Park Statistics

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1882: First unsuccessful attempt to establish a Grand Canyon National Park

1893: Designated a "forest reserve" by President Benjamin Harrison (Presidential Proclamation #45)

1908: Established as Grand Canyon National Monument by President Theodore Roosevelt (Presidential Proclamation #794)

1919: Designated Grand Canyon National Park by an act of Congress on February 26 (40 Stat 1175)

1975: Grand Canyon National Park Enlargement Act enacted by Congress on January 3 (88 Stat 2089) (Public Law 93-620)

1979: Designated a World Heritage Site on October 26

2019: Designated an International Dark Sky Park (IDSP) by the International Dark-Sky Association in June after being awarded Provisional IDSP status in 2016


Grand Canyon National Park

  • Park Size:
    • 1,218,375 acres (493,059 ha)
    • 1,904 square miles (4,931 km2)
  • Length: 277 river miles (446 km)
  • Width:
    • Minimum at Marble Canyon, 600 feet (180 m)
    • Average Rim to Rim, 10 miles (16 km)
    • Maximum Rim to Rim, 18 miles (28.8 km)
  • Depth: Average, 1 mile (1.6 km)
  • Elevations:
    • South Rim 7,000 feet (2,100 m)
    • North Rim 8,000 feet (2,400 m)
  • Volume: 5.45 trillion cubic yards (4.17 trillion m3)
Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park
  • Length: 277 miles (446 km)
  • Average Width: 300 feet (90 m)
  • Minimum Width: 76 feet (23 m)
  • Average Depth: 40 feet (12 m)
  • Greatest Depth: 85 feet (25.5 m)
  • Average Gradient: 7 feet per mile (1.3 m/km)
  • Elevation at Phantom Ranch: 2,400 feet (720 m)
The Colorado River is 1,450 miles (2,333 km) long from its source in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to the Gulf of California.


Grand Canyon National Park preserves an iconic geologic landscape and resources ranging from 1,840 to 270 million years old, including diverse paleontological resources; unconsolidated surface deposits; a complex tectonic and erosion history; and Pliocene to Holocene volcanic deposits. The Colorado River established its course through the canyon about six million years ago and likely evolved from pre-existing drainages to its current course. Geologic processes, including erosion of tributaries and slopes, and active tectonics continue to shape the canyon today. The geologic record in Grand Canyon is an important scientific chronicle and is largely responsible for its inspirational scenery.

Learn more about geology in Grand Canyon.

Natural Resources


Birds: 450 species

Mammals: 91 species

Fish: 18 species, 5 native

Reptiles and Amphibians: 58 species

Invertebrates: 1,443 species, including 292 butterflies and moths

Exotic (non-native) animals: 27 species

Park Endemic animals, not extirpated: 9 species; 5 butterflies, 1 pseudoscorpion, 1 tarantula, 1 snake, and 1 mollusk

Regionally Endemic animals, not extirpated: 5 species; humpback chub, razorback sucker, flannelmouth sucker, Kaibab squirrel, and the Navajo Mexican vole

Federally Endangered Species: California condor, humpback chub, razorback sucker, southwestern willow flycatcher, and Ridgway's rail.

Federally Threatened Species: Mexican spotted owl, yellow-billed cuckoo, and desert tortoise.

Extirpated Species: Grizzly bear, black-footed ferret, gray wolf, jaguar, Bear Valley sandwort, Colorado Pikeminnow, bonytail, roundtail chub, northern leopard frog, and southwestern river otter.

There are over 35 species of special concern and former USFWS Category 2 species.

One reptile, three mammal, and one mollusk species are known only from the Grand Canyon region. At least nine species of insects are endemic to Grand Canyon, and six fish species are endemic to the Colorado River basin.


Vascular Plants: 1,747 species

Endemic Plants: 4 species

Exotic (non-native) Plants: 208 species

One Endangered Species: Sentry milk-vetch (Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax)

Nine species of special concern (formerly category 2 species) are known, and 25 additional vascular plants are of management concern due to their limited distribution.

Six Vegetation Formation Types: riparian, desert scrub, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, spruce-fir forest, and montane meadows/sub-alpine


Cultural Resources

Human History

The oldest human artifacts found date to the Paleoindian period and are nearly 12,000 years old. Since that time, various cultures have continually used and occupied the park. Archaeological evidence from the following prehistoric culture groups are found in Grand Canyon National Park: Paleoindian, Archaic, Basketmaker, Ancestral Puebloan (Kayenta and Virgin branches), Cohonina, Cerbat, Pai, and Southern Paiute. Historical-period cultural groups are the Hopi, Navajo, Pai, Southern Pauite, Zuni, and Euro-American. The park has recorded 4,615 archaeological resources with intensive survey of approximately 7.5 percent of the park area.

There are 3,391 ancestral sites dating to the prehistoric period recorded in the park. These sites are found in all environmental zones from the rim to the river. There are 453 historic period Native American sites recorded in the park at the present time.

Tribal Partners

Grand Canyon is home to 11 federally recognized tribes with deep history and connection to the Grand Canyon since time immemorial. Tribal governments and communities work closely with park administration and management on a host of programs. Through collaborative projects such as the Desert View Watchtower Intertribal Cultural Heritage Site, the park is working with tribes to provide accurate and culturally appropriate information to visitors. This "First Voice" programming acknowledges the rich and diverse cultural history of the Grand Canyon and celebrates the connections native people have to the Canyon. Tribal lands surrounding the park offer many unique tourism opportunities to visitors planning a trip to the Grand Canyon.

Historic Resources

National Historic Landmarks

  • 4 Individual Buildings
  • 3 Districts
  • 1 Site

National Register of Historic Places

  • 8 Buildings
  • 10 Districts
  • 2 Sites
  • 1 Structure
National Register properties include archaeological sites, historic structures, cultural landscapes, and ethnographic resources. Determinations of eligibility have been prepared by both Hopi and Zuni preservation offices identifying elements of the greater Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Bright Angel Creek, and Little Colorado River as a Traditional Cultural Property.

List of Classified Structures (LCS): 874 listings

LCS includes National Historic Landmark and National Register listed or eligible properties.


Climate in Grand Canyon National Park is relatively mild. However, low humidity generally allows large temperature differences between day and night. Since precipitation totals are low, year-to-year variations can be large. The passage of a few major storms can have a significant impact on the year’s total.

South Rim

Mean High Temperature: 67°F (19.4°C)
Mean Low Temperature: 28°F (-2.2°C)
Average Annual Precipitation: 13.01 inches (33.05 cm)
Total Precipitation in 2020: 5.88 inches (14.93 cm)

North Rim

Mean High Temperature: 57°F (13.9°C)
Mean Low Temperature: 31°F (-0.6°C)
Average Annual Precipitation: 24.48 inches (62.18 cm)
Total Precipitation in 2020: 8.79 inches (22.33 cm)

Phantom Ranch

Mean High Temperature: 82°F (27.8°C)
Mean Low Temperature: 56°F (13.3°C)
Average Annual Precipitation: 9.73 inches (24.71 cm)
Total Precipitation in 2020: 2.86 inches (7.26 cm)


2020 Visitation

Detailed park statistics are available.

Total Visitation

2016: 5,969,811
2017: 6,254,238
2018: 6,380,495
2019: 5,974,411
2020: 2,911,887

Shuttle System Passengers

1,142,098 boardings (not passengers)
The shuttle system was implemented in 1974.
Year-round shuttle service began March 10, 2000.

Backcountry User Nights

Total: 49,184
Corridor: 27,103
Other Backcountry Trails: 22,081
Backcountry permits issued: 10,786
Backcountry permits used: 6,592

Detailed backcountry use statistics are available.

Colorado River User Days

Lees Ferry to Diamond Creek

Commercial: 53,326
Noncommercial: 69,096

Diamond Creek to Pearce Ferry

Noncommercial: 9,797

Mule Trip Riders

Xanterra, South Rim

Phantom Ranch 1 night: 1,267
Phantom Ranch 2 nights: 292
Canyon Vistas: 5,735

Canyon Trail Rides, North Rim

One Hour Rim Ride: 1,029
Half Day Inner Canyon Ride: 1,909
Half Day Rim Ride: 121

Train Passengers

North-bound boardings: 83,712

2020 Visitor and Resource Protection

Law Enforcement Activities

Total Number of Criminal Cases: 797
Arrests: 45
Part I Offenses Investigated: 53
Part II Offenses Reported: 1,050
Law Enforcement Jurisdiction: Concurrent

Emergency Medical Services

Emergency Medical Service Incidents: 693
Fatalities: 13

Search and Rescue (SAR)

Incidents Total: 235

Preventive Search and Rescue (PSAR)

Total Contacts: 76,310
Preventative Actions: 12,541
Hiker Assists: 332

Structural Fire Incidents and Responses

Total: 93

Wildland Fire Incidents and Treatments

Fire Starts Incidents: 9
Acres treated with wild and prescribed fire: 4,253
Acres of defensible space treated: 21
Houses treated for FireWise standards: 11


2020 Interpretive Services and Activities

Visitor Centers and Contact Stations

Grand Canyon Visitor Center
Verkamp’s Visitor Center
Yavapai Observation Station
Tusayan Ruin and Museum
Desert View Visitor Center
North Rim Visitor Center (closed in 2020)
Kolb Studio
Indian Garden
Phantom Ranch

Interpretive Walks, Talks, and Programs

Presentations: 144 to 2,160 visitors (1/1/20-3/13/20)

Environmental Education Programs

Presentations: 236 to 6,828 participants
Junior Rangers sworn in: 13,280


Print Publications currently maintained: 50
Park Unigrids/maps distributed on South Rim: 547,200
Pocket Map and Services Guides distributed on South Rim: 775,250
All other brochures: 138,450
Pocket Map and Services Guides: Available in eight languages

Digital Media

Facebook followers: 641,532
Instagram followers: 752,932
Twitter followers: 161,046
Total page views: 17,165,776




Total: 1,181
National Park Service: 645
Concessioners: 536


Paved: 35 miles (56.3 km)
Unpaved: 560 miles (901.2 km)
Total: 595 miles (957.6 km)


Paved: 106 miles (170.6 km)
Unpaved: 148 miles (238.2 km)
Total: 254 miles (408.8 km)

Sewage Treatment Facilities

Total: 4

Trans-canyon Pipeline

Water from Roaring Springs to the North and South rims

Total: 23 miles (37 km)

Lodging Units

South Rim: 908
North Rim: 219
Phantom Ranch: 15

Rim Campsites

Mather: 317 family, 7 group, 2 hiker/biker, 2 livestock
Desert View: 50 family
North Rim: 90 family, 3 group
Tuweep: 9 family, 1 group

Recreational Vehicle Sites

Total: 123

Visitor Facilties and Services

Visitor facilities include visitor centers, museums, theaters, backcountry offices, historic structures, scenic overlooks, accessible rim trails, lodging, campgrounds, dump stations, service stations, restaurants, cocktail lounges, coffee shops, general stores, gift shops, bookstores, clinic, bank, post offices, churches, and a dog kennel. Some facilities are seasonal.

Services include educational exhibits, curriculum-based education programs, junior ranger programs, ranger programs and hikes, picnicking, bicycling, bike rentals, self-guided hikes, mule riding, backpacking, fishing, river trips, overnight lodging, camping, camper services, guided bus tours, air tours (outside of park), shuttle bus service, taxi, auto repair, publication sales, gift and grocery sales, law enforcement, medical and emergency services.


In Fiscal Year 2020, 22 concessioners grossed approximately $84.4 million and paid franchise and other fees of approximately $7.4 million.


FY 2020 Funding

Operation of the National Park System (ONPS)

ONPS Base Operating Appropriation: $22,182,227
ONPS Non-base Funding: $36,571

Special Emphasis Program Allocation (SEPAS)

FirePro Base: $1,352,523
Construction and Major Maintenance: $154,591
Repair and Rehabilitation: $426,199

Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act—80% portion

(FY-11) $13,780,061
(FY-12) $13,972,969
(FY-13) $14,775,466
(FY-14) $8,407,057 (collections reduced by LSI buy down)
(FY-15) $18,361,846
(FY-16) $15,215,281 (collections reduced by Pipeline reserve)
(FY-17) $11,739,334 (collections reduced by Pipeline reserve)
(FY-18) $16,263,449
(FY-19) $15,788,360
(FY-20) $16,411,907

10 Year Total (FY10-20) $158,083,588
Federal Lands Highway Program: $0

Income 2020

Utilities Reimbursable: $3,956,077
Quarters: $1,858,463
Concession Franchise Fees—20% Portion: $3,328,025
Filming and Location Fees: $2,975
Donations (monetary): $1,223,145.23
Transportation (Shuttle Buses): $3,125,282
Other (reimbursable, refundable, etc.): $1,110,114

National Park Service Staffing—Fiscal Year 2020

Information and distribution of all staff (Permanent, Term, and Seasonal) as of September 2020.

Superintendent’s Office: 23
Administration: 21
Science and Resource Management: 46
Concessions Management: 19
Planning, Environment, and Projects: 12
Facility Management: 112
Interpretation: 74
Visitor and Resource Protection: 159
Fire and Aviation Management: 37

Total National Park Service Staffing

(FY-16) 451
(FY-17) 382
(FY-18) 452
(FY-19) 372
(FY-20) 503

Volunteers-in-Parks (VIP) Program

Volunteer hours by category

Administration: 1,983
Campground Host: 1,407.5
Cultural Resource Management: 424.75
General: 0
Interpretation/Education: 3,699.25
Natural Resource Management: 4,527.5
Protection/Law Enforcement: 13,451.25

In-Kind Service Amount

Total volunteers in park: 405
Total hours: 26,576.25
National value of each volunteer hour: $27.20
Total in-kind services: $722,874



Coconino County-AZ
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area-AZ/UT
Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument-AZ
Jacob Lake-AZ
Lake Mead National Recreation Area-AZ
Mohave County-AZ
Vermillion Cliffs National Monument-AZ
Valley of Fire State Park-NV
Garfield County-UT
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument-UT
Kane County-UT
Washington County-UT

Partners and Stakeholders

Arizona Game and Fish Department-AZ
Arizona Strip Field Office-AZ
Flagstaff Area National Monuments-AZ
Kaibab National Forest-AZ
Pipe Spring National Monument-AZ
Bryce Canyon National Park-UT
Kanab Field Office-UT
Zion National Park-UT

11 Traditionally Associated American Indian Tribes

Havasupai Tribe-AZ
Hopi Tribe-AZ
Hualapai Tribe-AZ
Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians-AZ
Las Vegas Band of Paiute Indians-NV
Moapa Band of Paiute Indians-NV
Navajo Nation-AZ
Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah-UT
San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe-AZ
The Pueblo of Zuni-NM
Yavapai-Apache Nation-AZ

Arizona Congressional Representatives

Senator Kyrsten Sinema
Senator Mark Kelly
First District Representative Tom O’Halleran
Fourth District Representative Paul Gosar


Edward Keable

Media Contact

Public Affairs Office: 928-638-7779

Park Information


Social Media



Additional Documents

2020 Grand Canyon National Park Profile (1,734 kb PDF File)
All of the information and statistics in the Park Profile are displayed on this webpage.

2021 Superintendent's Compendium Of Designations, Closures, Use and Activity Restrictions, Permit Requirements And Other Regulations Updated August 17, 2021 (693 kb PDF file)

2021 Superintendent’s Compendium - Summary of Changes Updated August 17, 2021 (88 kb PDF file) Items included in this summary have been modified, added or deleted since the last approval on May 25, 2021.

Last updated: September 1, 2021

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

PO Box 129
Grand Canyon, AZ 86023



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