- Cementation: The process by which clastic sediments become lithified or consolidated into hard, compact rocks, usually through deposition or precipitation of minerals in the spaces among the individual grains of the sediment.
- Compaction: The process of consolidating fine-grained sediments into rock.
- Lithification: The conversion of loose sediment into solid sedimentary rock. Several processes, including compaction of grains, filling of spaces between grains with mineral cement, and crystallization act to solidify sediment.
Biologic Sedimentary Rock
Biologic sedimentary rocks form when living organisms die, pile up, and are then compressed and cemented together. Types of biologic sedimentary rock include coal (accumulated plant material that is carbon-rich), or limestone and coquina (rocks made of marine organisms). Excellent examples of biologic sedimentary rock in national parks can be found at Biscayne Bay National Park and Guadalupe Mountains National Park.