquisition and staffing. Good reference for a future administrative history.

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Cabrillo National Monument

Lehmann, Susan C. An Embarrassment of Riches: The Administrative History of Cabrillo National Monument. San Diego: Cabrillo Historical Assn., 1987. 157 p.

Thorough, well documented history covering the changing administration, use, and image of the monument from its inception to the mid-1980s. Relationships with other agencies and the local community receive particular attention.

Canyon de Chelly National Monument

Brugge, David M., and Raymond Wilson. Administrative History: Canyon de Chelly National Monument. 264 p. plus appendix, 1976.

Thorough examination of the monument's evolution, with extensive attention to Navajo relations. Appendix has sections on superintendents, visitation, construction contracts, ethnographic field work, general chronology, legislation.

Canyonlands National Park

Richardson, Elmo R. "Federal Park Policy in Utah: The Escalante National Monument Controversy of 1935-1940." Utah Historical Quarterly 33 (Spring 1965): 109-33.

Account of a proposed national monument in the area later occupied by Canyonlands, explaining its defeat by Utah interests concerned about Interior-NPS territorial ambitions and restrictive land use policies.

Cape Cod National Seashore

Burling, Francis P. The Birth of the Cape Cod National Seashore. Plymouth, MA: Leyden Press, 1978. 67 p.

A solid legislative history, based on congressional documents and extensive interviews with seashore proponents and opponents, by an Orleans newspaper editor. Introduction by Elliot Richardson.

Capitol Reef National Park

Frye, Bradford. Barrier to Crossroads: An Administrative History of Capitol Reef National Park. Southwest Cultural Resources Report No. 12, 1998.

Thow, Jonathan S. Capitol Reef: The Forgotten National Park. 170 p. M.S. thesis, 1986.

Discusses establishment of Capitol Reef National Monument in 1937, its controversial enlargement by Lyndon Johnson in 1969, and its conversion to a national park in 1971. Focuses on the park's stormy relationships with local people and tourism, mining, and grazing interests. Written largely from their perspective, it scores the frequent insensitivity of the NPS in public relations; yet it is well balanced. Less an administrative history than a study of the park's effect on the region.

Carlsbad Caverns National Park

Gale, Bennett T. Historical Sketch, Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 50 p., 1952.

Chronologically arranged with few headings to facilitate information retrieval. No footnotes or bibliography. Well written and useful nonetheless.

Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

Clemensen, A. Berle. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Arizona: A Centennial History of the First Prehistoric Reserve, 1892-1992. Denver: National Park Service, 1992. 237 p.

A thorough history of the monument's origins and development, with particular attention to such topics as the CCC, Mission 66, ruins preservation efforts, and NPS buildings. Well illustrated with photographs and maps. Appendix lists all employees, reproduces key documents, and provides historical data on buildings.

Van Valkenburgh, Sallie. The History of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. Southwestern Monuments Association, 1965. 31 p. (Reprinted from The Kiva 27, no. 3 [February 1962].)

After background on prehistory and Euro-American contacts, the author discusses the reservation of Casa Grande and its administration under Frank Pinkley. Little coverage of events after Pinkley's death in 1940.

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument

Krakow, Jere L. Administrative History of Castillo de San Marcos National Monument and Fort Matanzas National Monument. 132 p. plus illustrations, 1985.

Traces early preservation and tourism accommodation under War Department, operation by Saint Augustine Historical Society, NPS takeover and administration (by superintendents' tenures). Topical sections on interpretation, special events, visitors, research, race relations. Appendixes for key documents, personnel, statistics.

Catoctin Mountain Park

Kirkconnell, Barbara M. Catoctin Mountain Park: An Administrative History. 273 p., 1988.

Chapters cover land acquisition, physical development of Catoctin Recreation Demonstration Area, CCC activity, Shangri-La/Camp David, Mission 66, Job Corps and YCC activity, interpretation and use, natural resource management, protection. Legislation, roster of principal staff, and illustrations are appended.

Cedar Breaks National Monument

Rothman, Hal. "Shaping the Nature of a Controversy: The Park Service, the Forest Service, and the Cedar Breaks Proposal." Utah Historical Quarterly, Summer 1987, pp. 213-35.

Uses establishment of Cedar Breaks National Monument to illustrate the differing philosophies of the Park Service and Forest Service and the conflicts between the bureaus.

Chaco Culture National Historical Park

Pierson, Lloyd M. A History of Chaco Canyon National Monument. 120 p. plus appendix, 1956.

Topically organized, with emphasis on history of research at Chaco. Appendix contains monument proclamation, visitation statistics, key personnel roster. Many typographical errors mar the good writing.

Channel Islands National Park

Roberts, Lois J. San Miguel Island: Santa Barbara's Fourth Island West. Carmel, CA: Cal Rim Books, 1991. 214 p.

Based on the author's 1979 historic resource study of Channel Islands National Monument and San Miguel Island, both of which were incorporated in the national park in 1980. Chapter 9, "National Park Management," briefly covers the establishment and administration of the national monument and traces the administration of San Miguel Island by the Lighthouse Bureau and the Navy.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park

Mackintosh, Barry. C & O Canal: The Making of a Park. 208 p., 1991.

Chapters trace federal acquisition of canal, the parkway proposal, the national historical park campaign, land acquisition, planning, management arrangements, development, public use. Appendix includes legislation, administrative chronology, roster of key officials. Illustrated and indexed.

Young, April L. Saving the C and O Canal: Citizen Participation in Historic Preservation. 104 p. M.A. thesis, 1973.

Discusses parkway proposal, Douglas canal hike, national monument proclamation, dam proposals; concludes with national historical park authorization. Good analysis of the role of conservation groups overcoming bureaucratic forces to influence public policy.

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

Paige, John C., and Jerome A. Greene. Administrative History of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park. 221 p. plus appendix and illustrations, 1983.

Chapters address park establishment, War Department and NPS administration, the monuments, military use, special events, increasing recreational use. Appendix includes list of key officials, legislation, legal description of park.

Chickasaw National Recreation Area

Boeger, Palmer H. Oklahoma Oasis: From Platt National Park to Chickasaw National Recreation Area. Muskogee, OK: Western Heritage Books, 1987. 215 p.

General, popular park history, anecdotal in nature, emphasizing visitor use. Covers CCC involvement in some detail. Includes comments by others on Platt's national park qualifications but eschews evaluation.

Colonial National Historical Park

Hatch, Charles E., Jr. The Evolution of the Concept of Colonial National Historical Park: A Chapter in the Story of Historical Conservation. 39 p., 1964.

Discusses early commemoration of Jamestown and Yorktown, various unsuccessful plans for direct federal involvement, final successful park movement in collaboration with John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Concludes with enactment of 1930 national monument legislation.

Colorado National Monument

Look, Al. John Otto and the Colorado National Monument. Grand Junction, CO: Sandstone Publishing Co., 1962. 80 p.

Colorful, impressionistic account of the monument's highly individualistic if not crazy first custodian by one who knew him. Much on Otto's eccentric correspondence with Washington headquarters. Entertaining but undocumented and unreliable.

Cowpens National Battlefield

Binkley, Cameron and Steve, A. Davis. Cowpens NB: An Administrative History, Cultural Resources Stewardship, Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, Atlanta, George, 2002.. 105 p., 2002.

Crater Lake National Park

Unrau, Harlan D. Administrative History, Crater Lake National Park. 702 p. (in two volumes), 1988.

A thorough, comprehensive study of the park's origins, establishment, and administration. Ranger activities, resource management, development, maintenance, visitation and concessions, and interpretation receive special attention. Extensive appendixes following each chapter add to the history's reference value. Additional chapter on planning and development at Rim Village written by Steven Mark, park historian, in a third volume.

Craters of the Moon National Monument

Louter, David. Craters of the Moon National Monument: An Administrative History. 389 p., 1992.

A comprehensive and candid history of the monument, with chapters on land issues and legislation, administration, resource management, recreation, interpretation, development, and concessions. The text is supplemented by maps and photographs, a chronology of key events, copies of proclamations and legislation, a list of key personnel, visitation statistics, and an index.

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park

Tinney, Edward E. History of Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. 75 p. plus illustrations and bibliography, 1965.

More than one-third devoted to pre-park events. Weak on legislative history; more on land acquisition and development. Personnel and visitation statistics listed in appendix.

Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area

Cockrell, Ron. Compendium of the Oral History Project for the Cuyahoga Valley Administrative History. 780 p., 1991.

Contains transcriptions of 37 interviews (including a few written responses to questionnaires) conducted for Cockrell's administrative history. Cockrell's probing questions elicited candid and insightful comments on controversial matters from key players, including Russell Dickenson, Nathaniel Reed, and John Seiberling.

Cockrell, Ron. A Green Shrouded Miracle: The Administrative History of Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, 542 p., 1992.

A thorough history of the conception, establishment, and administration of a controversial park, remarkable for its comprehensiveness and candid treatment of controversial issues. Land acquisition and community relations receive particular attention. Numerous maps and photographs, extensive appended material on legislation, employees, visitation, and budgets, and an index enhance its reference value.

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Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

Albert, Richard C. Damming the Delaware: The Rise and Fall of Tocks Island Dam. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1987. 202 p.

Focuses on the plans for and controversy surrounding the dam, but also contains significant information on the establishment and role of the national recreation area. Essential to an understanding of the recreation area's evolution.

Denali National Park and Preserve

Brown, William E. A History of the Denali-Mount McKinley Region, Alaska. 274 p., 1991.

A historic resource study, but devotes much attention to the park movement and key issues in the park's planning, development, use, and enlargement. Exceptionally well written and illustrated; indexed.

Pearson, Grant H. A History of Mount McKinley National Park. 59 p. plus appendix, 1953.

Topical organization, variously strong and weak depending on subject. The chapter on park establishment is from another account and is not internally documented. Special attention to climbing expeditions. Appendix includes friends of park, related legislation, publications.

Devils Tower National Monument

Daugherty, D. John. Devils Tower National Monument. 69 p., 1984.

A chronological treatment of establishment and administration, the latter primarily from superintendents' monthly reports. The last 15 pages contain a historic structures inventory with recommendations for National Register nomination.

Dinosaur National Monument

Beidleman, Richard G. Administrative History: Dinosaur National Monument. Variously paginated, n.d.

Topically organized with emphasis on early excavations by Earl Douglass, abortive efforts to establish an onsite museum in the 1930s, and other interpretive activities. Concludes with reclamation activities in the area and the beginning of the Echo Park Dam controversy in 1950. Chapters are well documented and written but are often disjointed and repetitive.

Harvey, Mark W. T. A Symbol of Wilderness: Echo Park and the American Conservation Movement. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994. 368 p.

Bureau of Reclamation plans for a major dam in Dinosaur National Monument galvanized conservationists and precipitated the greatest conservation battle of the mid-20th century. As Harvey explains, the controversy and its outcome marked a significant shift in the public perception of parks from playgrounds to preserves. A remarkably fair and balanced account, sympathetically portraying those who worked with and supported the dam planners as well as those who opposed them.

Neel, Susan R. "Newton Drury and the Echo Park Dam Controversy." Forest & Conservation History 38, no. 2 (April 1994): 56-66.

Traces Drury's changing positions on dams in Dinosaur National Monument and related positions on the NPS and national recreation areas, his inconsistent dealings with superiors, subordinates, and the Bureau of Reclamation, and the events leading to his resignation. A hard but fair appraisal.

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Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve

McKinley, Laura. An Unbroken Historical Record: Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve Administrative History. 199 p., 1993.

A comprehensive history of this park, previously classed as an affiliated area for its trust board management. Chapters address the preservation movement, planning, land acquisition and protection, general administration, interpretation, and resource management. Illustrated and indexed.

Effigy Mounds National Monument

O'Bright, Jill York. The Perpetual March: An Administrative History of Effigy Mounds National Monument. 279 p., 1989.

Following initial background, chapters address the national park movement, authorization of the monument, land acquisition, staffing, development, resource management and research, and interpretation. Appendixes contain a chronology of events, legislation, land acquisition summaries, a roster of employees, and a list of studies. Indexed. An exemplary history.

El Malpais National Monument

Mangum, Neil C. In the Land of Frozen Fires: A History of Occupation in El Maplais Country. 101 p., 1990.

El Morro National Monument

Sievers, Douglas W. El Morro: A Unit History. 20 p., 1970.

Short, entertaining account by a seasonal ranger. Little on monument establishment and enlargement, but good summary of efforts to preserve the inscriptions.

Everglades National Park

Vance, Linda D. "May Mann Jennings and Royal Palm State Park." Florida Historical Quarterly 55, no. 1 (July 1976): 1-17.

Traces the efforts of Jennings and other Florida conservationists to establish a state park and donate it for the establishment of Everglades National Park. Not a critical history.

Fort Bowie National Historic Site

Gomez, Phillip J. "Fort Bowie National Historic Site: The Evolution of a Unique Western Park." The Journal of Arizona History 25, no. 2 (Summer 1984): 171-90.

Excellent account of the establishment and non-development of the ruined post as a national historic site. Covers debate over the site's treatment and final triumph of the primitive concept, initially by default but ultimately by design.

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Fort Clatsop National Memorial (aka Lewis and Clark NHP)

Cannon, Kelly. Administrative History: Fort Clatsop National Memorial. 210 p., 1995.

A comprehensive history of the site of the memorial, including its prior development and administration by the Oregon Historical Society. Although the author states that she has avoided "making judgments about past or present management practices," she presents sufficient information to allow readers to form their own opinions on such controversial matters as the fort reconstruction and the site's inclusion in the national park system. The history is well illustrated, and copies of key legislation, visitation statistics, and a list of permanent park personel are appended.

Fort Davis National Historic Site

Welsh, Michael. A Special Place, A Sacred Trust: Preserving the Fort Davis Story. Intermountain Cultural Resource Center Professional Paper no. 58. 292 p., 1996.

Successfully integrates all facets of park establishment and operations in chronological chapters. Particular attention is given historic building treatment decisions, interpretive emphases, staffing, and community relations. Throughout, the park story is told in the context of broader political and social events and trends. Well written, illustrated, indexed.

Fort Donelson National Battlefield

Peterson, Gloria. Administrative History, Fort Donelson National Military Park. 116 p. plus illustrations, 1968.

Well organized park history, with brief coverage of national cemetery. Appendixes transcribe park legislation and list lands acquired.

Fort Laramie National Historic Site

Mattes, Merrill J. Fort Laramie Park History, 1834-1977. 382 p. plus illustrations, 1980.

Chronologically organized, with NPS period divided into superintendents' tenures. Much attention to planning, restoration, development proposals and philosophies. Marked by sometimes caustic personal observations based on the author's long association with the park. Entertaining reading.

Fort Matanzas National Monument

See Castillo de San Marcos National Monument

Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine

Lessem, Harold I., and David A. Kimball. History of Fort McHenry as a National Monument and Historic Shrine. 60 p., c. 1955.

A concise account of the fort's administration by the Army to 1933 and thereafter by the NPS. Problems with maintenance, interpretation, and donated furnishings are noted. Appendixes list donors, superintendents, attendance figures.

Fort Pulaski National Monument

Fort Pulaski NM Administrative History (pdf) 2003. p. 136.

Fort Raleigh National Historic Site

Binkley, Cameron and Davis, Steven Fort Raleigh NHS Administrative History (pdf) 154 p., 2003.

Fort Sumter National Monument

Comstock, Rock L., Jr. Short History, Fort Sumter. 50 p. plus appendixes, 1956.

Colorfully written, well documented account emphasizing fort's role as tourist attraction beginning after the Civil War. Little on War Department administration. Appendixes contain legislation, key correspondence, travel statistics.

Fort Union National Monument

Croy, Douglas. Fort Union National Monument, New Mexico: The First Twenty-Five Years. 113 p. M.A. thesis, 1984.

Topical chapters address personnel, planning, support facilities, resource protection, interpretation and visitation, cooperative relationships from 1956-1980. Appendix lists all monument personnel. Well researched and written.

Liping Zhu. Fort Union National Monument: An Administrative History. Southwest Cultural Resource Center Professional Papers no. 42. 124 p., 1992.

After a chapter summarizing the history of the frontier post, chapters treat the period between abandonment and national monument establishment, efforts to preserve the ruins, interpretation and visitation, natural resource management, and human threats to the park. Appendixes reproduce legislation, personnel rosters, visitation statistics. Well illustrated, indexed.

West, B. June. James West Arrott, The Moving Spirit of Fort Union, Incorporated: Another Chapter in the History of Fort Union, New Mexico. 43 p. plus appendixes, c. 1966.

Focuses on movement to authorize the monument and purchase the property led by Fort Union, Inc., in which Arrott was a central figure. Appendixes include correspondence, financial records, dedication program. Constant intrusion of source documents in the text and shifting between past and present tenses make reading burdensome.

Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

Merritt, Jane T. The Administrative History of Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. 262 p., 1993.

Chapters address the creation of the national monument and its redesignation as a national historic site, planning and development, public relations, cultural resource management, and general administration. The role of Rep. Julia Butler Hansen and the reconstruction and Pearson Airpark issues receive particular attention. Well illustrated.

Frederick Douglass National Historic Site

Harley, Sharon. A Study of the Preservation and Administration of `Cedar Hill,' The Home of Frederick Douglass. 84 p., 1989.

Focuses on efforts of Helen Pitts Douglass, the Frederick Douglass Memorial and Historical Association, and the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs to preserve the property. Covers conflicts between the organizations, maintenance of the property, ultimate decision to seek federal ownership. Little coverage after transfer to NPS.

Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields National Military Park

Happel, Ralph. A History of the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial National Military Park. 79 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1955.

First 22 pages cover antebellum and Civil War history; remainder of history addresses national cemetery establishment, the park movement, and park establishment and administration. Entertainingly written.

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Gateway National Recreation Area

Kelleher, Michael. The Changing Standard of National Significance: How the New Environmentalism of the 1960s Redefined National Significance and Led to the Creation of Gateway National Recreation Area, the First Urban National Park. 77 p, 1995.

Describes events leading to federal involvement in urban recreation in New York City, a controversial and precedent-setting departure for the NPS.

General Grant National Memorial

Pitkin, Thomas M. General Grant National Memorial: Its History and Possible Development. 86 p. plus illustrations, 1959.

History of the memorial's construction and administration by the Grant Memorial Association to 1959, when acquired by NPS.

George Rogers Clark National Historical Park

Rothman, Hal K. Maintaining a Legacy: An Administrative History of George Rogers Clark National Historical Park. 356 p., 1994.

A comprehensive contract history with excellent coverage of the Clark Memorial, the controversial visitor center, maintenance, interpretation, and community relations. Illustrations, a chronology, legislation, staff rosters, and visitation statistics are appended. Indexed.

George Washington Carver National Monument

Toogood, Anna Coxe. Historic Resource Study and Administrative History, George Washington Carver National Monument. (PDF) 81 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1973.

Administrative history portion brief but well organized and written. Appendixes cover staff, legislation, visitation, other data.

George Washington Memorial Parkway

Krakow, Jere L. Historic Resource Study: Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, George Washington Memorial Parkway, Suitland Parkway, Baltimore-Washington Parkway. 149 p., 1990.

Section on George Washington Memorial Parkway describes its planning and construction. General background on parkway history and design is provided.

Gettysburg National Military Park

Unrau, Harlan D. Administrative History: Gettysburg National Military Park and Gettysburg National Cemetery, Pennsylvania. (PDF) 444 p., 1991.

Extremely detailed, thorough coverage of cemetery and park from their origins to 1985. Extensive quotation from and appendage of relevant documents. Useful focus on such issues as the Gettysburg tower.

Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

Russell, Peter. Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument: An Administrative History. Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers no. 48. 176 p., 1992.

A thorough contract history of the area's management by the Forest Service, the Park Service, and again by the Forest Service under a unique 1975 cooperative agreement. Three chapters cover the history of archeology and stabilization work. Key executive and administrative documents are appended. Well written, illustrated, and indexed.

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

Black, Bruce W. A History of Glacier Bay National Monument, Alaska. 134 p., 1957.

Topical organization addresses 1936 mining authorization, 1939 boundary extension, 1955 land deletion, long-delayed local administration and staffing, Indian relations, mountain climbs. First quarter devoted to description and pre-monument history. Appendix lists superintendents and reproduces proclamations of 1925, 1939, and 1955. Well written by park naturalist.

Catton, Theodore. Land Reborn: A History of Administration and Visitor Use in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. 398 p., 1995.

An exceptionally comprehensive, critical, and well-written administrative history, with special focus on native relations, fishing and other consumptive uses, cruise ship visitation, and other major management concerns. Appendixes for legislation, area managers, visitation statistics, management plans, key research studies, and policy documents. Well illustrated and indexed.

Glacier National Park

Diettert, Gerald A. Grinnell's Glacier: George Bird Grinnell and Glacier National Park. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Co., 1992. 128 p.

Largely devoted to Grinnell's explorations, the book covers his and his Boone and Crockett Club's roles in the park's establishment while minimizing the role of the Great Northern Railroad. A well written and illustrated account based on a master's thesis.

Kauffmann, John M. Glacier National Park, Montana: A History of Its Establishment and Revision of Its Boundaries. 24 p. plus map, 1954.

Quotes extensively from correspondence on its subject. More detail on establishment and boundaries than in Robinson-Bowers.

Robinson, Donald H., and Maynard O. Bowers. Through the Years in Glacier National Park: An Administrative History. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Assn., 1960. 127 p.

First 50 pages cover history predating or unrelated to park movement. Appendixes for superintendents and interpretive personnel, visitation statistics. Anecdotal, uncritical, sparsely documented, but readable.

Glen Canyon National Recreation Area

Martin, Russell. A Story That Stands Like a Dam: Glen Canyon and the Struggle for the Soul of the West. New York: Henry Holt, 1989. 354 p.

Although giving some attention to the development of the national recreation area, Martin focuses on the building of Glen Canyon Dam and the competing forces pro and con. A remarkably fair and balanced account sympathetically treating both sides of the issue, and a work of exceptional literary quality.

Grand Canyon National Park

Anderson, Michael F. Polishing the Jewel: An Aministrative History of Grand Canyon National Park. Grand Canyon, AZ: Grand Canyon Assn., 2000. 116 p.

This is a well written, documented and illustrated history of Grand Canyon National Park intended for a target audience of park employees and others interested in the history of this park.

Hughes, J. Donald. In the House of Stone and Light: A Human History of the Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon, AZ: Grand Canyon Natural History Assn., 1978. 137 p.

Revised and updated version of Hughes' previous work. More richly illustrated but lacks topical headings within chapters. Includes 1975 park enlargement.

Hughes, J. Donald. The Story of Man at Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon, AZ: Grand Canyon Natural History Assn., 1967. 195 p.

Well-balanced history of area, with attention to early exploration, tourism, development. Topically organized within broad chronological chapters, the last three of which deal with monument and park administration. Largely descriptive rather than analytical.

Grand Portage National Monument

Cockrell, Ron. Grand Portage National Monument, Minnesota: An Administrative History. (PDF) 146 p., 1983.

Good coverage of relations with state and Indians before and during NPS administration. Reconstructions at the site are discussed and defended.

Grand Teton National Park

Jepson, Carl E. A Brief History of Grand Teton National Park. 54 p. plus appendix, 1952.

Legislative history quoted from Diederich compendium on Jackson Hole National Monument. Appendix lists personnel, friends of park. Prepared by park naturalist following prescribed "brief history" format.

Righter, Robert W. Crucible for Conservation: The Story of Grand Teton National Park. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1982. 192 p.

Details original park movement, Jackson Hole acquisition and controversial establishment as a national monument, ultimate park expansion. Very brief coverage of subsequent park administrative concerns. A model study of a park's creation.

Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site

McChristian, Douglas C. Ranchers to Rangers: An Administrative History of Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site. 1977.

Great Basin National Park

Lambert, Darwin. Great Basin Drama. Niwot, CO: Roberts Rinehart Publishers, 1991. 255 p.

Covers early exploration and settlement, establishment of Lehman Caves National Monument, and long campaign to establish the national park. Much attention to roles of local residents and pro- and anti-park forces. Appendixes reproduce park legislation and identify key players. A very well written and illustrated book funded by the park cooperating association.

Trexler, Keith A. Lehman Caves: Its Human Story From the Beginning Through 1965. 66 p. plus appendixes, 1966.

Account of discovery, exploration, early promotion, national monument proclamation and takeover by NPS, subsequent administration, interpretation, Mission 66 development. Appendixes include visitation statistics, personnel rosters, chronologies. Well written by chief naturalist of former Lehman Caves National Monument.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Campbell, Carlos C. Birth of a National Park in the Great Smoky Mountains. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1960; rev. 1969, 1978. 154 p.

Describes efforts of North Carolinians and Tennesseeans to have the park authorized and acquire land with donated funds. Undocumented, uncritical.

Lix, Henry W. Short History of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 126 p. plus appendixes, 1958.

Occasionally impressionistic rather than research-based, especially on early park movement. Writing sometimes erratic, with unorthodox footnoting. Appendixes include key names in park history and summaries of federal and state legislation.

Pierce, Daniel S. The Great Smokies: From Natural Habitat to Natural Park. 2000.

Guadalupe Mountains National Park

Fabry, Judith K. Guadalupe Mountains National Park: An Administrative History. Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers no. 19. 277 p., 1988.

Chapters address pre-park activities, legislative history, land acquisition, planning, development, natural and cultural resource issues, and special events. Appendixes include legislation, superintendents' biographies, and cooperative agreements. A thoroughly researched, effectively organized, and well written history.

Guilford Courthouse National Military Park

Baker, Thomas E. Redeemed from Oblivion: An Administrative History of Guilford Courthouse National Military Park. 121 p., 1995.

Land acquisition, development, and community relations are emphasized in this compact, well written history, which is especially commendable for its candid treatment of park management shortcomings.

Ingram, Oliver B., Jr. The Preservation of Guilford Battleground. 119 p. M.A. thesis plus appendixes, 1972.

Draws distinction between memorialization approach of Guilford Battle Ground Company and preservation/restoration by NPS. Appendixes include legislation, biographical sketches of Battle Ground Company leaders, listing of monuments. Redundant writing style.

Gulf Island National Seashore

Bowden, Jesse Earl. Gulf Islands: The Sands of All Time - Preserving America's Largest National Seashore. Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 143 pp., 1994.

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Haleakala National Park

Jackson, Frances. An Administrative History of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and Haleakala National Park. (PDF) 272 p. (HAVO) plus 82 p. (HALE), 1972.

Separate park histories jointly bound. Topically organized and well written, but research limited to park files.

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

Castro, Nash. The Land of Pele: A Historical Sketch of Hawaii National Park. Hilo: Hawaii Natural History Assn., 1953. 76 p.

Anecdotal, undocumented. Less useful for administrative history than Jackson, which see under Haleakala.

Homestead National Monument of America

Mattison, Ray H. Homestead National Monument: Its Establishment and Administration. 35 p., 1961.

Article prepared for Nebraska History includes discussion of Daniel Freeman's "first homestead" claim. Limited history of monument following establishment.

Tecklenberg, Robert. Homestead National Monument of America: An Administrative History, 1962-1981. 17 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1982.

Updates Mattison history, but continues weak on park administration. Uncritical of park development and programs. Appendixes for superintendents, visitation, historiography of Homestead Act.

Hopewell Culture National Historical Park

Cockrell, Ron. Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument / Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, Ohio 378 p. 1999.

Hot Springs National Park

Benson, Forrest M., and Donald S. Libbey. History of Hot Springs National Park. 43 p., 1955.

Topically organized coverage of hotels and bathhouses, transportation facilities, federal registration of physicians, legislation, superintendents. A compilation of data rather than a narrative.

Scully, Francis J. Hot Springs, Arkansas, and Hot Springs National Park. Little Rock: privately published, 1966. 446 p.

Highly uncritical, promotional compilation of unsynthesized data. Numerous historical errors. May be used with caution as reference.

Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site

Manchester, Albert, and Ann Manchester. Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site: An Administrative History. Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers no. 46. 229 p., 1993.

A comprehensive contract history, with particular attention to the special issues posed by this unique "living history" site, including relations with the Navajos, the ongoing trading, and the museum collection. Well illustrated. Legislation, memorandums of agreement, budgets, visitation statistics appended. Indexed.

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Independence National Historical Park

Greiff, Constance M. Independence: The Creation of a National Park. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987. 281 p.

Excellent account of the establishment, development, and interpretation of Independence, with due attention to key personalities, preservation policies and practices, politics, and the Bicentennial. Epilogue places Independence in broader context of national preservation movement. Foreword by Charles B. Hosmer, Jr.

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

Cockrell, Ron. A Signature of Time and Eternity': The Administrative History of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. 480 p., 1988.

Thorough account beginning with Stephen T. Mather's 1916 effort to add Indiana Dunes to the national park system and focusing on the later challenges of establishing, developing, and protecting the national seashore. Solid coverage of a complex, controversial area drawn from documentary and oral sources. Indexed.

Engel, J. Ronald. Sacred Sands: The Struggle for Community in the Indiana Dunes. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1983. 352 p.

Contends that the dunes preservation campaign "emerged as part of an insurgent movement in the Midwest to reform the democratic faith of the nation" by replacing competitive individualism with a "cooperative commonwealth." Emphasizes artistic and intellectual backgrounds and philosophies of dunes preservationists. Last chapter focuses on the politics of achieving the state park and national lakeshore.

Franklin, Kay, and Norma Schaeffer. Duel for the Dunes: Land Use Conflict on the Shores of Lake Michigan. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983. 278 p.

Part I covers efforts of early conservationists, including Stephen Mather, to establish a national park; Richard Lieber's achievement of a state park (1923); lakeshore industrialization; battle between park and port proponents leading to 1966 lakeshore legislation. Part II focuses on events under NPS administration; portrays NPS as politicized, reactive to local political interests. Save the Dunes Council seen as leading force for conservation. Marred by misunderstanding of federal government branch relationships, erroneous charges against Watt administration, incorrect citations; but a valuable account from a non-NPS viewpoint.

Isle Royale National Park

Little, John J. Island Wilderness: A History of Isle Royale National Park. 243 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1978.

Excellent topical coverage of park movement, establishment, role of CCC, forest fires, land acquisition, transportation, concessions, administrative problems, role of wilderness versus development. Model specimen of "outside" park administrative history.

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Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve

Bres, Edward S. Notes on the Establishment and Development of Chalmette Historical Park. 24 p. plus appendixes, 1964.

Chronological annotated outline of events from the Battle of New Orleans to 1964 by the chairman of the Battle of New Orleans Sesquicentennial Celebration Commission. Lengthy appendixes include much related correspondence. Valuable administrative history reference for Chalmette unit.

Jefferson National Expansion Memorial

Brown, Sharon A. Administrative History, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial National Historic Site. 187 p. plus appendixes, 1984.

Chronological chapters with topical subheadings narrate from the inception of the memorial idea in 1933 to 1980. Appendixes include legislative and executive documents, illustrations, and a chronology.

Moore, Bob. Urban Innovation and Practical Partnerships: An Administrative History of Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 1980-1991. 462 p., 1994.

Updates the Brown history with emphasis on park operations and public-private partnerships. Chapters discuss the parking garage, the 70mm theater, the Veiled Prophet Fair, maintenance, Old Courthouse rehabilitation, accessibility, entrance fees, the Jefferson National Expansion Historical Association, interpretation, law enforcement, creation of the Ulysses S. Grant and Harry S Truman national historic sites, expansion to East Saint Louis, and special events. Well illustrated; much appended data. A lively account of a busy urban park.

John Day Fossil Beds National Monument

Mark, Stephen R. Floating in the Stream of Time: An Administrative History of John Day Fossil Beds National Monument. 302 p. 1996.

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts

Becker, Ralph E. Miracle on the Potomac: The Kennedy Center from the Beginning. Silver Spring, MD: Bartleby Press, 1990. 217 p.

A founding trustee and general counsel of the Kennedy Center traces the original conception, planning, siting, design, construction, and opening of the facility that was to cost taxpayers nothing but ultimately cost them millions. As a proponent, the author gives short shrift to critics' arguments against the site, design, and costs, but no attempt is made to minimize the challenges and controversies involved. A well written and illustrated personal account.

Joshua Tree National Park

King, Samuel. A History of Joshua Tree National Monument. (PDF) 40 p. plus appendixes, 1954.

More than half transcribed from the park handbook and a mineral report, the remainder undocumented and weak. Appendixes list personnel and friends of the park.

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Katmai National Park and Preserve

Hussey, John A. Embattled Katmai: A History of Katmai National Monument. (PDF) 457 p. plus illustrations, 1971.

Essentially a historic resource study, but with data on the monument's proclamation and to a lesser extent on its subsequent administration. Summarizes archeological research in the area. Horace Albright's account of events leading to the 1918 proclamation, promoted by the National Geographic Society, is appended.

Norris, Frank B. Isolated Paradise: An Administrative History of the Katmai and Aniakchak National Park Units, Alaska. 539 p., 1996.

Traces separately the establishment and administration of both Katmai National Park and National Preserve and the smaller and more recent Aniakckak National Monument and National Preserve. Resource management and interpretation receive particular attention; the author treats concessions activity at Katmai in a separate study (below). Appendixes cover boundary changes, staff, budgets, visitation. A comprehensive and well-written history, with excellent illustrations, maps, and index.

Norris, Frank B. Tourism in Katmai Country: A History of Concessions Activity in Katmai National Park and Preserve. 200 p., 1992.

After an introduction outlining Katmai's early history, chapters discuss the several fishing camp concessions and the concessioners' variable relations with the NPS. Appendixes list concessioners, concession camp structures, NPS officials, visitor use statistics. Well researched, written, and illustrated; indexed.

Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park

Capps, Michael A. Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park: An Administrative History. 92 p., 1994.

A concise account with chapters addressing establishment, development, interpretation, law enforcement, planning, and management issues. A chronology, a list of superintendents, visitation statistics, copies of legislation, and photographs are appended. Indexed.

Kings Canyon National Park

See Sequoia National Park

Kings Mountain National Military Park

Massey, Gregory D. Van. An Administrative History of Kings Mountain National Military Park. 168 p. plus bibliography and illustrations, 1986.

Good coverage of early legislative proposals (opposed by War Department), park establishment and land acquisition, development through new visitor center (1976), park administration of Cowpens, the Howser House problem, and other management issues. Legislation, superintendents' roster, visitation statistics, maps appended.

Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (Skagway Unit)

Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (Seattle Unit)

Johnson, Julie A History of the White Pass Unit of the Klondike Gold Rush NHP (pdf) 180 p. 2003.

Norris, Frank B. Legacy of the Gold Rush: An Administrative History of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. 509 p., 1996.

Chronological treatment through 1976 park authorization, followed by topical chapters on general park administration, building rehabilitation, community relations, Dyea area administration, Chilkoot Trail management, the White Pass Trail unit, and the Seattle unit. The coverage of community relations is especially praiseworthy for its candor. Budget and visitor figures and staff rosters are appended. A thoroughly researched, very well written history, with good maps and illustrations; indexed.

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Lake Chelan National Recreation Area

See North Cascades National Park

Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area

McKay, Kathryn L. and Rend, Nancy F. Currents and Undercurrents: An Administrative History of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area . 2002.

Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial

O'Bright, Jill York. 'There I Grew Up . . .': A History of the Administration of Abraham Lincoln's Boyhood Home. 266 p., 1987.

Thorough, well documented coverage of early memorialization efforts, state administration, and establishment, development, and interpretation of the national memorial. Appendixes include legislation, land acquisition data, employee rosters. Well illustrated, indexed.

Lincoln Home National Historic Site

Townsend, Timothy P. "The Site Adrift in the City": The Evolution of the Lincoln Home Neighborhood. 100 p. M.A. thesis, 1995.

Traces the changing status of and proposals for the neighborhood surrounding Lincoln's house from the time of Lincoln's death through the state's ownership of the house to the authorization of the national historic site in 1971. Good illustrations and maps.

Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument

Rickey, Don, Jr. History of Custer Battlefield. Crow Agency, MT: Custer Battlefield Historical and Museum Assn., 1967. 151 p.

Well organized, written, and illustrated. Appendixes list personnel and friends of the monument.

Longfellow National Historic Site

Pitcaithley, Dwight T. Longfellow National Historic Site: A Preservation History. 7 p., 1986.

A paper delivered to the Organization of American Historians covering the family ownership and trusteeship of the property from Longfellow's death in 1882 until its acquisition by the National Park Service in 1974.

Lowell National Historical Park

Ryan, Loretta. Lowell in Transition: The Uses of History in Urban Change. 449 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1987.

Focuses on local initiatives leading to park establishment, led by Patrick Mogan, with particular attention to changing attitudes toward Lowell's past.

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Manassas National Battlefield Park

Zenzen, Joan M. Battling for Manassas: The Fifty-Year Preservation Struggle at Manassas National Battlefield Park. 363 p., 1995.

A comprehensive contract history, emphasizing proposed and actual development in and around the park and the role of NPS officials in encouraging or opposing it. Projects addressed include Interstate 66, the national cemetery, the Marriott theme park, William Center, and Disney's America. Controversial park uses, from the reenactment of First Manassas to active recreational activities including horseback riding, also receive special attention. Well balanced and well written. Appendixes include legislation, maps, and a list of superintendents. Indexed.

Mesa Verde National Park

Smith, Duane A. Mesa Verde National Park: Shadows of the Centuries. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1988. 254 p.

Good treatment of establishment emphasizing women's roles, followed by discussion of development, road construction, concessions, community relations, and general administration. Appendixes for superintendents and visitation. Well written, profusely illustrated.

Torres-Reyes, Ricardo. Mesa Verde National Park: An Administrative History, 1906-1970. 396 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1970.

Little discussion of original park legislation, but good coverage of park administration with topical organization. Appendixes for legislation, early museum collections, superintendents, visitation

Mojave National Preserve

Nystrom, Eric Charles.From Neglected Space To Protected Place: An Administrative History of Mojave National Preserve. Great Basin CESU, 2003.

Montezuma Castle National Monument

Eason, Nicholas J. History of Montezuma Castle National Monument. 113 p., 1965.

General coverage of establishment, development, and interpretation by a park ranger. Visitation statistics and lists of monument personnel and friends of the park are appended.

Protas, Josh A Past Preserved in Stone: A History of Montezuma Castle National Monument. Tucson, AZ: Western National Parks Association, 256 p., 2002.

Moores Creek National Battlefield

Gibbs, Russell A. A History of Moores Creek National Military Park. 37 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1965.

Limited coverage of park administration. Makes reference to proposed transfer of park to the state. Appendixes for park officials and legislation.

Capps, Michael A. and Steven A. Davis. Moores Creek National Battlefield: An Administrative History. 1999.

Mound City Group National Monument

(See Hopewell Culture National Historical Park)

Mount Rainier National Park

McIntyre, Robert N. Short History of Mount Rainier National Park. 361 p., 1952.

First 70 pages treat history before the park or park movement. More chronicle than synthesis, with much reliance on lengthy quotations and excerpts from superintendents' annual reports. Topical breakdowns on transportation, interpretation, concessions, wildlife management. Appendixes for legislation, regulations, travel statistics.

Martinson, Arthur D. Mountain in the Sky: A History of Mount Rainier National Park. 174 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1966.

Covers early exploration, climbing activity, tourism promotion, park movement, park development with emphasis on CCC and Mission 66. Emphasis on concessioner role and facilities. Good attention to controversies regarding park name and development.

Martinson, Arthur D. Wilderness Above the Sound: The Story of Mount Rainer National Park. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Press, 1986. 72 p.

A popular condensation of the author's dissertation, updated to cover the renovation of Paridise Inn and current threats to park resources. Well illustrated.

Catton, Theodore Wonderland: An Administrative History of Mount Rainier National Park. 1996.

Mount Rushmore National Memorial

Fite, Gilbert C. Mount Rushmore. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952. 272 p.

Focuses on conception and creation of sculpture. Thorough, competent treatment of difficulties with Gutzon Borglum and finances, controversies involving NPS, Congress, local politicians, and citizens.

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Natchez Trace Parkway

Phelps, Dawson A. Administrative History of the Natchez Trace Parkway. (PDF) Paginated by chapter, 1965, annual updating to 1982.

Interesting discussion of general parkway concept. Research limited to local sources, and separate updating of each chapter harms overall unity. Appendixes for all personnel, chronological process of land acquisition and construction, visitation.

National Capital Parks- Central

Dowd, Mary-Jane M., comp. Records of the Office of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capital. Record Group 42, Inventory No. 16. Washington: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992. 158 p.

Not a history, but a comprehensive and valuable guide to the records of the Park Service's predecessors administering the National Capital Parks. The record group includes the records of the various statue and memorial commissions and the Washington National Monument Society.

Heine, Cornelius W. A History of National Capital Parks. 161 p., 1953.

Traces evolution of NCP broadly from origins in 1790-91. Undocumented but well written and illustrated.

National Capital Parks-Baltimore-Washington and Suitland Parkways

Krakow, Jere L. Historic Resource Study: Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, George Washington Memorial Parkway, Suitland Parkway, Baltimore-Washington Parkway. 149 p., 1990.

Describes the planning and construction of the parkways, with general background on parkway history and design.

National Capital Parks-Dupont Circle

Olszewski, George J. Dupont Circle. 70 p. plus illustrations, 1967.

Covers early landscaping, original Dupont portrait statue and its fountain replacement, problems with adverse public use of area. Landscape plans appended.

National Capital Parks-Farragut Square

Olszewski, George J. Farragut Square. 40 p. plus illustrations, 1968.

Includes details of landscaping changes, discussion of Farragut statue, underground parking garage proposal and its rejection (1961). Illustrations include plans of square.

National Capital Parks-Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial

Mackintosh, Barry. The Making of a Monument: The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, 1955-1972. 48 p. plus illustrations and appendixes, 1972.

Discusses establishment of FDR Memorial Commission, design competition, failure of memorial efforts to 1972, FDR stone by National Archives. Legislation appended.

National Capital Parks-Franklin Park

Olszewski, George J. Franklin Park. 50 p. plus illustrations, 1970.

Discussion of landscaping and other development, parking garage proposal of early 1950s, problems with adverse public use and recent low character of neighborhood. Landscape plans appended.

National Capital Parks-Judiciary Square

Stanley, Joan H. Judiciary Square, Washington, D.C.: A Park History. 108 p. plus illustrations, 1968.

History of the square since its delineation in the L'Enfant Plan. Describes former and existing buildings, park development in 1870s, public use, decline of parklike nature in 20th century.

National Capital Parks-Lafayette Park

Olszewski, George J. Lafayette Park. 65 p., 1964.

Covers park administration, landscaping, statuary, public use. Numerous illustrations include landscape plans.

National Capital Parks-Lincoln Park

Olszewski, George J. Lincoln Park. 55 p. plus illustrations, 1968.

Discussion of landscaping, Lincoln Emancipation Group statue, planning for Mary McLeod Bethune memorial, public use. Landscape plans included.

National Capital Parks-Mt. Vernon Square

Olszewski, George J. Mt. Vernon Square. 41 p. plus illustrations, 1970.

Covers administration and development of square, construction of library, changing character of area, proposed transfer to D.C. Government.

National Capital Parks-President's Park South

Olszewski, George J. The President's Park South. 69 p. plus illustrations, 1970.

Discusses administration and development of Ellipse area, including landscaping, memorials, wartime construction and use, use for recreation and demonstrations.

National Mall

Olszewski, George J. History of the Mall. 111 p. plus appendixes, 1970.

Covers original and later planning and development of the Mall from L'Enfant through Downing and McMillan to Owings. Plans and photos appended.

Navajo National Monument

Rothman, Hal K. Navajo National Monument: A Place and Its People. Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers no. 40. 173 p., 1991.

Emphasizes establishment, administration amid challenges of access, Navajo relationships, archeological activities, threats to the park. Appendixes include superintendents, legislation, visitation, maps. Well illustrated, indexed.

New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve

Collins, Beryl R., and Emily W. B. Russell, eds. Protecting the New Jersey Pinelands: A New Direction in Land Use Management. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1988. 344 p.

A thorough account of the first federal attempt to protect a sizable area outside the national park system through the greenline park concept. Covers the legislative history, the Pinelands Commission, and the Pinelands Comprehensive Management Plan; analyzes the workings and effectiveness of the protective program.

Nez Perce National Historical Park

Catton, Ted. Nez Perce National Historical Park Administrative History. 176 p. 1996.

Ninety Six National Historic Site

Rehm, Karen G. The Administrative History of Ninety Six National Historic Site. 35 p. plus appendixes, 1987.

Traces development of the site by the Star Fort Historical Commission, efforts to add it to the national park system, and NPS development and interpretation.

North Cascades National Park

Sommarstrom, Allen R. Wild Land Preservation Crisis: The North Cascades Controversy. 169 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1970.

Louter, David Contested Terrain: An Administrative History of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington. 338 p. plus appendices and index. 1998.

"This study explores the resources of the area and their administration, examines the development of the conflict [between NPS and USFS and local and national interests], reviews . . . three diverse proposals for the management of the area, traces the path of legislation and changes made as it moved through Congress, and concludes with an examination of the outcome of the controversy and its implications for this and other environmental disputes facing the Nation."

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Ocmulgee National Monument

Marsh, Alan. Ocmulgee National Monument: An Administrative History. 72 p. M.A. thesis, 1986.

Consise history addresses principal park issues, including development, interpretation, archeological research, and adjacent highway construction.

Olympic National Park

Fringer, Guy. Olympic National Park: An Administrative History. 254 p., 1990.

Covers creation of the Olympic Forest Reserve, Mount Olympus National Monument, wilderness philosophy and the national park, resource management, concessions, interpretation, external relationships. Key personnel rosters, visitation statistics, and legislation are appended.

Lien, Carsten. Olympic Battleground: The Power Politics of Timber Preservation. 2nd Edition. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books. 447 p.

A bitter attack on the NPS for weak commitment to preservation and for colluding and compromising with logging interests in managing Olympic National Park. NPS officials are portrayed as eager to exclude commercially valuable trees from the park and to log such trees within it.

McLeod, Rebecca L. M. An American Wilderness: Olympic National Park. 158 p. M.A. thesis, 1984.

Focuses on events through 1915, including establishment of the Olympic Forest Reserve and Olympic National Monument under the Forest Service and related controversies with hunting and timber interests. Places Olympic in context of the conservation movement, discussed as an aspect of Progressivism.

Richardson, Elmo R. "Olympic National Park: Twenty Years of Controversy." Forest History 12 (April 1968): 6-15.

Surveys the successful efforts of Harold Ickes, the NPS, and conservationists to establish the park and prevent lumbering incursions.

Schene, Michael G. "Only the Squeal Is Left: Conflict Over Establishing Olympic National Park." The Pacific Historian 27 (Fall 1983): 53-61.

Brief illustrated account of establishment of Olympic Forest Reserve (1897), Mount Olympus National Monument (1909), and Olympic National Park (1938), emphasizing controversies among political, commercial, and conservation interests.

Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

Hoy, Wilton. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Administrative Historical Research. 138+ p., 1970.

Informally written, candid, unedited, entertaining account, interspersed with copies of letters and other documents. Much on local communities and characters, cattle grazers, prospectors. Typescript is in rough form, deserves editing for reproduction.

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Pea Ridge National Military Park

Parrish, Alaric. Pea Ridge National Military Park Administrative History. 86 p., 1974.

Following discussion of park movement (opposed by NPS), most attention is devoted to construction and development projects. Much content lifted from park files with little narrative flow or synthesis.

Petersburg National Battlefield

Olsen, Herbert. Poplar Grove National Cemetery History. (PDF) 67 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1954.

Discusses Civil War burial practices and establishment of national cemeteries generally as well as Poplar Grove. Little attention to Poplar Grove's uneventful administration after establishment and development. Appendixes include discussion of establishment date and Poplar Grove Church as well as cemetery plans.

Wallace, Lee A., Jr., and Martin R. Conway. A History of Petersburg National Battlefield. 167 p. and 86 p. plus illustrations, 1983. (pdf)

Wallace gives a topical account of early commemorative activities, land acquisition, interpretation, and general park administration to 1956. The Conway supplement, less solidly documented and more impressionistic, treats selected aspects of the park history to 1982. Appendixes cover personnel, visitation statistics, legislation.

Petrified Forest National Park

Lubick, George M. Petrified Forest National Park: A Wilderness Bound in Time. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996. 212 p.

Traces Petrified Forest's establishment as a national monument and its "elevation" to national park status, delayed because its values were more scientific than scenic. Paleontological and archeological work and perennial efforts to prevent the taking of specimens receive particular emphasis.

Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore

Karamanski, Theodore J. The Pictured Rocks: An Administrative History of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. 161 p, 1995.

A comprehensive, well-written contract history of the establishment and development of the first national lakeshore. Good coverage of tensions between local economic development expectations and park preservation objectives. Candid assessment of superintendents' strengths and weaknesses. Indexed.

Pinnacles National Monument

Oberg, Reta R. An Administrative History of Pinnacles National Monument. (PDF) 314 p. plus appendixes, 1980.

Following extensive treatment of local history unrelated to the pinnacles, good coverage of monument development (buildings, utilities, roads, trails). Chapters on the 1960s and 1970s taken from administrative reports with little synthesis. Little documentation other than general references to sources in test. Appendixes include proclamations, superintendents, current organization, fire history, visitation statistics.

Pipestone National Monument

Corbett, William P. A History of the Red Pipestone Quarry and Pipestone National Monument. 98 p. M.A. thesis, 1976.

Covers early exploration, Indian-white litigation for rights to quarry, movement for national park establishment, national monument administration in brief, quarry use.

Murray, Robert A. A History of Pipestone National Monument, Minnesota. Pipestone Indian Shrine Association. 60 p., 1965.

Murray, Robert A. Administrative History of Pipestone National Monument. 121 p., 1961.

Over half devoted to monument area before park movement, only 17 pages to NPS administration. Useful for background.

Rothman, Hal K., and Daniel J. Holder. Managing the Sacred and the Secular: An Administrative History of Pipestone National Monument. 243 p. plus illustrations, 1992.

A comprehensive contract account of the park's origins and development, with chapters on Indian involvement, natural and cultural resources management, park neighbors, and threats. A bibliographic essay, a chronology, and lists of superintendents and visitation statistics are appended.

Point Reyes National Seashore

Lage, Ann, and William Duddleson. Saving Point Reyes National Seashore: An Oral History of Citizen Action in Conservation. Berkeley, CA: Bancroft Library, 1993. 390 p.

Contains five interviews with citizen-activists in the 1969-70 Save Our Seashore campaign, which generated support for land acquisition within the park's authorized boundaries, plus interviews with former congressman Paul N. McCloskey and John Ehrlichman on the ultimate decision to fund the seashore. Indexed.

Prince William Forest Park

Strickland, Susan C. Prince William Forest Park: An Administrative History. 115 p. plus appendixes, 1986.

Good coverage of land acquisition and development as a recreation demonstration area; wartime and peacetime relations with military, OSS, and community; racial segregation in prewar planning, development, and use. Appendixes include copies of land acquisition records and agreements with military.

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Rainbow Bridge National Monument

Sproul, David Kent. A Bridge Between Two Cultures: An Administrative History of Rainbow Bridge National Monument. Cultural Resources Selections No. 18, 2001. 231 p.

Redwood National and State Parks

Schrepfer, Susan R. The Fight to Save the Redwoods: A History of Environmental Reform, 1917-1978. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. 338 p.

"An effort to describe the sixty-year redwood preservation campaign in the context of scientific change and American social reform-from the progressive years of the early twentieth century to the militant protest movements of the past quarter century." Recounts Save the Redwoods League opposition to a redwoods national park in the 1930s (leaders John C. Merriam and Newton Drury felt NPS too developmentoriented), 1960s conflict between its moderate advocacy of a small national park and radical stand of Sierra Club for a large one. More attention to these groups-their sociology and philosophical underpinnings-than to NPS, but adequate coverage of NPS role in 1968-1978 legislation.

Richmond National Battlefield Park

Willett, John T. A History of Richmond National Battlefield Park. 95 p. plus illustrations, c. 1965.

First third devoted to history before preservation efforts. Little discussion of reasons behind transfer of lands from Virginia to U.S. Much copied material, disjointed organization.

Rock Creek Park

Davis, Timothy. Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway: History and Description. 159 p. plus 36 drawings, 1992.

An outstanding Historic American Buildings Survey history of the design and development of Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway (technically part of National Capital Parks rather than Rock Creek Park but closely associated with the latter). Excellent contextual coverage of the City Beautiful and parkway movements and the landscape design profession. Later highway proposals and related structures are also discussed.

Mackintosh, Barry. Rock Creek Park: An Administrative History. 127 p., 1985.

Chapters address park origins, the period of military rule, the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway and other additions, and the park under NPS administration. Appendix contains legislation, roster of key officials, map.

Rocky Mountain National Park

Buchholtz, C. W. Rocky Mountain National Park: A History. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1983. 255 p.

Discusses early tourism to area, Enos Mills' campaign for the park, development programs of Roger Toll and Edmund Rogers, wilderness incursions like the Trail Ridge Road, Colorado-Big Thompson diversion tunnel, and Hidden Valley Ski Area, and modern public use pressures. Well balanced on development-use-preservation controversies.

Fazio, Patricia M. Cragged Crusade: The Fight for Rocky Mountain National Park, 1909-15. 195 p. M.S. thesis plus appendixes, 1982.

Examines roles of Enos Mills and others leading to passage of park enabling act. Describes conflicts with Forest Service, simultaneous movement for creation of NPS. Appendixes include legislation and background material.

Hess, Karl, Jr. Rocky Times in Rocky Mountain National Park: An Unnatural History. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1993. 167 p.

Attributes loss of biological diversity at Rocky Mountain to NPS "mismanagement and bureaucratic ineptitude" demonstrated by "a laissez-faire approach to elk population control and a long history of fire suppression."

Musselman, Lloyd K. Rocky Mountain National Park Administrative History, 1915-1965. 251 p., 1971.

Topically organized to cover principal park developments and issues. Excellent chapter on CCC activity. Appendix lists superintendents to 1971.

Roosevelt Campobello International Park

Poyas, Frank B. "Twenty-Fifth Anniversary History of the Roosevelt Campobello International Park and Commission." Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission Twenty-Fifth Anniversary, 1964-1989, Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission 1988 Annual Report, pp. 9-13.

A brief, promotional sketch of the origins and evolution of the park and commission, identified as a summary of the author's definitive park history.

Ross Lake National Recreation Area

See North Cascades National Park

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Saguaro National Park

Clemensen, A. Berle. Cattle, Copper, and Cactus: The History of Saguaro National Monument. 271 p., 1987.

Chapter 4 of this historic resource study, "The Establishment of Saguaro National Monument and Its Administration" (pp. 115-73), is a brief administrative history. Coverage includes CCC activity, forest fire and grazing policy, dude ranches.

Saint Croix National Scenic River

Karamanski, Theodore J. Saving the Saint Croix: An Administrative History of the Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway. 264 p., 1993.

A contract history thoroughly covering the establishment and expansion of this complex "partnership park," including what was designated the Lower Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway from 1972 to 1993. A model history of a national river-clear, candid, and lively.

Salem Maritime National Historic Site

Chase-Harrell, Pauline, Carol Ely, and Stanley Moss. Administrative History of the Salem Maritime National Historic Site. 238 p., 1993.

A thorough, well-written, and admirably critical contract history of this pioneering national historic site. Full attention is paid to development, interpretation, and external relations. Appended are a chronology, a roster of superintendents, visitation statistics, and legislation. Well illustrated and indexed.

San Juan Island National Historical Park

Cannon, Kelly June. San Juan Island National Historical Park Administrative History 167 p. 1997.

Scotts Bluff National Monument

Cockrell, Ron. Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska: An Administrative History, 1960-1983. 196 p., 1983.

Summarizes and then updates an earlier history. Sections on operations, Mission 66, special events, and nearby NPS areas (Agate Fossil Beds, Chimney Rock, Fort Laramie). Much detail on maintenance projects and other day-to-day operational concerns.

Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

Dilsaver, Lary M., and Douglas H. Strong. "Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: One Hundred Years of Preservation and Resource Management." California History 69, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 98-117.

An excellent distillation of Strong's dissertation and Dilsaver's and Tweed's book. Well illustrated.

Dilsaver, Lary M., and William C. Tweed. Challenge of the Big Trees: A Resource History of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Three Rivers, CA: Sequoia Natural History Assn., 1990. 379 p.

A comprehensive park history emphasizing resource preservation and development issues. Concessions development receives particular attention, and the NPS is not spared criticism. Numerous maps and photographs; visitation statistics, superintendents' roster in appendix. A fair and balanced account reflecting thorough research, extremely well written and attractively presented.

Strong, Douglas H. A History of Sequoia National Park. 336 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1964.

Covers early exploration, park establishment, acquisition of private tracts. Much attention to park enlargement efforts in the early 1920s and related conflicts with the Forest Service and irrigation interests. Narrative concludes with the expansion of 1926.

Shenandoah National Park

Lambert, Darwin. Shenandoah National Park Administrative History, 1924-1976. (PDF) 464 p., 1979.

Prefaced by chronology of key events with chapter citations and extensively annotated table of contents, valuable in locating topics. Critical accounts of many park-related controversies and challenges. Subjective interpretation of such issues as Shenandoah's national park qualifications. Engagingly written by one involved with the area since 1934.

Lambert, Darwin. The Undying Past of Shenandoah National Park. Niwot, CO: Roberts Rinehart, Inc., 1989. 330 p.

Primarily devoted to pre-park history, but last hundred pages deal with park movement, land acquisition, population relocation, development, and park management to 1986. It thus updates Lambert's administrative history in selected respects. An outstanding popular history.

Simmons, Dennis E. The Creation of Shenandoah National Park and the Skyline Drive, 1924-1936. 213 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1978.

An account of the park movement, including involvement of Presidents Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Discusses land acquisition and controversial resettlement of landowners, tenants, and squatters; controversies over trans-mountain road closing and Skyline Drive fees; and persons most responsible for the park.

Shiloh National Military Park

Shedd, Charles E., Jr. A History of Shiloh National Military Park. 65 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1954.

First 12 pages devoted to pre-park background. Chapter on War Department administration includes some events under NPS. Appendix contains a brief account of the national cemetery, lists of key staff and friends of the park, and authorizing legislation. (Distributed as model administrative history by Region I in 1956.)

Sitka National Historical Park

Antonson, Joan M., and William S. Hanable. Sitka National Historical Park: An Administrative History. 162 p. plus appendixes, 1987.

After resource description and historical overview chapters, history is topically organized within chapters covering early years, middle years, and the post-1966 period. Good attention to resource management concerns. Appendixes contain copies of legislation and other significant documents, visitation statistics, and maps.

Griffen, Kristen. Early Views: Historical Vignettes of Sitka National Historical Park, 127 pp., 2000.

Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

Karamanski, Theodore J. A Nationalized Lakeshore: The Creation and Administration of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. 2000.

Statue of Liberty National Monument

Blumberg, Barbara. Celebrating the Immigrant: An Administrative History of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, 1952-1982. 158 p. plus illustrations, 1985.

Covers Statue of Liberty, the American Museum of Immigration, and Ellis Island with sharp focus on significant events, issues, and controversies. (Done under contract to NPS by Institute for Research in History, New York.)

Holland, F. Ross. Idealists, Scoundrels, and the Lady: An Insider's View of the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Project. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993. 266 p.

A comprehensive account of the contentious but successful public-private partnership that planned, financed, and executed the restoration of the Statue of Liberty, redevelopment of the rest of Liberty Island, restoration of Ellis Island's main building, and new museums on both islands interpreting the statue and American immigration during the 1980s. The author, a former NPS historian and associate director, was director of restoration and preservation for the Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation.

Hugins, Walter. Statue of Liberty National Monument: Its Origin, Development, and Administration. 106 p., 1958.

Chronological account, distributed as a model administrative history by the Washington Office in 1959. Appendixes list superintendents, principal interpretive personnel, and visitation statistics.

Stones River National Battlefield

Willett, Ann Wilson. A History of Stones River National Military Park. 127 p. M.A. thesis plus appendixes, 1958.

First 49 pages devoted to geography, prehistory, and history before national cemetery and park movement. Appendixes cover legislation, land acquisition, friends of park. Little critical analysis.

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Theodore Roosevelt National Park

Harmon, David. At the Open Margin: The NPS's Administration of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. Medora, ND: Theodore Roosevelt Nature and History Assn., 1986. 277+ p.

Traces park from its recreational demonstration area origins through its years as a historical memorial park to its present status in a regional context of energy exploration and extraction. Excellent volunteer contribution by a graduate student.

Timpanogos Cave National Monument

Iorio, Ralph. The History of Timpanogos Cave National Monument. 39 p. plus appendixes, 1968.

Largely chronological account, thinly documented but well written by a park ranger. Appendixes include personal statements by cave discoverers, annual visitation figures, and a personnel roster.

Tumacacori National Historical Park

Ringenbach, Ray B. A Short History of Tumacacori National Monument. 21 p. plus appendixes, 1955.

Scant coverage of the national monument movement and early Forest Service administration. Undue coverage of legends. Most useful for stabilization/restoration of mission church. List of key personnel and monument proclamation appended.

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Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River

Curtis, Mary E. The Aginners and Others: A Case Study of Citizen Protest on the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. 186 p. M.A. thesis, 1988.

Focuses on public involvement in and reaction to the planning and development of this controversial area. The chapter titled "History of the Controversy" is a valuable administrative history component.

USS Arizona Memorial

Harpster, James D. Pearl Harbor Remembered: December 7, 1941-December 7, 1991. 99 p., 1993.

A well-written memoir by the retired NPS public affairs officer who planned the 50th anniversary observance.

Slackman, Michael. Remembering Pearl Harbor: The Story of the USS Arizona Memorial. Honolulu: Arizona Memorial Museum Assn., 1986. 112 p.

Traces ultimately successful efforts to memorialize Arizona, with emphasis on relationships among private fundraisers, the Navy, and NPS. Good discussion of the memorial's ambiguity of subject: What is being commemorated? An excellent published history, richly illustrated.

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Valley Forge National Historical Park

Treese, Lorett. Valley Forge: Making and Remaking a National Symbol. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. 269 p.

A well-researched and -written study by the Bryn Mawr College archivist of the changing efforts to commemorate and exploit the Valley Forge story under state, federal, and private auspices.

Unrau, Harlan D. Administrative History: Valley Forge National Historical Park. (PDF) 756 p., 1985.

Comprehensive, highly detailed account covering pre-park history of the area, centennial and memorial association activities, state park establishment and operation (1893-1976), national historical park establishment and operation to 1982. Extensive appended material. Reflects thorough research in state as well as federal repositories.

Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site

Snell, Charles W. An Administrative History of Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site, Hyde Park, New York, 1939-1955. 181 p., 1956.

Amply documents the personal involvement of FDR in the federal acquisition and early administration of the property, including his selection of and relationship with the first superintendent. Full treatment of NPS projects affecting the mansion and grounds, including removal of historic features. Good coverage of research, curation, interpretation. Extensive quotation from relevant documents.

Vicksburg National Military Park

Meyers, Richard. The Vicksburg National Cemetery: An Administrative History. 199 p. plus appendixes and illustrations, 1968.

Topical organization within broad chronological framework. Appendixes reproduce legislation, list sources and numbers of reinterments.

Voyageurs National Park

Witzig, Fred T. "The Crane Lake Issue in the Establishment of Voyageurs National Park." Upper Midwest History 3 (1983): 41-53.

Discusses the movement to establish Voyageurs with emphasis on the NPS-Forest Service conflict over inclusion of Superior National Forest land. Places the conflict in the larger context of traditional interbureau strife (intended to be overcome by the January 28, 1963, "Treaty of the Potomac").

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Washington Monument

Olszewski, George J. A History of the Washington Monument, 1844-1968. (PDF) 70 p. plus appendixes, 1971.

Largely devoted to construction of the monument, but some information on later modifications, landscaping, public use, and general administration. Appendixes include illustrations, legislation, the dedication program, and a list of memorial stones.

Torres, Louis. "To the Immortal Name and Memory of George Washington": The United States Army Corps of Engineers and the Construction of the Washington Monument. Washington: Corps of Engineers, 1984. 145 p.

Traces monument's conception, construction, and operational highlights to 1933, when control passed to NPS. Well illustrated.

White Sands National Monument

Schneider-Hector, Dietmar. White Sands: The History of a National Monument. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1993. 268 p.

Traces effort to establish area, a component of Albert B. Fall's All-Year National Park proposal; relations with the Army; public use; the wilderness proposal and its negative outcome. An incomplete but useful history.

Welsh, Michael. Dunes and Dreams: A History of White Sands National Monument. Intermountain Cultural Resource Center Professional Paper no. 55. 213 p., 1995.

A compresensive administrative history, well written and illustrated. Relations with the military and the Trinity Site park proposal receive particular attention.

Whitman Mission National Historic Site

Crabtree, Jennifer. Administrative History: Whitman Mission National Historic Site. 375 p., 1988.

Extensive, detailed coverage of park's establishment and development, organized by superintendents' administrations and major topics. Good attention to archeology, reconstruction proposals, museum development, community relations, and other key issues.

William Howard Taft National Historic Site

Lee, Antoinette J. The William Howard Taft: An Administrative History. 129 p. plus appendixes, 1986.

Covers efforts to preserve the site before NPS involvement, NPS planning and development efforts, controversies over restoration treatment. Appendixes reproduce legislation, principal staff roster, site plans, illustrations.

Wind Cave National Park

Bohi, John W. 75 Years at Wind Cave: A History of the National Park. 118 p., 1962.

Covers years 1881-1956. First 50 pages devoted to discovery, exploration, private land controversies, other matters unrelated to park movement or administration. Much quoted material, many narrative footnotes.

Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts

Mackintosh, Barry. Wolf Trap Farm Park: An Administrative History. 139 p., 1983.

Chapters address the park's conception and establishment, planning and development, and joint management by NPS and the Wolf Trap Foundation. Copies of legislation, cooperative agreements, and maps are appended.

Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve

Lappen, Michael Anthony. Whose Promised Land? A History of Conservation and Development Management Plans for the Wrangell and Saint Elias Mountains Region, Alaska, 1938-1980. 259 p. M.A. thesis, 1984.

Treats early human activity in vicinity, early park and recreational studies, events to and surrounding ANCSA, the d-2 process, and ANILCA and its effects. Brief attention to problems with local residents following NPS arrival. A solid administrative history of a new park.

Bleakley, Geoffrey T. Administrative History of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve 383 p., 2002 (pdf)

Wright Brothers National Memorial

Amundson, Theodore A. Wright Brothers National Memorial: An Administrative History, 1968-1987. 5 p. plus appendixes, 1987.

Updates the Hewes history with focus on relations with outside parties, including the First Flight Society.

Hewes, Andrew M. Wright Brothers National Memorial: An Administrative History. (PDF) 105 p. plus illustrations, 1967.

Good chronological account of memorial's conception and development. (Not superseded by Amundson.)

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Yellowstone National Park

Bartlett, Richard A. Yellowstone: A Wilderness Besieged. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1985. 437 p.

A selective park history, emphasizing early tourism and concessioners. Last two chapters, addressing post-1940 concerns, treat "The Continuing Concessionaire Problem" and "Problems of the Present: Elk, Bears, Boats, and P.R."

Chase, Alston. Playing God in Yellowstone: The Destruction of America's First National Park. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1986. 446 p.

A highly critical interpretation of natural resource management at Yellowstone, attacking NPS "natural regulation" policy. Although polemical, it contains some useful history.

Haines, Aubrey L. Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment, 1968.

Haines, Aubrey L. The Yellowstone Story: A History of Our First National Park. Yellowstone National Park: Yellowstone Library and Museum Assn., 1977. 2 vols.

Extensive coverage of the park's origins and early years; only one 20-page chapter on post-1940 events. Appendixes list personnel and statistics to 1972.

Jurale, James A. A History of Winter Use in Yellowstone National Park. 210 p. M.A. thesis, 1986.

Traces winter use from the park's first winter visitors through the Army presence and early NPS ranger activity to the modern era of mechanized oversnow transportation. Good attention to impacts, controversies.

Vick, Denise S. Yellowstone National Park and the Education of Adults. 344 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1986.

Traces the course of interpretive development and programming at Yellowstone in the broader context of the adult education movement. Numerous interpretive documents appended.

Yosemite National Park

Demars, Stanford E. The Tourist in Yosemite, 1855-1985. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1991. 168 p.

Traces public perceptions of Yosemite (and national parks generally) from the time when romantic impressions of nature predominated to the recent "wilderness era" when those favoring other than wilderness emphases have been demeaned. Environmentalists will find it heretical, for it suggests that the NPS has done "a decent, perhaps even admirable job" but may be siding too closely with those who feel that "the `average' tourist should play a diminishing role in the park." A well-written and remarkably balanced book.

Runte, Alfred. Yosemite: The Embattled Wilderness. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990. 271 p.

Focuses on management of natural resources by the state, the Army, and the NPS. As the author persuasively argues, science and natural resource preservation have been subordinated to public accommodation and entertainment, with NPS management generally aligned with the concessioners' interest in maximizing visitation. An outstanding, critical contribution to park history.

Russell, Carl P. One Hundred Years in Yosemite: The Story of a Great Park and Its Friends. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1947. 175 p.

Largely devoted to pre-park discovery, pioneers, early tourism, hotels. The portion on park administration focuses on interpretation, with lesser attention to superintendents. An annual chronology is appended.

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Zion National Park

Markoff, Dena S. An Administrative History: Decision-Making That Shaped Zion National Park, 1909 to 1981. 280 p., 1982.

Little attention to factors motivating national monument proclamation and later national park establishment. Omits conflict with the state over fee for Zion-Mount Carmel Road. Unusually candid about former superintendents' personal problems. Suffers from inadquate organization and editing.

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General and Topical Histories

The following are selected works dealing broadly with National Park Service history or with particular programs, functions, and concerns of the bureau. They are valuable references both for administrative historians and for NPS managers and staff. (Most of those without publication data are NPS studies reproduced in limited quantity for internal distribution.)

Albright, Horace M. Origins of National Park Service Administration of Historic Sites. Philadelphia: Eastern National Park & Monument Assn., 1971. 24 p.

Albright, Horace M., and Robert Cahn. The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-33. Salt Lake City: Howe Brothers, 1985. 340 p.

Albright, Horace M., and Marian Albright Schenck. Creating the National Park Service: The Missing Years. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999. 350 p.

Appleman, Roy E. A History of the National Park Service Mission 66 Program. 98 p., 1958.

Blodgett, Peter J. "Striking a Balance: Managing Concessions in the National Parks, 1916-33." Forest & Conservation History 34, no. 2 (April 1990): 60-68.

Brockman, C. Frank. "Park Naturalists and the Evolution of National Park Service Interpretation through World War II." Journal of Forest History 22, no. 1 (January 1978): 24-43.

The Conservation Foundation. National Parks for a New Generation: Visions, Realities, Prospects. Washington: The Conservation Foundation, 1985. 407 p.

Corkern, Wilton C., Jr. Architects, Preservationists, and the New Deal: The Historic American Buildings Survey, 1933-1942. 198 p. Ph.D. dissertation, 1984.

Danz, Harold P., et al. Historic Listing of National Park Service Officials. 231 p., 1991.

Dilsaver, Lary M., ed. America's National Park System: The Critical Documents. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1994. 470 p.

Dunlap, Thomas R. "Wildlife, Science, and the National Parks, 1920-1940." Pacific Historical Review 59, no. 2 (May 1990): 187-202.

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