Park Statistics

A ranger stands at the rim of the canyon looking into the canyon vista


1882: First unsuccessful attempt to establish a Grand Canyon National Park

1893: Designated a "forest reserve" by President Benjamin Harrison (Presidential Proclamation #45)

1908: Established as Grand Canyon National Monument by President Theodore Roosevelt (Presidential Proclamation #794)

1919: Designated Grand Canyon National Park by an act of Congress on February 26 (40 Stat 1175)

1965: Designation of the Kaibab Plateau, including the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, as the Kaibab Squirrel National Natural Landmark by Interior Secretary Stewart L. Udall

1975: Grand Canyon National Park Enlargement Act enacted by Congress on January 3 (88 Stat 2089) (Public Law 93-620)

1979: Designated a World Heritage Site on October 26

2013: Designated as a Globally Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) by BirdLife International

2019: Designated an International Dark Sky Park (IDSP) by the International Dark-Sky Association in June after being awarded Provisional IDSP status in 2016


Grand Canyon National Park

  • Park Size:
    • 1,218,375 acres (493,059 ha)
    • 1,904 square miles (4,931 km2)
  • Length: 278 river miles (447 km)
  • Width:
    • Minimum at Marble Canyon, 600 feet (180 m)
    • Average Rim to Rim, 10 miles (16 km)
    • Maximum Rim to Rim, 18 miles (28.8 km)
  • Depth: Average, 1 mile (1.6 km)
  • Elevations:
    • South Rim 7,000 feet (2,100 m)
    • North Rim 8,000 feet (2,400 m)
  • Volume: 5.45 trillion cubic yards (4.17 trillion m3)
Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park
  • Length: 278 miles (447 km)
  • Average Width: 300 feet (90 m)
  • Minimum Width: 76 feet (23 m)
  • Average Depth: 40 feet (12 m)
  • Greatest Depth: 85 feet (25.5 m)
  • Average Gradient: 7 feet per mile (1.3 m/km)
  • Elevation at Phantom Ranch: 2,400 feet (720 m)
The Colorado River is 1,450 miles (2,333 km) long from its source in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to the Gulf of California.


Grand Canyon National Park preserves an iconic geologic landscape and resources ranging from 1.8 billion (PreCambrian) year-old igneous and metamorphic rocks to 230 million (Triassic)-year-old sedimentary rocks, 5 million (Pliocene)-year old to recent volcanic deposits, a complex tectonic and erosional history, and unconsolidated surface deposits.

The Colorado River established its course through the canyon approximately 6 million years ago and likely evolved from pre-existing drainages to its current course. Geologic processes, including erosion of tributaries and slopes, and active tectonics continue to shape the canyon today. The geologic record in Grand Canyon is an important scientific chronicle and is largely responsible for its inspirational scenery.

Palentology resources include nearly 300 diverse and globally significant fossil localities ranging from 1.2-billion-year-old stromatolites to Paleozoic trilobites, plants, reptile tracks, and marine invertebrates, and Pleistocene megafauna in caves.

Learn more about geology in Grand Canyon.

Natural Resources


  • Birds: 450 species
  • Mammals: 91 species
  • Fish: 18 species, 5 native
  • Reptiles and Amphibians: 58 species
  • Invertebrates: 1,443 species, including 292 butterflies and moths
  • Exotic (non-native) animals: 30 species
  • Range expanding species (not native to the park but to the region, naturally expanding into the park): Mammals: coatimundi, hog nosed skunk, javleina, elk (North Rim); Birds: California Quail, Zone Tailed hawk
  • Park Endemic animals, not extirpated: 17 species; 1 mammal, 1 snake, 5 butterflies, 1 pseudoscorpion, and 1 tarantula
  • Regionally Endemic animals, not extirpated: 5 species; One reptile (Grand Canyon Rattlesnake) and three mammals (Kaibab squirrel, and the Navajo Mexican vole) are known only from the Grand Canyon region. At least nine species of insects are endemic to Grand Canyon, and six fish species (humpback chub, razorback sucker, flannelmouth sucker) are endemic to the Colorado River basin.
  • Federally Endangered and Threatened Species: California condor, humpback chub, razorback sucker, Southwestern Willow Flycatcher, Ridgway's rail, Mexican Spotted Owl, yellow-billed cuckoo, and desert tortoise.
  • Extirpated Species: Grizzly bear, black-footed ferret, gray wolf, jaguar, Bear Valley sandwort, Colorado Pikeminnow, bonytail, roundtail chub, and southwestern river otter.


  • Vascular Plants: 1,737 species
  • Endemic Plants: 10 species
  • Exotic (non-native) Plants: 208 species
  • Fungi: 167 species
  • Moss: 64 species
  • Lichen: 195 species
  • Vegetation Communities: 129
  • Federally Endangered and Threatened Species: Sentry milk-vetch (Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax).

    An additional nine species of special concern are known, and 25 additional vascular plants are of management concern due to their limited distribution.
  • Six Vegetation Formation Types: riparian, desert scrub, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, spruce-fir forest, and montane meadows/sub-alpine

Cultural Resources

Human History

The oldest human artifacts found date to the Paleoindian period and are nearly 12,000 years old. Since that time, various cultures have continually used and occupied lands that became the park. Archaeological evidence from the following prehistoric culture groups is found in Grand Canyon National Park: Paleoindian, Archaic, Basketmaker, Ancestral Puebloan (Kayenta and Virgin branches), Cohonina, Cerbat, Pai, and Southern Paiute. Historical-period cultural groups include the Hopi, Navajo, Pai, Southern Paiute, Zuni, and Euro-American.

There are currently 3,391 ancestral sites documented within the park dating to the prehistoric period, representing approximately 7.5% of park lands inventoried. In addition, park records document evidence of historic period use from 1540-1950, including 453 locations with evidence of historic Native American use.

Tribal Partners

Grand Canyon is home to 11 federally recognized tribes with deep history and connection to the Grand Canyon since time immemorial. Tribal governments and communities work closely with park administration and management on a host of programs. Through collaborative projects such as the Desert View Watchtower Intertribal Cultural Heritage Site, the park is working with tribes to provide accurate and culturally appropriate information to visitors. This “First Voice” programming acknowledges the rich and diverse cultural history of the Grand Canyon and celebrates the connections native people have to the Canyon. Tribal lands surrounding the park offer many unique tourism opportunities to visitors planning a trip to the Grand Canyon.

Historic Resources

National Historic Landmarks

  • 4 Individual Buildings
  • 3 Districts
  • 1 Site

National Register of Historic Places

  • 8 Buildings
  • 10 Districts
  • 2 Sites
  • 1 Structure
National Register properties include archaeological sites, historic structures, cultural landscapes, and ethnographic resources. The park is working with the University of Arizona and tribes to prepare a nomination for the Grand Canyon as a Traditional Cultural Place. The work will be completed in 2022.

List of Classified Structures (LCS): 874 listings

LCS includes National Historic Landmark and National Register listed or eligible properties

Cultural Landscapes: 16



Climate in Grand Canyon National Park is relatively mild. However, low humidity generally allows large temperature differences between day and night. Since precipitation totals are low, year-to-year variations can be large. The passage of a few major storms can have a significant impact on the year’s total.

South Rim

Mean High Temperature (30 year average): 64°F (17.8°C)
Mean Low Temperature (30 year average): 29.5°F (-1.4°C)
Average Annual Precipitation (30 year average): 13.4 inches (34.0 cm)
Total Precipitation in 2023: 14.77 inches (37.5 cm) (3 days of missing data)

North Rim

Mean High Temperature (30 year average): 55°F (12.8°C)
Mean Low Temperature (30 year average): 31.7°F (-0.2°C)
Average Annual Precipitation (30 year average): 24.2 inches (61.5 cm)
Total Precipitation in 2023: 36.75 inches (93.3 cm) (23 days of missing data)

Phantom Ranch

Mean High Temperature (30 year average): 81°F (27.2°C)
Mean Low Temperature (30 year average): 54.2°F (12.3°C)
Average Annual Precipitation (30 year average): 9.6 inches (24 cm)
Total Precipitation in 2023: 11.31 inches (28.7 cm) (5 days of missing data)


2023 Visitation

Detailed park statistics are available.

Total Visitation

2019: 5,974,411
2020: 2,911,887
2021: 4,550,921
2022: 4,732,101
2023: 4,733,705

Shuttle System Passengers

4,745,966 boardings (not passengers)
The shuttle system was implemented in 1974.
Year-round shuttle service began March 10, 2000.

Backpacking User Nights

Total: 72,915
Corridor: 42,217
Other Backcountry Trails: 30,637
Backcountry permits issued: 10,303
Backcountry permits used: 10,242

Colorado River User Days

Lees Ferry to Diamond Creek

Commercial: 109,493
Noncommercial: 108,492

Diamond Creek to Pearce Ferry

Noncommercial: 12,587

Mule Trip Riders

Xanterra, South Rim

Phantom Ranch 1 night: 628
Phantom Ranch 2 nights: 34
Canyon Vistas: 9,472

Canyon Trail Rides, North Rim

One Hour Rim Ride: 2,208
Half Day Inner Canyon Ride: 2,510
Half Day Rim Ride: 607

Train Passengers

North-bound boardings: 187,901

2023 Visitor and Resource Protection

Law Enforcement Activities

Total Number of Criminal Cases: 3,146
Arrests: 61
Part I Offenses Investigated: 446
Part II Offenses Reported: 2,675
Law Enforcement Jurisdiction: Concurrent

Emergency Medical Services

Emergency Medical Service Incidents: 1,083
Fatalities: 10

Search and Rescue (SAR)

Incidents Total: 302

Preventive Search and Rescue (PSAR)

Total Contacts: 142,370
Preventive Actions: 27,184
Hiker Assists: 455

Structural Fire Incidents and Responses

Total Incidents: 156

Wildland Fire Incidents and Treatments

Fire Starts Incidents: 10 South Rim, 8 North Rim
Acres treated with wild and prescribed fire: 912 acres South Rim, 1,920 acres North Rim
Acres of defensible space treated: 187


2023 Interpretive Services and Activities

Visitor Centers and Contact Stations

Grand Canyon Visitor Center
Verkamp’s Visitor Center
Yavapai Observation Station
Desert View Visitor Center
North Rim Visitor Center
Kolb Studio
Havasupai Gardens
Phantom Ranch

Interpretive Walks, Talks, and Programs

Presentations: 1100 programs reaching 28,137 contacts

Environmental Education Programs

  • Field Trips: 44 programs to 1,521 participants
  • Distance Learning: 156 programs to 6,405 participants
  • Classroom: 14 programs to 345 participants

Digital and Social Media

Facebook followers: 786,243
Instagram followers: 866,000
Twitter followers: 287,533
Total page views: 14,266,129




Total: 1,182
National Park Service: 647
Concessioners: 535


Paved: 35 miles (56.3 km)
Unpaved: 560 miles (901.2 km)
Total: 595 miles (957.6 km)


Paved: 124 miles (199.6 km)
Unpaved: 148 miles (238.2 km)
Total: 272 miles (437.7 km)

Sewage Treatment Facilities

Total: 4

Trans-canyon Pipeline

Water from Roaring Springs to the North and South rims

Total: 23 miles (37 km)

Lodging Units

South Rim: 908
North Rim: 219
Phantom Ranch: 15

Rim Campsites

Mather: 317 family, 7 group, 2 hiker/biker, 2 livestock
Desert View: 50 family
North Rim: 90 family, 3 group
Tuweep: 9 family, 1 group

Recreational Vehicle Sites

Total: 123

Visitor Facilties and Services

Visitor facilities include visitor centers, museums, theaters, backcountry offices, historic structures, scenic overlooks, accessible rim trails, lodging, campgrounds, dump stations, service stations, restaurants, cocktail lounges, coffee shops, general stores, gift shops, bookstores, clinic, bank, post offices, churches, and a dog kennel. Some facilities are seasonal.

Services include educational exhibits, curriculum-based education programs, junior ranger programs, ranger programs and hikes, picnicking, bicycling, bike rentals, self-guided hikes, mule riding, backpacking, fishing, river trips, overnight lodging, camping, camper services, guided bus tours, air tours (outside of park), shuttle bus service, taxi, auto repair, publication sales, gift and grocery sales, law enforcement, medical and emergency services.


In Fiscal Year 2023, 21 concessioners grossed approximately $203 million and paid franchise and other fees of approximately $19 million.


FY 2023 Funding

Operation of the National Park System (ONPS)

ONPS Base Operating Appropriation: $24,626,151.00
ONPS Non-base Funding: $670,900.00 (Includes funding for NR Landslide and Pipeline Repair)

Special Emphasis Program Allocation (SEPAS)
Repair and Rehabilitation: $1,631,638.69

Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act—80% portion

(FY-13) $14,775,466
(FY-14) $8,407,057 (collections reduced by LSI buy down)
(FY-15) $18,361,846
(FY-16) $15,215,281 (collections reduced by Pipeline reserve)
(FY-17) $11,739,334 (collections reduced by Pipeline reserve)
(FY-18) $16,263,449
(FY-19) $15,788,360
(FY-20) $16,411,907
(FY-21) $15,021,494
(FY-22) $19,027,587
(FY-23) $19,372,707

Income 2023

Utilities Reimbursable: $4,859,425
Quarters: $2,466,675
Concession Franchise Fees—20% Portion: $3,772,285
Filming and Location Fees: $13,015
Donations (monetary): $407,470
Transportation (Shuttle Buses): $5,200,100
Cost Recovery: $2,012,880.43
Other (reimbursable, refundable, etc.): $1,229,725

National Park Service Staffing—Fiscal Year 2023

Information and distribution of all staff (Permanent, Term, and Seasonal).

Superintendent’s Office: 18
Administration: 35
Science and Resource Management: 39
Commercial Services: 12
Planning, Environment, and Projects: 25
Facility Management: 116
Interpretation: 33
Visitor and Resource Protection: 125
Fire and Aviation Management: 21

Total National Park Service Staffing

(FY-19) 372
(FY-20) 503
(FY-21) 584
(FY-22) 407
(FY-23) 424

Volunteers-in-Parks (VIP) Program

Volunteer hours by category

Administration: 302.5
Campground Host: 7,583.25
Cultural Resource Management: 603.25
Interpretation/Education: 8,252.75
Maintenance: 1,552.25
Natural Resource Management: 2,279.75
Protection/Law Enforcement: 12,941.75

In-Kind Service Amount

Total volunteers in park: 507
Total hours: 33,516
National value of each volunteer hour: $31.80
Total in-kind services: $1,065,792.90


Gateway Communities & Counties

Flagstaff, AZ
Fredonia, AZ
Jacob Lake, AZ
Kanab, UT
Tusayan, AZ
Williams, AZ
Coconino County, AZ
Garfield County, UT
Kane County, UT
Mohave County, AZ
Washington County, UT

State and Federal Partners

Arizona Game and Fish Department, AZ
Bryce Canyon National Park, UT
Bureau of Land Management, AZ/UT
Bureau of Reclamation
Flagstaff Area National Monuments, AZ
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, UT/AZ
Grand Canyon Parashant National Monument, AZ
Kaibab National Forest, AZ
Lake Mead National Recreation Area, AZ
Pipe Spring National Monument, AZ
U.S. Geological Survey
Vermilion Cliffs National Monument, AZ
Zion National Park, UT

Philanthropic & Community Partners

Grand Canyon Conservancy
National Park Foundation
Arizona Trail Association
Grand Canyon River Guides
Grand Canyon Music Festival

11 Traditionally Associated American Indian Tribes

Havasupai Tribe-AZ
Hopi Tribe-AZ
Hualapai Tribe-AZ
Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians-AZ
Las Vegas Band of Paiute Indians-NV
Moapa Band of Paiute Indians-NV
Navajo Nation-AZ
Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah-UT
San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe-AZ
The Pueblo of Zuni-NM
Yavapai-Apache Nation-AZ

Arizona Congressional Representatives

Senator Kyrsten Sinema
Senator Mark Kelly
District 2 Representative, Elijah Crane
District 9 Representative, Paul Gosar


Edward Keable

Media Contact

Public Affairs Office: 928-638-7779

Park Information


Social Media



Additional Documents

2023 Grand Canyon National Park Profile (4.0 MB PDF File)
All of the information and statistics in the Park Profile are displayed on this webpage.

Superintendent's Compendium Of Designations, Closures, Use and Activity Restrictions, Permit Requirements And Other Regulations (11/30/2023 - 538 kb PDF file)

Superintendent’s Compendium - Summary of Changes (11/30/2023 - 195 kb PDF file) Items included in this summary have been modified, added or deleted since the last approval on 12/19/2022.

Last updated: March 7, 2024

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Contact Info

Mailing Address:

PO Box 129
Grand Canyon, AZ 86023



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