Rock Outcrops

Rocks covered in lichen overlooking a valley.
Lichen-covered quartzite at Blackrock (South District)

Gary Fleming/ VA DCR DNH

The rock outcrops of Shenandoah National Park are some of the largest in the region and contain many significant vegetation communities and rare plant and animal populations. Rock outcrops are defined as visible exposures of bedrock or other geologic formations at the surface of the Earth. Rock outcrops take many different forms within the Park, ranging from the massive granite boulders of Old Rag Mountain, to the sheer cliffs of Little Stony Man, and the jumbled boulder fields of Blackrock. Many of the Park's outcrops are popular visitor destinations due to the dramatic scenery and open vistas they provide.
Three images of plants found on rock outcrops.
Three-toothed cinquefoil, Appalachian fir clubmoss, Mountain sandwort,


Rock outcrops represent a mere 2% of the Park's total area, but they are home to numerous rare plants and animals, many of which are found only in rock outcrop environments. Twenty-one state rare plant species are known to exist on Park outcrops, including plants such as mountain sandwort (Minuartia groenlandica), Appalachian fir clubmoss (Huperzia appalachiana), and three-toothed cinquefoil (Sibbaldia tridentata). Limited surveys of lichens on Park rock outcrops have documented 90 species, one of which was new to North America.
A rocky slope covered in vegetation.
High elevation Greenstone Barren at Hawksbill

Gary Fleming / VA DCR DNH

Nine globally rare plant communities occur at the Park's outcrops. Two of these communities, the High-Elevation Greenstone Barren and the Central Appalachian Mafic Boulderfield, are found nowhere else in the world. The High-Elevation Greenstone Barren plant community at Hawksbill and Stony Man is extremely rare, with all known occurrences collectively covering less than 10 acres. Other rock outcrop plant communities are also very rare and have limited distributions. One example of this is the High-Elevation Outcrop Barren from Bearfence Mountain and Loft Mountain, where the Park harbors over half of the known occurrences of the community.
A Peregrine falcon on a branch.
Peregrine Falcon


The presence of the federally endangered Shenandoah salamander (Plethododon shenandoah) and the state threatened Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) has been confirmed at several rock outcrop sites within the Park. Zoological inventory work also discovered 10 new rare animal populations, including the state rare small footed bat (Myotis lebii). Surveys also found over 700 species of invertebrates at rock outcrops, seven of which are rare in the state of Virginia.
A flat area on a rock outcrop covered in vegetation. A flat area on a rock outcrop covered in vegetation.

Left image
Minor impacts due to human use.
Credit: Gary Fleming / VA DCR DNH

Right image
Severe impacts from human use.
Credit: Gary Fleming / VA DCR DNH


Rock Outcrop Management Plan

Intense human impacts in the form of social trails, campsites, rock graffiti, trash has led to severe degredation of vegetation and soils at some cliff sites as well as impacts to rare plant and animal species and communities. An assessment of human use and impact at fifty of the Park's outcrops found that 40% of sites exhibited moderate to severe human impacts. The majority of impacts to rock outcrop natural resources were from day use activities including hiking and vista viewing. Two sites, Little Stony Man and Old Rag Mountain, have areas of impact caused by rock climbing activities.

In order to balance the long term health of sensitive natural resources with visitor use, the Park has implemented a Rock Outcrop Management Plan (ROMP) and instituted limited closures at select locations around Mount Marshall, Overall Run, Marys Rock, Little Stony Man, Hawksbill, and Old Rag. Learn more about these closures and rock outcrop management.

People recreating on a rock outcrop overlooking a valley below.
Rock Outcrop Management

Learn how the Park studies and manages rock outcrops and the closures that are in effect to protect these fragile places for the future.

Last updated: March 4, 2024

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Mailing Address:

Shenandoah National Park
3655 U.S. Highway 211 East

Luray, VA 22835


540 999-3500
Emergency Phone: 1-800-732-0911

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