Commemorating Suffrage: Historic Sites and Women’s Right to Vote

Cedar Hill, home of Frederick Douglass. NPS Photo.
Figure 1. Frederick Douglass Home, Cedar Hill, Washington, DC. Courtesy of the National Park Service.
By Judith Wellman

Women have always been leaders in the movement for historic preservation. Until the late twentieth century, however, very few sites relating to women’s history—and even fewer relating to woman suffrage—were formally identified or preserved. Beginning the mid-nineteenth century, when Ann Pamela Cunningham and the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association rescued George Washington’s home from decay, historic preservationists commemorated buildings associated with famous European American politicians and generals. Historic preservation seemed inconsequential to most women’s rights advocates. When Cunningham tried to enlist suffrage leader Elizabeth Cady Stanton as a lady manager of the association, Stanton urged that women work on women’s rights rather than historic house preservation: “Every energy of my body and soul is pledged to a higher and holier work than building monuments. . . . What mightier monument can we raise to the memory of Washington than to complete the pure temple of liberty.”[1] Stanton did not foresee that her own house in Seneca Falls, New York, would one day be preserved as part of the first national park devoted to the telling of the story of women’s struggle to win the vote.

Until the late twentieth century, with few exceptions, historic preservation reinforced a historical narrative that excluded most women and people of color. That began to change in the 1960s, when the rise of social history coincided with new trends in historic preservation. Inspired by civil rights and feminist movements and the growing field of heritage tourism, historians and preservationists began to emphasize the importance of historic sites that reflected the lived experience of Americans of all races, classes, and genders. Many states, communities, and public and nonprofit agencies began to highlight women’s history sites, and a handful of these dealt with woman suffrage.[2] Almost all of these related to the organized movement from 1848 to 1920, ignoring both suffrage efforts before 1848 and attempts to implement suffrage, especially for people of color, after 1920. Many sites recognized primarily for their association with other historical events, however, also began to incorporate the story of woman suffrage, recognizing a more inclusive definition of suffrage work.

* * *

Around the turn of the twentieth century, three sites—one of them related directly to woman suffrage—challenged the primary historic preservation emphasis on military sites and great white men. In 1901, the Christian Science Church purchased the Mary Baker Eddy house in Lynn, Massachusetts, to preserve it as the home of the founder of a worldwide religion. In 1912, the United Women’s Club of Concord, Massachusetts, opened Orchard House, the home of Louisa May Alcott, author of Little Women, to the public.[3] The third exception, and the first related directly to woman suffrage, was the preservation of Frederick Douglass’s home at Cedar Hill in Washington, DC. (Figure 1)
Susan B Anthony House by Charles Lenhart. NOT PUBLIC DOMAIN
Figure 2. Susan B. Anthony House, Rochester, New York. Courtesy of Charles Lenhart.
Douglass’s home at Cedar Hill was saved primarily by the work of women, including Helen Pitts Douglass, Douglass’s second wife, who worked with the National League of Colored Women to form the Frederick Douglass Memorial and Historical Association. Beginning in 1903, Archibald Grimké, Booker T. Washington, and Mary Talbert, president of the National Association of Colored Women, worked to raise money to pay off the mortgage, restore the home, and open it to the public. Madam C. J. Walker, America’s first woman millionaire, gave generously to this effort.[4]

By the 1920s, women became leaders in a new effort to preserve historic neighborhoods and communities, including buildings both grand and modest. Susan Pringle Frost was a pathbreaker. In 1920, she founded what became the Preservation Society of Charleston, the oldest locally based preservation organization in the United States. Like many preservationists, Frost was also an advocate of woman suffrage. But she did not translate her political interests into saving historic sites relating to suffrage.[5] The first major historic site preserved primarily for its relationship to woman suffrage was the Susan B. Anthony home at 17 Madison Street in Rochester, New York. (Figure 2) Led by Martha Taylor Howard, the house was opened in 1945 as a memorial to Anthony and the suffrage movement.[6]

By and large, however, in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century historic preservation ignored women. Even statues of women were rare. The Smithsonian Institution identified 5,575 outdoor sculptures of American historical figures. Only 200 of these, less than 4 percent, depicted women. Adelaide Johnson’s statue of Stanton, Anthony, and Lucretia Mott, created in 1920 for the National Woman’s Party, was immediately relegated to the basement of the US Capitol and only returned to the Rotunda in 1997. New York City’s Central Park erected a statue of Mother Goose in 1938, one of Alice in Wonderland in 1959, and a third of Juliet (and Romeo) in 1977, alongside those of twenty-two real men. A statue of Stanton and Anthony proposed by 2020 would represent the first commemoration of real women in Central Park.

In the late twentieth century, neglect of historic sites relating to women began to change. In 1960, Congress created the National Historic Landmarks program to mark exceptionally important buildings. In 1966, it passed a new historic preservation act, establishing both the National Register of Historic Places and State Historic Preservation Offices in every state.[7] The new National Register’s criteria corresponded with the explosion of interest in social history and women’s history, inspired by movements for civil rights and women’s rights. History “from the bottom up” emphasized issues of gender, race, and class, highlighting the experience of all Americans. A new interest in women’s history emerged as part of an emphasis on the built environment and urban landscapes that included ordinary Americans.[8]
Paulsdale. Collection of Alice Paul Institute.
Figure 3. Home of Alice Paul, Paulsdale, Mt. Laurel, New Jersey. Courtesy of the Alice Paul Institute.
Reflecting this new scholarship, preservationists began to explore the importance of historic sites relating to women. Federal agencies helped energize this movement. The National Historic Landmarks program led the way with a survey authorized in 1975 of sites relating to minority groups. At the same time, Page Putnam Miller, directed the Women’s History Landmark Project, cosponsored by the National Park Service (NPS), the Organization of American Historians, and the National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History. In 1992, Miller published results of that study, Reclaiming Our Past: Landmarks of Women’s History. In 1994, the NPS adopted a new thematic framework, published in 1996 as History in the National Park Service: Themes and Concepts, incorporating many ideas from the new social history.[9] The NPS also sponsored several conferences on women and historic preservation. In 2003, selections from these conferences appeared in Gail Lee Dubrow and Jennifer B. Goodman, eds., Restoring Women’s History through Historic Preservation.[10]

These conferences acted as an incubator for a new organization. With assistance from the National Park Service, forty representatives of historic sites and organizations formed the National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites to promote “the preservation and interpretation of sites and locales that bear witness to women’s participation in American life.” Heather Huyck, NPS historian and a member of the original steering committee, noted, “leaving women out of the story is as serious a distortion of our history as trying to tell the history of the Civil War without talking about Black history.”[11] Preservation efforts focused on (1) publicizing existing women’s history sites, (2) identifying and preserving previously unmarked historic sites relating to women, and (3) interpreting women’s history at traditionally male-dominated sites. Though not focused on woman suffrage sites per se, these goals provided a context for suffrage as one theme among many.

In 1994, Lynn Sherr and Jurate Kazickas published Susan B. Anthony Slept Here: A Guide to American Women's Landmarks, a revision of their American Woman’s Gazetteer (1976), to publicize existing women’s history sites. Several states and cities developed women’s history trails. Many states also developed women’s biographical collections and halls of fame, supplementing the National Women’s Hall of Fame, organized in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1969. In 1998, spurred by the commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, the National Register initiated a travel guide, Places Where Women Made History, which highlighted seventy-five sites in New York and Massachusetts. In 2009, Congress authorized the Votes for Women History Trail Route, introduced by Congresswoman Louise Slaughter, but the trail never received funding.[12]
Carrie Chapman Catt Childhood Home. Coll. Carrie Chapman Catt House and Museum
Figure 4. Carrie Chapman Catt Girlhood Home, Charles City, Iowa. Courtesy of Carrie Chapman Catt Girlhood Home and Museum.
At the same time, beginning in the 1990s, several public and nonprofit groups acquired homes of major suffrage leaders. The Alice Paul Institute purchased the Alice Paul home in 1990, to commemorate Paul’s work as founder of the National Woman’s Party. (Figure 3) The National Nineteenth Amendment Society purchased Carrie Chapman Catt’s home in Iowa in 1991 to interpret the early life of Catt, who served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. (Figure 4) In 1999, a nonprofit group acquired the Susan B. Anthony birthplace in Adams, Massachusetts, after years of efforts to preserve the homestead that began in 1910. The Matilda Joslyn Gage Foundation organized in 2000 to preserve and interpret the Gage home as a center of suffrage, the Underground Railroad, Native American rights, and liberal religion in Fayetteville, New York. In 2001, the Buffalo Niagara Freedom Coalition interpreted the Michigan Street Baptist Church as a major site of African American activism, including woman suffrage. (Figure 5) In 2006, New York State acquired the home where Susan B. Anthony lived in the 1830s in Battenkill, New York. It still awaits restoration.[13]

The National Historic Landmarks program also promoted sites relating to major woman suffrage leaders. In 1965, the home of both Elizabeth Cady Stanton in Seneca Falls and Susan B. Anthony in Rochester, New York, became National Historic Landmarks. More sites followed: Harriet Tubman in Auburn, New York (1974 and 2001), Madam C. J. Walker in Irvington, New York (1976), Mary Ann Shadd Cary in Washington, DC (1976), Alice Paul in Mount Laurel, New Jersey (1991), Gerrit Smith in Peterboro, New York (2001), Carrie Chapman Catt in Charles City, Iowa, and New Castle, New York, and Abigail Scott Duniway in Portland, Oregon. In 2012, the NPS held a conference at the Belmont-Paul House in Washington, DC, cosponsored with the National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, to consider how women’s stories could best be included as National Historic Landmarks. As a result of that effort, seven more women’s history sites were added to the National Historic Landmarks program.[14]

By 2000, the National Park Service had opened seven parks related specifically to women, including, in 1980, one focused explicitly on woman suffrage: Women’s Rights National Historical Park commemorates the first women’s rights convention, held in July 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York. (Figure 6) By 2018, the National Park Service had added three more sites dealing specifically with women. One, the Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument (formerly the Sewall-Belmont House), headquarters for the National Woman’s Party, related specifically to suffrage. It was designated a National Monument in 2016.[15]

Despite these efforts, the number of historic sites related specifically to women remained only a small proportion of the whole, and the number of sites that dealt with suffrage was even smaller. The ten national parks that dealt directly with women, for example, made up 20 percent of the fifty-one national historical parks in the National Park Service. Only two of these—Women’s Rights National Historical Park and the Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument—dealt directly with woman suffrage. Of the seven women’s history sites listed as National Historic Landmarks since 2011, only two—the homes of Frances Perkins and Marjory Stoneman Douglas—were linked to suffragists.[16] The pattern was repeated at the state level. In New York State, for example, only one state park, Sonnenberg Gardens, related directly to a woman. None dealt specifically with woman suffrage. The National Register’s “Places Where Women Made History” listed thirty-five sites in New York, eight of which related to suffrage. Five of these were part of Women’s Rights National Historical Park in Seneca Falls.[17]
Michigan St Baptist Church. Photo by Judith Wellman. NOT PUBLIC DOMAIN
Figure 5. Michigan Street Baptist Church, Mary Talbert’s church, Buffalo, New York. Courtesy of Judith Wellman.
In the late twentieth century, women’s historians and historic preservationists, including the National Park Service and the National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, also pushed for the interpretation of women at historic sites typically associated with men. The NPS published Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting Women’s History for Historic Sites in 1996; Polly Welts Kaufman and Katharine T. Corbett edited Her Past around Us: Interpreting Sites for Women’s History in 2003; and the National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites published a number of reports in the early 2000s. This emphasis has had a powerful effect. Today, historic site interpreters routinely include references to women at sites once considered the focus only of male history—including battlefields, homes of politicians, churches, factories, farms, plantations, and Native American sites.[18]

Interpreting women’s history at historic sites relating primarily to men offers a model for interpreting woman suffrage at a wide variety of historic sites preserved for unrelated reasons. Helen Keller, for example (whose birthplace in Tuscumbia, Alabama, is listed as a National Historic Landmark), spoke out for woman suffrage as well as for socialism, workers’ rights, and blind and deaf people. Frances Perkins, best known for her work as secretary of labor under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, grew up in a suffrage family and gave suffrage speeches herself. Perkins’s house in Washington, DC, became a National Historic Landmark in 1991, and her family home in Newcastle, Maine, was listed in 2014. Marjory Stoneman Douglas is best known for her work as the author of The Everglades: River of Grass (1947), but she also championed racial justice, women’s rights, and woman suffrage, giving a suffrage speech before the Florida house of representatives in 1916. Her home in Coconut Grove, Florida, was listed as a National Historic Landmark in 2015.[19]

And then there is Frederick Douglass. Although the National Park Service includes Douglass’s work for women’s rights in its interpretation of Cedar Hill, suffrage historians have not highlighted Douglass’s home as a suffrage site. They should. Douglass consistently supported suffrage for women as well as African Americans, beginning at Seneca Falls in 1848. “We know of no truth more easily made appreciable to human thought than the right of woman to vote, or in other words, to have a voice in the Government under which she lives and to which she owes allegiance,” he asserted in 1870. He never deviated from that position and found, as he said in 1888, “a little nobility in the act” of supporting women’s rights.[20]

* * *

Renewed interest in the suffrage movement, centered around the one-hundredth anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment, offers an opportunity to add to the list of known suffrage sites. The woman suffrage movement began much earlier than 1848 and lasted far beyond 1920, and it extended to US territories such as Puerto Rico. Margaret Brent asked for a vote in the Maryland colonial assembly in 1648. After 1920, attempts to implement suffrage for both men and women often resulted in violent confrontations, especially for African Americans in the South. Not until 1935 did woman suffrage become legal for all Puerto Rican women. In 1962, New Mexico was the last state to enfranchise Native Americans. Asian American immigrants were routinely denied citizenship until 1952. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 helped protect suffrage everywhere, but in Shelby v. Holder (2013), the Supreme Court gutted the Voting Rights Act. [21]
Wesleyan Chapel. Photo by Judith Wellman. NOT PUBLIC DOMAIN
Figure 6. Wesleyan Chapel, site of first women’s rights convention, 1848, Seneca Falls, New York. Courtesy of Judith Wellman.
New scholarly work provides the basis for identifying suffrage sites defined by wide chronological, geographic, and cultural/ethnic boundaries. Working with local historians and interested citizens, for example, the William G. Pomeroy Foundation by 2018 had erected thirty-three markers at suffrage sites across New York. By the fall of 2018, the National Votes for Women Trail, developed by the National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, had located almost one thousand woman suffrage sites in more than thirty-five states. Working with the Pomeroy Foundation, the National Votes for Women Trail will erect 250 suffrage markers across the nation by 2020.[22] In 2016 Nashville, Tennessee, commemorated five women who helped promote Tennessee’s ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. By 2020 a statue of suffragist Ida B. Wells will be erected in Chicago. Another is planned for Fairfax County, Virginia, to honor suffragists imprisoned in Occoquan Prison for picketing the White House. And, a statue of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton will become the first monument erected to real women in Central Park in New York City.[23]

Historic sites related to women’s suffrage from the earliest years to the present offer inspiration from the past and guideposts toward the future. Celebrating passage of the Nineteenth Amendment on August 26, 1920, Carrie Chapman Catt declared, “Women have suffered agony of soul which you can never comprehend, that you and your daughters might inherit political freedom. That vote has been costly. Prize it!”[24] Historic sites related to woman suffrage remind us to prize that vote—for women and for all citizens of our democracy.
Judith Wellman is professor emerita, State University of New York at Oswego, and director, Historical New York Research Associates. She specializes in historic sites relating to women’s rights, the Underground Railroad, and African American life. She is the author of several books and articles, including The Road to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the First Woman’s Rights Convention (University of Illinois Press, 2004).
Notes:
[1] Elizabeth Cady Stanton to Mary Morris Hamilton, “The Purchase of Mt. Vernon,” National Anti-Slavery Standard, September 4, 1858.
[2] Identifying suffrage sites is difficult. Neither the National Register, with more than 90,000 sites by 2018, nor the National Historic Landmarks program, with 2,650 listed sites by 2016, identifies sites by gender. Carol D. Shull, “Searching for Women in the National Register of Historic Places,” in Restoring Women’s History through Historic Preservation, ed. Gail Lee Dubrow and Jennifer B. Goodman (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 303–317; National Historic Landmarks: Six-Year Progress Report, 2011–2016 (Washington, DC: National Park Service, 2016); “Telling All Americans’ Stories: Publications on Diverse and Inclusive History,” National Park Service; “Database and Research,” National Register of Historic Places; National Historic Landmarks Women’s History Initiative, Progress Report, 2011–2013 (Washington, DC: National Park Service, 2013), 4, noted that “most [historic sites] . . . , cannot and do not fit into a specific category relating to any specific gender, race, or class within the American population overall. As a result, discussions about the percentages of National Historic Landmarks which tell stories relating to women’s history may be misleading as many National Historic Landmarks cannot be easily categorized.”
[3] Janet Beyer, “The United Women’s Club of Concord and the History of Orchard House," Concord Patch, October 21, 2011.
[4]Preservation,” Frederick Douglass National Historic Site.
[6] Susan B. Anthony Memorial, Inc. Papers, University of Rochester, River Campus.
[8] For a discussion of the origin and impact of the phrase “history from the bottom up,” see Timothy Coogan, “History from the Bottom Up,” Center for Teaching and Learning, LaGuardia Community College. For the new emphasis on place, see Delores Hayden, The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995).
[9] Page Putnam Miller, Reclaiming the Past: Landmarks of Women’s History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992); Page Putnam Miller, “Women’s History Landmark Project: Policy and Research,” Public Historian 15, no. 4 (Fall 1993): 82–88; Page Putnam Miller, Landmarks of American Women’s History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); History in the National Park Service: Themes and Concepts, rev ed. (Washington, DC: National Park Service, 2000).
[10] Gail Lee Dubrow and Jennifer B. Goodman, Restoring Women’s History through Historic Preservation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).
[11] National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites; Polly Welts Kaufman, National Parks and the Woman’s Voice: A History, updated ed. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006), xxii.
[12] Lynn Sherr and Jurate Kazickas, Susan B. Anthony Slept Here: A Guide to American Women’s Landmarks (New York: Times Books, 1994); “Places Where Women Made History,” National Park Service; Arizona Women’s Heritage Trail; Connecticut Women’s Heritage Trail; Florida Women’s Heritage Trail; Maryland Women’s Heritage Trail; New Jersey Women’s Heritage Trail; New York State Office of Parks, Recreation & Historic Preservation, Women’s Heritage Trail; Boston Women’s Heritage Trail; “Women,” Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture; South Carolina, Special Women from Our State; Votes for Women History Trail; Ellen Carlson, National Park Service, Women’s History Trail Feasibility Study, 2003.
[13] The Alice Paul Institute; The National Nineteenth Amendment Society; The Matilda Joslyn Gage Foundation; Michigan Street Baptist Church; “History of Anthony Homestead,” Susan B. Anthony Birthplace Museum; Kyle Hughes, “Susan B. Anthony Home in Washington County Awaits State Action,” Albany Times-Union, November 12, 2016.
[14] New National Historic Landmark listings related to women included: Stepping Stones, Katonah, New York (2012), USS Slater, Albany, New York (2012), Casa Dra. Concha Melndez Ramirez, San Juan, Puerto Rico (2013), Harriet Beecher Stowe House, Hartford, Connecticut (2013), Lydia Pinkham House, Lynn, Massachusetts (2014), Frances Perkins Homestead, Newcastle, Maine (2014), and Marjory Stoneman Douglas House, Miami, Florida (2015). National Historic Landmarks: Six-Year Progress Report, 2011–2016.
[15] Kaufman, National Parks and the Woman’s Voice, xx–xxi. Parks related specifically to women include Clara Barton National Historic Site, Glen Echo, Maryland (1974); Val-kill, Eleanor Roosevelt, near Hyde Park, New York (1977); Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site, Richmond, Virginia (1978); Women’s Rights National Historical Park, Seneca Falls, New York (1980); Mary McCleod Bethune House, Washington, DC (affiliated with National Council of Negro Women, acquired by NPS in 1994); First Ladies’ National Historic Site (2000); Rosie the Riveter WWII Homefront National Historical Park, Richmond, California (2000). Two new parks commemorate Harriet Tubman: the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park, in Cambridge, Maryland, established in 2014, and the Harriet Tubman National Historical Park, in Auburn, New York, formed in 2017 to interpret Tubman’s later life.
[17] Of the 23 suffrage sites (of the 133 women’s history sites) listed in Sherr and Kazickas, Susan B. Anthony Slept Here, four relate to Susan B. Anthony; two each deal with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Emily Howland, Dr. Mary Walker, Matilda Joslyn Gage, Carrie Chapman Catt, and the Seneca Falls convention. See also “Places Where Women Made History.”
[18] Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting Women’s History for Historic Sites (1996; Washington, DC: National Park Service, 2005); Polly Welts Kaufman and Katharine T. Corbett, eds., Her Past around Us: Interpreting Sites for Women’s History (Malabar, FL: Krieger, 2003); Heather A. Huyck, ed., Women’s History: Sites and Resources, 2nd ed. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010); Heather Huyck and Peg Stobel, eds., Revealing Women’s History: Best Practices at Historic Sites (Ukiah, CA: National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, 2011); Telling the Whole Story: Women and the Making of the United States ([Washington, DC?]: National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, 2013).
[19] Helen Keller, “Why Men Need Woman Suffrage,” New York Call, October 17, 1913; Kim Nielsen, “Helen Keller,” Encyclopaedia of Alabama; Kirstin Downey, The Woman behind the New Deal: The Life of Frances Perkins, FDR’s Secretary of Labor and His Moral Conscience (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2009), 28; Susan Ware, Partner and I: Molly Dewson, Feminism, and New Deal Politics (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987), 66; Marjorie Stoneman Douglas, The Everglades: River of Grass (1947; Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 2017); “Marjorie Stoneman Douglas,” National Women’s Hall of Fame; Interview with Marjory Stoneman Douglas, videotaped at the Douglas House in Coconut Grove, June 16, 1983, Florida International University.
[20] Thanks to Shelley Albee for her fine tour of Cedar Hill, October 21, 2018; Frederick Douglass, The Portable Frederick Douglass, ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. and John Stauffer (New York: Penguin, 2016), 492; Report of International Council of Women (Washington, DC: Rufus Darby, 1888), 329.
[21]History of Women in Puerto Rico."
[22]William G. Pomeroy Foundation Announces New Series of Historic Roadside Markers to Commemorate Women’s History in NYS,” New York State Museum, Office of State History; National Votes for Women Trail, National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites.
[24] Woman Citizen, September 4, 1920, quoted in Barbara Stuhler, For the Public Record: A Documentary History of the League of Women Voters (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000), 26.
Bibliography

Dubrow, Gail Lee, and Jennifer B. Goodman, eds. Restoring Women’s History through Historic Preservation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Huyck, Heather, and Peg Stobel, eds.,
Revealing Women’s History: Best Practices at Historic Sites. Ukiah, CA: National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, 2011.

Kaufman, Polly Welts, and Katharine T. Corbett, eds. Her Past around Us: Interpreting Sites for Women’s History. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 2003.

Miller, Page Putnam. Landmarks of American Women’s History. New York: Oxford, 2003.


National Collaborative of Women’s History Sites.

National Historic Landmarks: Six-Year Progress Report, 2011–2016. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 2016.

National Register of Historic Places. “
Places Where Women Made History.”

NHL Women’s History Progress Report. (NHL is currently working on this site, and these reports were not online as of September 11, 2018.)

Sherr, Lynn, and Jurate Kazickas. Susan B. Anthony Slept Here: A Guide to American Women’s Landmarks. New York: Times Books, 1994.


Telling the Whole Story: Women and the Making of the United States. [Washington, DC?]: National Collaborative for Women’s History Sites, 2013.

Last updated: April 10, 2019