NPS Stratotype Inventory

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layered rock in rounded canyon walls
Sonsela Member of the Chinle Formation at Blue Mesa in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona.

NPS photo

[Site Under Development]

Introduction

Designated stratotypes are important to science because they are the reference point for describing rocks according to established classifications for strata and formations. The goal of this project is to consolidate information pertaining to geologic stratotypes which occur within NPS-administered areas.

Through the inventory, monitoring, and study of park resources, we gain a greater understanding of the scope, significance, distribution, and management issues associated with these resources and their use. This baseline of natural resource information is available to inform park managers, scientists, stakeholders, and the public about the conditions of these resources and the factors or activities which may threaten or influence their stability.

The Best Rock

There are several different categories of geologic or stratigraphic units (supergroup, group, formation, member, bed) which represent a hierarchical system of classification. The mapping of stratigraphic units involves the evaluation of lithologies, bedding properties, thickness, geographic distribution, and other factors. If a new mappable geologic unit is identified, it may be described and named through a rigorously defined process that is standardized and codified by the professional geologic community (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature 2005). In most instances when a new geologic unit such as a formation is described and named in the scientific literature, a specific and well-exposed section of the unit is designated as the type section or type locality.

There are several variations of stratotype referred to in the literature which are used in the NPS Stratotype Inventory—they are defined as following:

Unit stratotypes include the type section for a stratified deposit or the type area for a non-stratified body that serves as the standard for recognition and definition of a geologic unit (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature 2005). Once a unit stratotype is assigned, it is never changed. The term “unit stratotype” is commonly referred to as “type section” and “type area” in this report.
A type locality is the specific geographic locality encompassing the unit stratotype of a formally recognized and defined unit. On a broader scale, a type area is the geographic territory encompassing the type locality. Before development of the stratotype concept, only type localities and type areas were designated for many geologic units that are now long- and well-established (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature 2005).
For well-established geologic units for which a type section was never assigned, a reference section may serve as an invaluable standard in definitions or revisions. A principle reference section may also be designated for units whose stratotypes have been destroyed, covered, or are otherwise inaccessible (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature 2005). Multiple reference sections can be designated for a single unit to help illustrate heterogeneity or some critical feature not found in the stratotype. Reference sections can help supplement unit stratotypes in the case where the stratotype proves inadequate (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature 2005).
Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) are internationally agreed upon reference points on stratigraphic sections of rock which define the lower boundaries of stages on the geologic time scale. The International Commission on Stratigraphy maintains the official international GSSP register.
The term lithodeme is defined as a mappable unit of plutonic and highly metamorphosed or pervasively deformed rock and is a term equivalent in rank to “formation” among stratified rocks (North American Commission on Stratigraphic Nomenclature 2005). The formal name of a lithodeme consists of a geographic name followed by a descriptive term that denotes the average modal composition of the rock (example: Cathedral Peak Granodiorite). Lithodemes are commonly assigned type localities, type areas, and reference localities.

Related Links

National Park Type Sections


Note: All park information is also available in the Inventories by Network [PDFs] drop-down box further down this webpage.

  1. Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park, Kentucky (no designated stratotypes identified)

  2. Alagnak Wild River, Alaska (no designated stratotypes identified)

  3. Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Pennsylvania (no designated stratotypes identified)

  4. American Memorial Park, Northern Mariana Islands (no designated stratotypes identified)

  5. Amistad National Recreation Area, Texas (no designated stratotypes identified)

  6. Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  7. Apostle Island National Lakeshore, Wisconsin [Site Under Development]

  8. Arches National Park, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  9. Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia (no designated stratotypes identified)

  10. Aztec Ruins National Monument, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  11. Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico [Site Under Development]

  12. Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site, Colorado (no designated stratotypes identified)

  13. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  14. Big Bend National Park, Texas [Site Under Development]

  15. Big Hole National Battlefield, Montana (no designated stratotypes identified)

  16. Big South Fork National River and National Recreation Area, Kentucky and Tennessee (no designated stratotypes identified)

  17. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Wyoming and Montana (no designated stratotypes identified)

  18. Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, Colorado (no designated stratotypes identified)

  19. Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and Virginia [Site Under Development]

  20. Bluestone National Scenic River, West Virginia (no designated stratotypes identified)

  21. Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  22. Cabrillo National Monument, California [Site Under Development]

  23. Canyon De Chelly National Monument, Arizona [Site Under Development]

  24. Canyonlands National Park, Utah [Site Under Development]

  25. Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts (no designated stratotypes identified)

  26. Capitol Reef National Park, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  27. Capulin Volcano National Monument, New Mexico [Site Under Development]
  28. Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site, North Carolina [Site Under Development]
  29. Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  30. Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska (no designated stratotypes identified)

  31. Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  32. Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  33. Channel Islands National Park, California [Site Under Development]

  34. Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, Georgia and Tennessee (no designated stratotypes identified)

  35. Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Oklahoma (no designated stratotypes identified)

  36. City of Rocks National Reserve, Idaho (no designated stratotypes identified)

  37. Colonial National Historical Park, Virginia [Site Under Development]

  38. Colorado National Monument, Colorado (no designated stratotypes identified)
  39. Cowpens National Battlefield, South Carolina (no designated stratotypes identified)
  40. Crater Lake National Park, Oregon [Site Under Development]

  41. Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Idaho (no designated stratotypes identified)
  42. Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia [Site Under Development]
  43. Curecanti National Recreation Area, Colorado [Site Under Development]

  44. Death Valley National Park, California and Nevada [Site Under Development]

  45. Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, New Jersey and Pennsylvania [Site Under Development]

  46. Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  47. Devils Postpile National Monument, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  48. Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah [Site Under Development]

  49. Ebey’s Landing National Historical Reserve, Washington [Site Under Development]

  50. El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  51. El Morro National Monument, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  52. Fire Island National Seashore, New York (no designated stratotypes identified)

  53. Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado (no designated stratotypes identified)

  54. Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas (no designated stratotypes identified)

  55. Fort Donelson National Battlefield, Kentucky and Tennessee (no designated stratotypes identified)

  56. Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kansas (no designated stratotypes identified)

  57. Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Pennsylvania (no designated stratotypes identified)

  58. Fort Point National Historic Site, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  59. Fort Union National Monument, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  60. Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Oregon and Washington (no designated stratotypes identified)

  61. Fossil Butte National Monument, Wyoming [Site Under Development]

  62. Friendship Hill National Historic Site, Pennsylvania (no designated stratotypes identified)

  63. Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  64. Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey and New York (no designated stratotypes identified)

  65. Gauley River National Recreation Area, West Virginia (no designated stratotypes identified)

  66. George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia (no designated stratotypes identified)

  67. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  68. Glacier National Park, Montana

  69. Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona and Utah [Site Under Development]

  70. Golden Gate National Recreation Area, California [Site Under Development]

  71. Golden Spike National Historical Park, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  72. Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona [Site Under Development]

  73. Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona

  74. Grand Portage National Monument, Minnesota (no designated stratotypes identified)

  75. Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

  76. Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Montana (no designated stratotypes identified)

  77. Great Basin National Park, Nevada [Site Under Development]

  78. Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado (no designated stratotypes identified)

  79. Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina [Site Under Development]

  80. Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas [Site Under Development]

  81. Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, North Carolina (no designated stratotypes identified)

  82. Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument, Idaho [Site Under Development]

  83. Haleakalā National Park, Hawai‘i [Site Under Development]

  84. Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai‘i [Site Under Development]

  85. Hovenweep National Monument, Colorado and Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  86. Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Arizona (no designated stratotypes identified)

  87. Ice Age National Scenic Trail (IATR) and Ice Age National Scientific Reserve (ICAG), Wisconsin [Site Under Development]

  88. Indiana Dunes National Park, Indiana (no designated stratotypes identified)

  89. Isle Royale National Park, Michigan [Site Under Development]

  90. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. National Memorial Parkway, Wyoming

  91. John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon [Site Under Development]

  92. John Muir National Historic Site, California [Site Under Development]

  93. Johnstown Flood National Memorial, Pennsylvania (no designated stratotypes identified)

  94. Joshua Tree National Park, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  95. Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Hawai‘i [Site Under Development]

  96. Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i (no designated stratotypes identified)

  97. Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  98. Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska (no designated stratotypes identified)

  99. Keweenaw National Historical Park, Michigan [Site Under Development]
  100. Kings Mountain National Military Park, South Carolina [Site Under Development]
  101. Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Alaska (no designated stratotypes identified)

  102. Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska (no designated stratotypes identified)

  103. Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  104. Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Arizona and Nevada [Site Under Development]

  105. Lake Meredith National Recreation Area, Texas (no designated stratotypes identified)

  106. Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area, Washington (no designated stratotypes identified)

  107. Lassen Volcanic National Park, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  108. Lava Beds National Monument, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  109. Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, Oregon and Washington (no designated stratotypes identified)

  110. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana (no designated stratotypes identified)

  111. Little River Canyon National Preserve, Alabama (no designated stratotypes identified)

  112. Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, Texas (no designated stratotypes identified)

  113. Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky(no designated stratotypes identified)

  114. Manzanar National Historic Site, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  115. Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado [Site Under Development]

  116. Minidoka National Historic Site, Idaho and Washington (no designated stratotypes identified)

  117. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area, Minnesota [Site Under Development]

  118. Mojave National Preserve, California [Site Under Development]

  119. Mount Rainier National Park, Washington [Site Under Development]

  120. Muir Woods National Monument, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  121. National Park of American Samoa, American Samoa [Site Under Development]

  122. Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  123. Navajo National Monument, Arizona (no designated stratotypes identified)

  124. New River Gorge National Park and Preserve, West Virginia [Site Under Development]

  125. Nez Perce National Historical Park, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and Montana (no designated stratotypes identified)

  126. Ninety Six National Historic Site, South Carolina (no designated stratotypes identified)

  127. Noatak National Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  128. North Cascades National Park Complex, Washington [Site Under Development]

  129. Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee (no designated stratotypes identified)

  130. Olympic National Park, Washington [Site Under Development]

  131. Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve, Oregon (no designated stratotypes identified)

  132. Pecos National Historical Park, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  133. Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona [Site Under Development]

  134. Petroglyph National Monument, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  135. Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan [Site Under Development]

  136. Pinnacles National Park, California [Site Under Development]

  137. Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (no designated stratotypes identified)

  138. Point Reyes National Seashore, California [Site Under Development]

  139. Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i (no designated stratotypes identified)

  140. Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai‘i (no designated stratotypes identified)

  141. Rainbow Bridge National Monument, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  142. Redwood National and State Parks, California [Site Under Development]

  143. Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River, Texas (no designated stratotypes identified)

  144. Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

  145. Russell Cave National Monument, Alabama (no designated stratotypes identified)

  146. Sagamore Hill National Historic Site, New York (no designated stratotypes identified)

  147. Saint Croix National Scenic River, Minnesota and Wisconsin [Site Under Development]

  148. Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, New Mexico [Site Under Development]

  149. San Juan Island National Historical Park, Washington (no designated stratotypes identified)

  150. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado (no designated stratotypes identified)

  151. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, California [Site Under Development]

  152. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park, California

  153. Shiloh National Military Park, Tennessee and Mississippi (no designated stratotypes identified)

  154. Sitka National Historical Park, Alaska (no designated stratotypes identified)

  155. Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan (no designated stratotypes identified)

  156. Stones River National Battlefield, Tennessee (no designated stratotypes identified)

  157. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Arizona (no designated stratotypes identified)

  158. Thomas Stone National Historic Site, Maryland (no designated stratotypes identified)

  159. Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah (no designated stratotypes identified)

  160. Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River, Pennsylvania and New York [Site Under Development]

  161. Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico [Site Under Development]

  162. Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota [Site Under Development]

  163. Waco Mammoth National Monument, Texas (no designated stratotypes identified)

  164. Walnut Canyon National Monument, Arizona (no designated stratotypes identified)

  165. War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam [Site Under Development]

  166. Washita Battlefield National Historic Site, Oklahoma (no designated stratotypes identified)

  167. Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, California (no designated stratotypes identified)

  168. White Sands National Park, New Mexico (no designated stratotypes identified)

  169. Whitman Mission National Historic Site, Washington (no designated stratotypes identified)

  170. Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  171. Wupatki National Monument, Arizona [Site Under Development]

  172. Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho

  173. Yosemite National Park, California

  174. Yucca House National Monument, Coloradao (no designated stratotypes identified)

  175. Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, Alaska [Site Under Development]

  176. Zion National Park, Utah [Site Under Development]


Related links
  1. Arctic Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Bering Land Bridge National Preserve (BELA), Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR), Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve (GAAR), Kobuk Valley National Park (KOVA), Noatak National Preserve (NOAT).

  2. Appalachian Highlands Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Big South Fork National River and National Recreation Area (BUSI), Blue Ridge Parkway (BLRI), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Obed Wild and Scenic River (OBED).

  3. Central Alaska Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Denali National Park and Preserve (DENA), Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve (WRST), Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve (YUCH)

  4. Chihuahuan Desert Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Amistad National Recreation Area (AMIS), Big Bend National Park (BIBE), Carlsbad Caverns National Park (CAVE), Fort Davis National Historic Site (FODA), Guadalupe Mountains National Park (GUMO), Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River (RIGR), White Sands National Park (WHSA).

  5. Cumberland Piedmont Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park (ABLI), Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site (CARL), Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park (CHCH), Cowpens National Battlefield (COWP), Cumberland Gap National Historical Park (CUGA), Fort Donelson National Battlefield (FODO), Guilford Courthouse National Military Park (GUCO), Kings Mountain National Military Park (KIMO), Little River Canyon National Preserve (LIRI), Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), Ninety Six National Historic Site (NISI), Russell Cave National Monument (RUCA), Shiloh National Military Park (SHIL), Stones River National Battlefield (STRI).

  6. Eastern Rivers and Mountains Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site (ALPO), Bluestone National Scenic River (BLUE), Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (DEWA), Fort Necessity National Battlefield (FONE), Friendship Hill National Historic Site (FRHI), Gauley River National Recreation Area (GARI), Johnstown Flood National Memorial (JOFL), New River Gorge National Park and Preserve (NERI), Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE).

  7. Great Lakes Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]

    Apostle Island National Lakeshore (APIS), Grand Portage National Monument (GRPO), Ice Age National Scenic Trail (IATR) and Ice Age National Scientific Reserve (ICAG), Indiana Dunes National Park (INDU), Isle Royale National Park (ISRO), Keweenaw National Historical Park (KEWE), Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (MISS), Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (PIRO), Saint Croix National Scenic River (SACN), Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE), Voyageurs National Park (VOYA).

  8. Greater Yellowstone Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA), Grand Teton National Park (GRTE), John D. Rockefeller, Jr. National Memorial Parkway (JODR), Yellowstone National Park (YELL).

  9. Klamath Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Crater Lake National Park (CRLA), Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO), Lava Beds National Monument (LABE), Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve (ORCA), Redwood National and State Parks (REDW), Whiskeytown National Recreation Area (WHIS).

  10. Mediterranean Coast Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Cabrillo National Monument (CABR), Channel Islands National Park (CHIS), Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (SAMO).

  11. Mojave Desert Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Death Valley National Park (DEVA), Great Basin National Park (GRBA), Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LAKE), Manzanar National Historic Site (MANZ), Mojave National Preserve (MOJA), Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument (PARA).

  12. North Coast and Cascades Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Ebey’s Landing National Historical Reserve (EBLA), Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FOVA), Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (LEWI), Mount Rainier National Park (MORA), North Cascades National Park Complex (NOCA, ROLA, and LACH), Olympic National Park (OLYM), San Juan Island National Historical Park (SAJH).

  13. Northeast Coastal and Barrier Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO), Colonial National Historical Park (COLO), Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS),Gateway National Recreation Area (GATE), George Washington Birthplace National Monument (GEWA), Sagamore Hill National Historic Site (SAHI), Thomas Stone National Historic Site (THST).

  14. Northern Colorado Plateau Inventory & Monitoring Network [PFD]
    Arches National Park (ARCH), Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park (BLCA), Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA), Canyonlands National Park (CANY), Capitol Reef National Park (CARE), Cedar Breaks National Monument (CEBR), Colorado National Monument (COLM), Curecanti National Recreation Area (CURE), Dinosaur National Monument (DINO), Fossil Butte National Monument (FOBU), Golden Spike National Historical Park (GOSP), Hovenweep National Monument (HOVE), Natural Bridges National Monument (NABR), Pipe Spring National Monument (PISP), Timpanogos Cave National Monument (TICA), Zion National Park (ZION).

  15. Pacific Island Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    American Memorial Park (AMME), Haleakalā National Park (HALE), Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO), Kalaupapa National Historical Park (KALA), National Park of American Samoa (NPSA), Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park (PUHO), War in the Pacific National Historical Park (WAPA).

  16. Rocky Mountain Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument (FLFO), Glacier National Park (GLAC), Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site (GRKO), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GRSA), Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI), Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO).

  17. San Francisco Bay Area Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Fort Point National Historic Site (FOPO), Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GOGA), John Muir National Historic Site (JOMU), Muir Woods National Monument (MUWO), Pinnacles National Park (PINN), Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE),

  18. Sierra Nevada Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO), Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI), Yosemite National Park (YOSE).

  19. Southeast Alaska Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (KLGO), Sitka National Historical Park (SITK).

  20. Southern Colorado Plateau Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Aztec Ruins National Monument (AZRU), Bandelier National Monument (BAND), Canyon De Chelly National Monument (CACH), Chaco Culture National Historical Park (CHCU), El Malpais National Monument (ELMA), El Morro National Monument (ELMO), Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GLCA), Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA), Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site (HUTR), Mesa Verde National Park (MEVE), Navajo National Monument (NAVA), Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO), Petroglyph National Monument (PETR), Rainbow Bridge National Monument (RABR), Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument (SAPU), Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument (SUCR), Valles Caldera National Preserve (VALL), Walnut Canyon National Monument (WACA), Wupatki National Monument (WUPA), Yucca House National Monument (YUHO).

  21. Southern Plains Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument (ALFL), Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site (BEOL), Capulin Volcano National Monument (CAVO), Chickasaw National Recreation Area (CHIC), Fort Larned National Historic Site (FOLS), Fort Union National Monument (FOUN), Lake Meredith National Recreation Area (LAMR), Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park (LYJO), Pecos National Historical Park (PECO), Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (SAND), Waco Mammoth National Monument (WACO), Washita Battlefield National Historic Site (WABA).

  22. Southwest Alaska Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Alagnak Wild River (ALAG), Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve (ANIA), Katmai National Park and Preserve (KATM), Kenai Fjords National Park (KEFJ), Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (LACL).

  23. Upper Columbia Basin Inventory & Monitoring Network [PDF]
    Big Hole National Battlefield (BIHO), City of Rocks National Reserve (CIRO), Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve (CRMO), Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument (HAFO), John Day Fossil Beds National Monument (JODA), Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area (LARO), Minidoka National Historic Site (MIIN), Nez Perce National Historical Park (NEPE).

NPS Stratotypes in Published Inventory Reports

National Park System stratotypes by park. A partial listing from an ongoing inventory.
Formation (map unit)Park UnitNetworkNumber of StratotypesStratotype(s)ReferenceAge


Leave No Trace—Protect Type Sections for Science

logo "leave no trace, outdoor ethics" with abstract swirl art

Many type sections and paleontological sites are vunerable to damage from careless visitation and over-use. Be sure to practice Leave No Trace princples whenever you are in the outdoors. Of particular importance at geoheritage sites is to:

  • Travel and camp on durable surfaces, and

  • Leave what you find.

If you see signs of vandalism or someone acting inappropriately during your visit to a park site, please contact a ranger at the park or make a report through NPS Investigative Services.

NPS Stratotype Inventory Project—Publications

  1. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Arctic Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/ARCN/NRR—2022/2832. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293381

  2. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Appalachian Highlands Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/APHN/NRR—2021/2278. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2286699

  3. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Central Alaska Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/CAKN/NRR—2022/2369. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293137

  4. Henderson, T., V.L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J.S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Chihuahuan Desert Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/CHDN/NRR—2021/2249. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2285306

  5. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Cumberland Piedmont Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/CUPN/NRR—2022/2390. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293586
  6. Henderson, T., V.L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J.S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Eastern Rivers and Mountains Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/ERMN/NRR—2021/2248. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2285263

  7. Henderson, T., J.S. Tweet, V. L. Santucci, and T. Connors. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Great Lakes Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/GLKN/NRR—2021/2327. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2288210

  8. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2020. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Greater Yellowstone Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2020/2198. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2280034

  9. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Klamath Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/KLMN/NRR—2021/2286. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2286915

  10. Henderson, T., J.S. Tweet, V. L. Santucci, and T. Connors. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Mediterranean Coast Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/MEDN/NRR—2021/2279. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2286702

  11. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Mojave Desert Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/MOJN/NRR—2021/2340. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2289952

  12. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: North Coast and Cascade Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR—2022/2366. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293013

  13. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Northeast Coastal and Barrier Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCBN/NRR—2021/2286. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2286992

  14. Henderson, T., V.L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J.S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Northern Colorado Plateau Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCPN/NRR—2021/2252. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2285337

  15. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Pacific Island Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/PACN/NRR—2022/2371. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293149

  16. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2020. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Rocky Mountain Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/ROMN/NRR—2020/2215. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2283702

  17. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: San Francisco Bay Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/SFAN/NRR—2022/2388. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/229353

  18. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Sierra Nevada Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/SIEN/NRR—2021/2219. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2284063

  19. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Southeast Alaska Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/SEAN/NRR—2021/2309. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2287534

  20. Henderson, T. C., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, J. S. Tweet, and C. Bowman. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Southern Colorado Plateau Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/SCPN/NRR—2022/2367. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293053

  21. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Southern Plains Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/SOPN/NRR—2022/2411. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293756

  22. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2021. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Southwest Alaska Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/SWAN/NRR—2021/2296. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2287220

  23. Henderson, T., V. L. Santucci, T. Connors, and J. S. Tweet. 2022. National Park Service geologic type section inventory: Upper Columbia Basin Inventory & Monitoring Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/UCBN/NRR—2022/2377. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293343

Last updated: June 17, 2022

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