Last updated: August 24, 2023
Geodiversity refers to the full variety of natural geologic (rocks, minerals, sediments, fossils, landforms, and physical processes) and soil resources and processes that occur in the park. A product of the Geologic Resources Inventory, the NPS Geodiversity Atlas delivers information in support of education, Geoconservation, and integrated management of living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of the ecosystem.
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve preserves the “weird and scenic landscape” of three young lava fields located along the Great Rift System on the eastern Snake River Plain in Idaho. The most recent eruption occurred 2,100 years before the present.
The monument contains a diversity of volcanic vents and types of volcanic landforms including cinder cones, spatter cones, fissure volcanoes, shield volcanoes, and lava flows. The predominantly basaltic lava flows found in the monument exhibit a wide variety of features, such as pāhoehoe and ‘a‘ā lava types, tree mold fossils, lava tubes, and other lava flow surface features. Together, Craters of the Moon is one of the best places on the continent to experience the rugged landscapes produced by recent basaltic volcanic activity.
Geologic Significance & Geodiversity Highlights
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve encompasses the Craters of the Moon, Wapi, and Kings Bowl lava fields.
The Craters of the Moon lava field is the largest of the lava fields on the eastern Snake River Plain with an area of approximately 620 square miles (1,600 km2) and an estimated volume of more than 7 cubic miles (30 km3). It is the largest recent (predominantly Holocene) lava field in the contiguous United States, and experienced numerous eruptions over the last 15,000 years. The youngest lava flows in the Craters of the Moon lava field are the Blue Dragon and Broken Top flows.
The Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields were included in the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve when the park was expanded in 2000. The Wapi lava field erupted 2,270 years ago. Its lava flows form a low shield volcano and contain many lava tubes. The Kings Bowl lava field is the smallest of the lava fields in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve and was formed by a single eruption that probably lasted a few months.
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve includes the original national monument that was established in 1924 and lands incorporated later to preserve additional significant volcanic features located along the Great Rift System. The expansion in year 2000 led to the protection of additional areas by establishing Craters of the Moon National Preserve (administered by the National Park Service) and additional national monument lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The combined Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve encompasses a total of 753,000 acres.
The monument’s name dates to the 1920s when suggestions were made that this volcanic landscape has similarities to that on the lunar surface.
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is one of 19 units of the National Park System set aside primarily for their volcanic resources. See also, NPS—Primary Volcanic Parks
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is one of 33 units of the National Park System containing at least one volcano.See also, NPS—Volcano Types in Parks
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is one of 17 units of the National Park System that contains a volcano that experienced a historic or prehistoric eruption. The most recent eruption took place 2,100 years ago.See also, NPS—Prehistoric and Historic Eruptions
Craters of the Moon National Preserve is a part of the Northern Rocky Mountain Physiographic Province and shares its geologic history and some characteristic geologic formations with a region that extends well beyond park boundaries.
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve consists of three predominantly Holocene lava fields (Craters of the Moon, Wapi, and Kings Bowl) located along the Great Rift System on the eastern Snake River Plain.
Snake River Plain
The Snake River Plain stretches approximately 400 miles (640) across Idaho. It is a topographic depression with low topographic relief. The eastern and western Snake River Plains have different geologic histories. The western Snake River Plain was formed by faulting with the plain being located on the down-dropped block. The eastern Snake River Plain, where Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is located, records the passage of the Yellowstone hotspot track that formed several large silicic caldera complexes.
The topographic low of the eastern Snake River plain was formed by subsidence that occurred after the passage of the continent over the Yellowstone thermal plume due to the weight of magma that accumulated in the middle crust and the overlying volcanic and sedimentary rocks. The surface of the eastern Snake River Plain consists mostly of young basaltic lava flows and thin loess and other eolian or alluvial deposits.
- USGS—Buried calderas on the track of the Yellowstone hotspot
Yellowstone Hotspot Track
The Yellowstone Hotspot track was formed by the passage of the North American continent over a stationary thermal plume. The track begins at the McDermitt Caldera along the Oregon-Nevada border and extends northeast to its current location underpinning Yellowstone National Park. The Hotspot track is marked by a series of progressively older caldera complexes from the 16.5–15-million-year-old McDermitt Caldera to Yellowstone where three caldera-forming eruptions have occurred during the last 2.1 million years.
The Yellowstone hotspot generated large volumes of rhyolitic magma which were erupted at the caldera complexes. The caldera complexes on the eastern Snake River Plain have been mostly buried by younger basalticvolcanic rocks including those found in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve.
Monogenetic Volcanic Field
The recent volcanic activity in the eastern Snake River Plain is that of a monogenetic volcanic field. Monogenetic volcanic fields are clusters of volcanoes or areas covered by volcanic rocks where most of the volcanic vents each experience one period of activity. They may contain hundreds of individual volcanoes and typically include cinder cones, fissure volcanoes, and other monogenetic volcanoes. Monogenetic volcanic fields usually form in areas of low magma supply.
The eastern Snake River Plain contains eight lava fields (bodies of lava that consist of one or more lava flows) of latest Pleistocene to Holocene age, including the Craters of the Moon, Wapi, and Kings Bowl lava fields. These lava fields also contain their associated vents, which are usually cinder cones or fissure volcanoes.
Other monogenetic volcanic fields in the lower 48 states include the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona where its most recent eruption formed the cinder cone preserved in Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument , the Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field in northeastern New Mexico that contains Capulin Volcano National Monument, and the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field where El Malpais National Monument is located.
Great Rift System
The three young lava fields in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve are aligned along the Great Rift System. The Great Rift System is a volcanic rift zone that consists of eruptive fissures, cinder cones and other volcanic vents, noneruptive fissures, and faults confined to a narrow belt. Most of the recent volcanic activity on the Snake River Plain are located along volcanic rift zones which trend roughly perpendicular to the axis of Snake River Plain.
The Great Rift is approximately 53 miles (85 km) long and is between 1.3 and 5 miles (2 and 8 km) wide. The Craters of the Moon lava field is located near the northern end of Great Rift, and the Wapi and Kings Bowl fields are near the southern end.
The Great Rift System is the best example of the volcanic rift zones on the Snake River Plain and is unique in North America. It has few counterparts in the world. It was designated as a national natural landmark in 1968.
Older Sedimentary Rocks
The Mississippian Copper Basin Group is exposed in the northern part of the park. The Copper Basin Group consists of interbedded claystones, siltstones, sandstones, and minor conglomerate and includes turbidite deposits. Fossils of ammonoids, conodonts, brachiopods, conodonts, and worm burrows have been found in these rocks.
Eocene Volcanic Rocks
Eocene volcanic rocks are exposed in the northern part of the monument. These rocks are in the Pioneer Mountains that are mostly north of the monument boundary and consists of the Challis Volcanic Group, a diverse assemblage of volcanic rocks. Intrusive igneous rocks consisting of plutons and dikes are associated with the volcanic units.
Pre-Holocene (Pleistocene and Pliocene) Volcanic Rocks
Volcanic rocks that predate the three predominantly Holocene lava fields in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve are exposed in and around the park. These older volcanic rocks of the Snake River Group consists mostly of basaltic lava flows, cinder cones, shield volcanoes, and fissure volcanoes. These older lava flows are more deeply weathered than the younger ones and are usually loess- or sand-covered.
Predominantly Holocene Volcanic Rocks
Most of the volcanic rocks in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve were erupted during the last 15,000 years in the Holocene and latest Pleistocene.
Researchers, primarily Mel Kuntz of the US Geological Survey and his coauthors, have identified eight major eruptive periods in the Craters of the Moon lava field.
Activity in the Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields also took place during the most recent eruptive period of the Craters of the Moon lava field, approximately 2,100 years ago. Most of the dating of the eruptive periods are based on radiocarbon (carbon-14) ages.
Each eruptive period lasted a thousand years or less. Eruptive periods are separated by time intervals ranging between a few hundred to more than 2,000 years.
|Eruptive Period||Approximate starting time (years before present)||Description
|A||2,100 years ago||Eight distinctive lava flows. The most recent eruption produced the Broken Top lava flow. Four cinder cones: North Crater, the Watchman, Big Craters, and Broken Top. Two eruptive fissures: Trench Mortal Flat and Blue Dragon.
The Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields
|B||4,500 years ago||Seven distinctive lava flows, the Black Top Butte cinder cone, and two fissure volcanoes: Deadhorse and Vermillion Chasm.|
|C||6,000 years ago||Eight distinctive lava flows, the Sentinel, Fissure Butte, Sheep Trail Butte, and Big Cinder Butte cinder cones, and two fissure volcanoes (Fissure Butte and South Echo)|
|D||6,500 years ago||Four distinctive lava flows and the Silent Cone cinder cone|
|E||7,800 years ago||Three distinctive lava flows and the Grassy Cone cinder cone|
|F||11,000 years ago||Three distinctive lava flows erupted from vents located along the Great Rift|
|G||12,500 years ago||Three distinctive lava flows and the Sunset Cone cinder cone|
|H||15,000 years ago||Eight distinctive lava flows and the Crescent Butte cinder cone|
The predominantly Holocene volcanic rocks in are mostly mafic to intermediate in composition. Mafic rocks have high magnesium and iron and have low silica (45-52 weight percent SiO2). Most of the rocks in Craters of the Moon have higher concentrations of sodium and potassium than typical basalts and andesites and are termed hawaiites (also known as trachybasalts) and latites (trachyandesites).
Mafic magmas have low viscosity (resistance to flow), and mafic lava flows can travel great distances from their vent. Eruptions of these magmas are usually effusive to mildly explosive, typically ranging from 0 (Effusive) to 2 (Explosive) on the Volcanic Explosivity Index. Eruption styles are typically Hawaiian where low fire fountains are produced to Strombolian eruptions that look like volcanic fireworks.
Geologic Features and Processes
Most of the geologic features in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve result from the volcanic eruptions that produced its lava flows, cinder cones, fissure volcanoes, shield volcanoes and associated volcanic features during the last 15,000 years.
The Craters of the Moon, Wapi, and Kings Bowl lava fields form the heart of Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve.
Lava fields may be monogenetic (e.g., a result of a single period of volcanic activity), like the Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields, or be polygenetic (e.g., a result of multiple periods of activity) such as the Craters of the Moon lava field experienced. Even though the Craters of the Moon lava field is polygenetic, most of the individual vents, whether they be eruptive fissures or central vents like at cinder cones, each experienced a single period of eruptive activity.
Craters of the Moon Lava Field
The large and complex Craters of the Moon lava field contains 44 distinctive lava flows, 21 prominent cinder cones, and seven eruptive fissures. The field has been active over a long time interval with long periods of quiescence between eruptive periods. The field is also notable for the range of volcanic rock types erupted ranging from hawaiite to latite. The field also contains many excellent example of lava flow surface features, lava tubes, and tree mold fossils.
Wapi Lava Field
The Wapi volcanic field formed 2,270 years ago based on a carbon-14 date. It covers an area of 0.2 square miles (0.5 km2) and was produced in a single eruptive period. The eruption probably began along a fissure and then progressed to a central vent area, from which a low shield volcano was built.
Kings Bowl Lava Field
The Kings Bowl lava field is the smallest of the lava fields in the park and was formed in a single short (likely on a duration of hours to days) eruption about 2,130 years ago. The lava field was fed by eruptive fissures.
One of the superlatives of Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is the great diversity of volcano types found in the park. It contains cinder cones, fissure volcanoes, shield volcanoes, and spatter cones. These are the main type of volcanoes that form when basaltic magmas are erupted.
There are 21 prominent cinder cones in the Craters of the Moon lava field. The tallest cinder cone in the park is Big Cinder Butte, which is more than 700 feet (200 m) in height and formed during eruptive period C.
Big Craters is a cinder cone complex consisting of at least nine nested cones located along an eruptive fissure. Unlike most cinder cones that are located along a central vent, it apparently is the result of multiple phases of eruptive activity along the fissure.
Cinder cones are accumulations of volcanic cinders (scoria) and ash accumulated around a central vent. Their steep slopes average approximately 30 degrees, close to the angle of repose for volcanic cinders.
Cinder cone eruptions are usually mildly explosive and at a 1 (Severe) or 2 (Explosive) on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, with a Strombolian eruption style that looks like volcanic fireworks. Their eruptions typically last a short period of time (from months to a few years), and lava flows may be emitted from vents at the base of the cinder cone, particularly during the waning stages of an eruption
Many of the cinder cones in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve are asymmetric because strong prevailing winds during their eruptions carried more cinders and ash to the downwind (east or northeast) side of the vent.
Fissure volcanoes (also known as eruptive fissures) are elongated volcanoes that form from eruptions that occur along elongated fissures rather than at a central vent. They form when magma-filled dikes intersect the surface. The fissure volcanoes in Craters of the Moon National Monument are aligned on the Great Rift System.
The main eruptive fissures in the Craters of the Moon lava field include Fissure Butte (eruptive period C), South Echo (eruptive period C), Deadhorse (eruptive period B), Vermillion Chasm (eruptive period B), Big Craters (eruptive period A), Trench Mortar Flat (eruptive period A), and Blue Dragon (eruptive period A).
The Wapi and Kings Bowl lava fields were also at least partially fed by eruptive fissures.
Fissure volcanoes usually erupt effusively forming extensive lava flows and building small accumulations of spatter, forming low spatter cones.
Spatter cones are low accumulations of spatter, which is cinders and globs of lava that were still molten or partially molten when they landed. Because they are still hot, they weld together and may even flow as lava. Spatter cones are frequently formed from fire fountains which are produced in Hawaiian style eruptions such as those that occur at fissure volcanoes.
Spatter cones are found on many fissure volcanoes in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve including the Blue Dragon eruptive fissure and the fissure that fed the Kings Bowl lava field.
Spatter ramparts are elongated accumulations of spatter along the length of a eruptive fissure and are also present in Craters of the Moon.
The only shield volcano produced during the predominantly Holocene eruptions in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is the low shield in the Wapi lava field.
Several older shield volcanoes are located near the three lava fields, including Laidlaw Butte which forms the largest kipuka of the Craters of the Moon lava field. Laidlaw Butte is on BLM-managed national monument lands. It stands as much as 900 feet (275) meters above the younger lava flows that surround it. It formed approximately 425,000 years ago.
Shield volcanoes are broad volcanoes with gentle slopes and are usually constructed almost exclusively of basaltic and/or andesitic lava flows.
The diversity and stark beauty of its young lava flows are among the primary hallmarks of Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. These lava flows are largely devoid of vegetation and have experienced little weathering so that delicate features like glassy rinds on their surfaces are well preserved. They also exhibit a variety of lava flow surface features that reveal information about the dynamics that occurred while they were flowing.
Most of the lava flows in the park have the pāhoehoe (ropy) morphological form, but ‘a‘ā and block lavas are also present. Pāhoehoe lava flows in Craters of the Moon have hummocky, billowy, ropy, and wrinkled surfaces. ‘A‘ā lavas have rough and clinkery surfaces. Block lavas are not common at Craters of the Moon. Block lavas are usually found in intermediate composition lava flows and consists of jumbled pieces of smooth blocks of lava at the surface.
The difference in viscosity (resistance to flow) is the most important characteristic of flowing lava that determines whether it will be pāhoehoe or ‘a‘ā. Pāhoehoe forms in more fluid (less viscous lavas) relative to ones that form ‘a‘ā. Sometimes a pāhoehoe flow converts to ‘a‘ā at greater distances from the vent.
The lava flows in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve traveled as sheets (surface flow), in channels, and in lava tubes. Most of the caves in the park are lava tubes.
Lava flow surface features present on lava flows in the park include squeeze ups, inflation features including tumuli, and pāhoehoe toes. Large rafted blocks of bedded cinders are also present on a number of flows where pieces of cinder cones were carried away by moving lava.
One of the most striking features of some of the pahoehoe flows like the Blue Dragon flow is the blue or green iridescence color of its glassy surface. The color of the Blue Dragon flow is a result of blue light being reflected by clusters of tiny titanium magnetite crystals present in the volcanic glass.
The majority of the lava flows in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve were at least partially fed by lava tubes. Lava tubes are conduits that molten lava travels in beneath the solidified surface of a lava flow. Lava tubes may be drained after the flow of lava ceases or is redirected, leaving a cavern.
Features within Craters of the Moon’s lava tubes include lava levees, lava linings, and lava stalactites.
Segments of some of the lava tubes have collapsed, sometimes leaving short segments of lava tube ceilings as natural arches.
Kīpukas are areas that are surrounded by younger lava flows. More than 600 kīpukas of varying sizes have been identified within Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Some of the kīpukas consists of volcanic rocks that are older than the predominantly Holocene lava flows and others are of older lava flows within the Craters of the Moon lava field. The largest kipuka within the monument boundary is the one made by Laidlaw Butte, the Pleistocene shield volcano which was surrounded by lava flows of the Craters of the Moon lava field.
Kīpukas in the park have special scientific interest. Three research natural areas in the park are located on kīpukas. Carey Kipuka, Brass Cap, Big Juniper, and Sand Kipuka research natural areas were designated for long-term value as scientific reference areas.
Tree molds form when a lava flow surrounds a tree and forms an impression of it before the tree is burnt away by the hot lava. Sometimes the lava knocks down the tree as it moves. It is also possible for the tree remains standing as it is engulfed by flames and surrounded by lava.
The Tree Molds Trail in Craters of the Moon National Monument is a two-mile (3.2 km) round-trip hike to the edge of the Blue Dragon flow to an area where a number of tree mold fossils are found.
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is one of five units of the National Park System that has been identified as having tree mold fossils.
The Mississippian sedimentary rocks in the northern part of the monument contain marine invertebrate fossils.
Pleistocene and Holocene fossils are present in packrat middens found in park caves.
All NPS fossil resources are protected under the Paleontological Resources Preservation Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11, Title VI, Subtitle D; 16 U.S.C. §§ 470aaa - 470aaa-11).
Caves and Karst
More than 500 caves have been documented in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Most caves in the park are lava tubes. But other types of caves are present include caves located along fissures (fissure caves), and caves formed by differential weathering of lava flows. Lava blisters and tumuli. A lava blister is a hollow upwelling on the crust of a lava flow formed by expansion of gas beneath the surface. And tumulus is a dome or small mound on the crust of a lava flow. Spatter deposits that surround an opening, such as at a vent, may also form caves. Caves may also be formed in areas of talus where openings are present.
Cave resources in the park include ice deposits, fossils, archeological sites, and important habitat for bats and other wildlife.
Volcanic landscapes where lava flows are present are considered a type of pseudokarst. Pseudokarst is formed through geological processes that do not involve dissolution of rock, which occurs in true karst. The lava tubes and collapsed tubes in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve are volcanic pseudokarstic. Based on the presence of volcanic bedrock, 99% of Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve was identified as containing pseudokarst.
All NPS cave resources are protected under the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988 (FCRPA)(16 U.S.C. § 4301 et seq.).
Other Geodiversity Values
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve was established because of the scientific and public interest of the geologic formations in the monument, which are mostly volcanic in origin. The monument contains three lava fields located along the Great Rift System, which itself is a National Natural Landmark. The geoheritage values of the monument, including its geodiversity, tie back to its volcanic resources and processes that formed them.
Other geodiversity highlights of Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve include rare plants and the use of monument lands for Apollo astronaut training.
Two rare (special status) plants are found in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve.
Obscure phacelia (Phacelia inconspicua) grows on north- and east-facing volcanic buttes and slopes where snowdrifts persist late into spring. The species is only known from a few locations in Idaho and Nevada. This special status plant is considered nationally imperiled.
Picabo milkvetch (Astragalus onicifomis) is found only in the north-central part of the Snake River Plain where it grows on deep well-drained soils in basins and flats within areas of rolling volcanic topography. Picabo milkvetch is range-wide or state-wide imperiled
Apollo Astronaut Training
Craters of the Moon National Monument was used as a training site in 1969 to help prepare Apollo 14 astronauts for collecting lunar samples. Because of weight limitations, lunar samples were very valuable and it was important for astronauts to learn how to select the most scientifically valuable specimens.
Geohazards in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve range from those associated with rock fall and slope stability, caves, and abandoned mineral lands to seismic and volcanic hazards.
Although individual vents within the Craters of the Moon lava field should not erupt again as cinder cones and fissure volcanoes generally have only one period of volcanic activity, future eruptions may take place within the lava field. Monogenetic volcanic fields like the eastern Snake River Plain have low magma supply rates so there may be long intervals between subsequent eruptions. Eruptions in the Craters of the Moon lava field have averaged about every 2,000 years beginning about 15,000 years ago, and the most recent eruption took place 2,100 years ago.
The US Geologic Survey’s 2018 update to the national volcanic threat assessment places the Craters of the Moon and Wapi lava fields into the low threat category. Threat rankings are assigned to one of five categories ranging from very high to very low. The threat assessment is not a forecast of future eruption, but an evaluation of the potential severity of impacts that may result from future eruptions at a given volcano.
The assessment consists of two parts: an evaluation of volcanic hazards and the exposure of people and human infrastructure to those hazards. Both the volcanic hazard part of the ranking and the human exposure part are low for the Craters of the Moon lava field, leading to an overall threat score of 13.9. The Wapi lava field has a threat score of 8.3. Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is one of 17 units of the National Park System containing volcanoes evaluated in the threat assessment.
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is located along the Great Rift System on the eastern Snake River Plain. However, no Quaternary faults have been identified within the park.
Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve moderate seismic hazard. The USGS 2014 Seismic Hazard Map indicates that the Craters of the Moon area has a 2% chance that earthquake peak ground acceleration of between 8 and 10 %g (percent of gravity) being exceeded in 50 years. This peak ground acceleration is roughly equivalent to V on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. The expected number of damaging earthquake shaking in the vicinity of Craters of the Moon National Monument and preserve in 10,000 years is between 4 and 10.
Abandoned Mineral Lands
Five Abandoned Mineral Lands (AML) sites have been documented by the National Park Service in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. The sites contain 53 mining features and do not require mitigation.
The Martin Mine in the Lava Creek Mining District was active between 1922 and 1929. It produced copper, gold, lead, silver, and zinc.
NPS AML sites can be important cultural resources and habitat, but many pose risks to park visitors and wildlife, and degrade water quality, park landscapes, and physical and biological resources. Be safe near AML sites—Stay Out and Stay Alive!
- Scoping summaries are records of scoping meetings where NPS staff and local geologists determined the park’s geologic mapping plan and what content should be included in the report.
- Digital geologic maps include files for viewing in GIS software, a guide to using the data, and a document with ancillary map information. Newer products also include data viewable in Google Earth and online map services.
- Reports use the maps to discuss the park’s setting and significance, notable geologic features and processes, geologic resource management issues, and geologic history.
- Posters are a static view of the GIS data in PDF format. Newer posters include aerial imagery or shaded relief and other park information. They are also included with the reports.
- Projects list basic information about the program and all products available for a park.
Related ArticlesCraters Of The Moon National Monument & Preserve
National Park Service Geodiversity AtlasThe servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on geoheritage and geodiversity resources and values within the National Park System. This information supports science-based geoconservation and interpretation in the NPS, as well as STEM education in schools, museums, and field camps. The NPS Geologic Resources Division and many parks work with National and International geoconservation communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available.
For more information on the NPS Geodiversity Atlas, contact us.