Nature & Science


Located in Washington, Iron, and Kane Counties in southwestern Utah, Zion National Park encompasses some of the most scenic canyon country in the United States. Within its 232 square miles are high plateaus, a maze of narrow, deep, sandstone canyons, and the Virgin River and its tributaries. Zion also has 2,000-foot Navajo Sandstone cliffs, pine- and juniper-clad slopes, and seeps, springs, and waterfalls supporting lush and colorful hanging gardens.

With an elevation change of about 5,000 feet-from the highest point at Horse Ranch Mountain (at 8,726 feet) to the lowest point at Coal Pits Wash (at 3,666 feet), Zion's diverse topography leads to a diversity of habitats and species. Desert, riparian (river bank), pinyon-juniper, and conifer woodland communities all contribute to Zion's diversity. Neighboring ecosystems-the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin, and the Rocky Mountains-are also contributors to Zion's abundance.

Learn more about the natural features and ecosystems of Zion...

Utah Daisy
Utah Daisy

The park has more than 1,000 species of plants ranging from tall, graceful cottonwoods growing along the river to towering pines and firs shading the higher elevations. Prickly pears, cholla, and yucca are among Zion's desert-adapted plants. The hanging gardens support brilliantly-colored Zion shooting-stars, scarlet monkeyflowers, and Western and golden columbines.

Zion's plant communities, in turn, provide food, shelter, and nesting places for Zion's diverse wildlife. There are approximately 78 species of mammals, 30 species of reptiles, 7 species of amphibians, 8 species of fish, and 291 species of birds. Endangered California condors soar above the cliffs of Zion; threatened Mexican spotted owls--Zion has the highest density of these owls breeding in the state--live and raise their young in Zion's narrow canyons.

Learn more about the animals of Zion...

Petrified Log and West Temple
Petrified Forest in the Southwest Desert
The geologic formations of Zion--formed over approximately 250 million years--record periods of time when this area was covered by a shallow sea; when huge, sluggish rivers, bordered by swamplands, meandered across the landscape; and when a vast desert--perhaps the largest on the planet--covered the region. The sand dunes of this desert are now Zion's famous sculpted and colorful 2,000 foot cliffs.

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tiny fish in dipnet
Native Virgin spinedace being relocated

NPS photo

The natural and cultural resources within Zion National Park are studied and managed by the Resource Management and Research Division of the park.

Learn more about the recent research and activities of the Resource Management Division...

Last updated: October 3, 2018

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

Zion National Park
1 Zion Park Blvd.
State Route 9

Springdale, UT 84767


Recorded park information available 24 hours a day. Phones are answered 9 am to 4 pm Mountain Daylight Time. You can also send your questions to us at

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