- Have an adult prepare the plastic water bottle so it can be used as a funnel. To do this, carefully cut the bottom off (as close to the end as possible) and carefully cut the top off until the opening size is about 1.3 inches in diameter.
- Measure out at least one cup of the largest type of candy you want to test. The more candy you use, the better your results will be. Exactly how much candy did you measure out? Write this down on a piece of paper.
- Take the bottle you cut and flip it upside down. Have a helper hold the cut bottle, which you will use as a funnel, over a bowl and block the 1.3 inch-wide opening (which should now be at the bottom) with their hand. Pour the measured candy into the top and make sure none leaks out the bottom.
- Get the stopwatch ready and then have the helper quickly remove their hand and gently shake the funnel. Time how long it takes all of the material to go through the funnel and into the bowl below it.
- Write the time it took down on your piece of paper.
- Tip: If the material jams the funnel, have an adult make the opening a little larger and try it with the same candy again. Also be sure the helper is gently shaking the funnel the entire time you are timing.
- Calculate the volumetric flow rate of the candy. To do this, divide the volume of the candy by the time it took to flow through the funnel. For example, if you used one cup of candy coated chocolates and it took two seconds to flow through the funnel, the volumetric flow rate would be 0.5 cups per second.
Citation: Science Buddies Staff. "Making A Candy Waterfall: Can Solids Flow Like Liquids?" Science Buddies
, 20 Nov. 2020, https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Phys_p091/physics/candy-waterfall-solids-flow.