National Park Service: American Latino Heritage Projects explore how the legacy of American Latinos can be recognized, preserved, and interpreted for future generations. The National Park Service, as a storyteller of our Nation's past, is committed to connecting and amplifying American Latino stories throughout national parks and communities across the United States. This website highlights projects undertaken by National Park Service parks and programs as part of the Service's commitment to telling the American Latino story.
Mission 2000 Searchable images, or Mission 2000 Searchable Spanish Mission database records: Original, primary source text from mission records have been translated and digitized into a searchable database. Trace a person's life events, family members, occupation, and tribe.
American Latinos and the Making of the United States: A Theme Study is a publication of the National Park System Advisory Board for the National Park Service. Who is this theme study for? It's for students and teachers, for researchers, for preservation professionals, for local, state and federal government officials, and for the general public.
Archeology Program The Cultural Resources Office of Outreach and Diversity is located within Cultural Resources, Partnerships and Science, which includes historic preservation programs and applied research in archeology, history, cultural anthropology, cultural landscapes, historic structures, and museum collections. This office is dedicated to diversifying the cultural resources and historic preservation field through new programs and approaches.
The National Park Service's Cultural Resources Programs are dedicated to preserving history, education, and grants. Find out about the programs and the services they provide, and much more, by going to the Discover History home. History is everywhere, in more than 400 national parks and every hometown. It covers everything from the remnants of ancient civilizations
to the boyhood homes of U.S. Presidents
to the stirring sagas of hard-fought wars
to the reverberations of one woman refusing to give up her seat
on a bus. History is a part of who we were, who we are, and who we will be.
Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Series
The National Park Service's travel itineraries include many interesting and exciting historic destinations to visit online and in person. Each itinerary spotlights a different geographic region, theme, or community, and provides a wealth of information. The travel itineraries include a huge variety of places significant in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture, most of which are listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Heritage Documentation Programs in the American Memory: Built in America
The National Park Service Heritage Documentation Programs include HABS (Historic American Buildings Survey), the Federal Government's oldest operating preservation program, and companion programs, HAER (Historic American Engineering Record) and HALS (Historic American Landscapes Survey). Drawings, maps, photographs, and historical reports produced through the programs and archived at the Library of Congress constitute the nation's largest collection of historical architectural, engineering, and landscape documentation.
National Historic Landmarks
National Historic Landmarks are nationally significant historic places designated by the Secretary of the Interior because they possess exceptional value in interpreting the heritage of the United States. Today, just a few more than 2,500 historic places bear this national distinction. The National Park Service administers the National Historic Landmarks Program. National Heritage Areas Program
National Heritage Areas (NHAs) are designated by Congress as places where natural, cultural, and historic resources combine to form a cohesive, nationally important landscape. Through their resources, NHAs tell nationally important stories that celebrate our nation's diverse heritage. NHAs are lived-in landscapes. Consequently, NHA entities collaborate with communities to determine how to make heritage relevant to local interests and needs.
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the nation's official inventory of historic places worthy of preservation. Districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects significant in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture are included in the National Register, which is expanded and maintained by the National Park Service. The National Register website is the gateway to information on authentic registered historic places, the benefits of recognition, and how to become involved in identifying, nominating to the National Register, and protecting these irreplaceable reminders of our heritage. The National Register publications
are online. Among them are brochures in both English and Spanish.
National Trails System
Office of International Affairs
The National Historic Trails System is the network of scenic, historic, and recreation trails created by the National Trails System Act of 1968.
These trails provide for outdoor recreation needs, promote the enjoyment, appreciation, and preservation of open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources, and encourage public access and citizen involvement.
The National Park Service has an Office of International Affairs that works to facilitate cooperation between the U.S. National Park Service and counterpart agencies around the globe. In celebration of the 40th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention, the National Park Service has produced a short film on all the World Heritage Sites in the U.S. Please click here
to view this video.
Office of Sustainable Tourism
National Parks have been interwoven with tourism from their earliest days. This website highlights the ways in which the National Park Service promotes and supports sustainable, responsible, informed and managed visitor use through cooperation and coordination with the tourism industry.
Park History Program
The Park History Program preserves and protects our nation's cultural and natural resources by conducting research on national parks, national historic landmarks, park planning and special history studies, oral histories, and interpretive and management plans.
Teaching with Historic Places
Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) is a National Park Service program that uses properties listed in the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places
to enliven history, social studies, geography, civics, and other subjects. TwHP has created a variety of products and activities that help teachers bring historic places into the classroom. The website for the Teaching with Historic Places Program contains a wealth of information for educators and students that can be used in the classroom and beyond. It offers a series of more than 140 online classroom-ready place-based lesson plans created by historians and educators. Each lesson is linked to national and State standards for history and social studies. Lesson plans are indexed in several ways. The thematic index identifies the lesson plans that relate to Hispanic topics. Two of these lessons are available in Spanish, as well as in English.
Other Relevant Websites
American Memory at the Library of Congress
Search this website for documents, photographs, and other materials relating to America's diverse population.
American Scenic Byways
This website, maintained by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, includes information on State and nationally designated byway routes throughout America based on their archeological, cultural, historic, natural, recreational and scenic qualities.
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service administer this trail jointly. Visit the BLM website
dedicated to El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.
CARTA: El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Association
CARTA facilitates goodwill, cooperation, and understanding among communities, and promotes the education, conservation, and protection of the multicultural and multiethnic history and traditions associated with the living trail, El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro.
El Camino Real Historic Trail Site
Step back in time and join us on a journey along the historic El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the Royal Road of the Interior Lands. This 1500-mile historic trade route that extends from Mexico City to San Juan Pueblo/Ohkay Owingeh, is one of the oldest trails in the United States, and for more than a century, one of the longest. Designated a national historic trail in 1993, it is one of New Mexico's most important cultural artifacts.
El Rancho de las Golondrinas
El Rancho de las Golondrinas is a living history museum located on 200 acres in a rural farming valley just south of Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Historic Hotels of America
A feature of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Heritage Traveler program that provides information on historic hotels and package tours in the vicinity of sites included in this itinerary.
National Archives and Records Administration
Search the National Archives website for primary documents.
National Park Foundation
The National Park Foundation, in partnership with the National Park Service, enriches America's national parks and programs through private support, safeguarding our heritage and inspiring generations of national park enthusiasts.
National Trust for Historic Preservation
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a United States Congress-chartered non-profit membership organization that works to save America's historic places. Chartered by Congress in 1949, the organization is now supported entirely by private contributions. In the word of the National Trust, "We take direct on-the-ground action when historic buildings and sites are threatened. Our work helps build vibrant, sustainable communities. We advocate with governments to save America's heritage. We strive to create a cultural legacy as diverse as the nation itself so that all of us can take pride in our part of the American story."
Anderson, Gary Clayton. The Indian Southwest 1580-1830. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.
Bolton, Herbert Eugene. Texas in the Middle Eighteenth Century: Studies in Spanish Colonial History and Administration. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1970.
Carter, William B. Indian Alliances and the Spanish in the Southwest, 750-1750. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009.
Chipman, D.E., and H.D. Joseph. Spanish Texas, 1519–1821: Revised Edition. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.
Dunmire, William W. Gardens of New Spain: How Mediterranean Plants and Foods Changed America. 1st ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004.
Early, J. Presidio, Mission, and Pueblo: Spanish Architecture and Urbanism in the United States. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 2004.
Eckhart, George Boland. "Spanish Missions of Texas, 1680-1800," in Kiva, vol. 32, no. 3, Feb. 1967, pp. 1-28.
Eckhart, George B, and Griffith, James S. Temples in the Wilderness. Tucson: Arizona Historical Society, 1975.
Engelhardt, Fr. Zephyrin, The Franciscans in Arizona. Harbor Springs, MI, Holy Childhood Indian School, 1899.
Fisher, Lewis F. The Spanish Missions of San Antonio. San Antonio: Maverick Pub. Co, 1998.
Forrest, Earle R. Missions and pueblos of the Old Southwest. Glorieta: The Rio Grande Press Inc., 1929, reprint 1979.
Garate, Don, and Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail. Tucson: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1994.
Gerhard, Peter, The North Frontier of New Spain.
Princeton:Princeton University Press, 1982.
Giffords, Gloria Frasier. Sanctuaries of Earth, Stone, and Light: The Churches of Northern New Spain
. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2007.
Ed. Jackson, Robert H., Spanish Borderlands Sourcebooks: The Spanish Missions of Baja California. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1991
Joyner, Brian D. Hispanic Reflections on the American Landscape: Identifying and Interpreting Hispanic Heritage / Reflejos hispanos en el paisaje americano: identificación e interpretación de la Herencia Hispana
. U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. Washington, DC: 2009. Also available online in Spanish and English.
Kessell, J.L. Kiva, Cross &Crown: The Pecos Indians and New Mexico, 1540-1840
. 2nd ed. Tucson: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1995.
———. Spain in the Southwest: A Narrative History of Colonial New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002.
———. Miera y Pacheco: a Renaissance Spaniard in Eighteenth-century New Mexico. First edition. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.
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Kimbro, Edna, et al. The California missions: history, art, and preservation. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 2009.
Kubler, George. Religious architecture of New Mexico. Chicago: Rio Grande Press, 1962.
Lutrell, Estelle. The Mission of San Xavier del Bac: An Historical Guide
. Tucson: F.E.A. Kimball, 1922.
Lux, Annie, and Daniel Nadelbach. Historic New Mexico Churches
. Layton: Gibbs Smith, 2007.
Matovina, Timothy M. The Alamo Remembered: Tejano Accounts and Perspectives
. San Antonio: University of Texas Press, 1995.
Messina, John."San Xavier del Bac" in Cross-Cultural Vernacular Landscapes of Southern Arizona.Minneapolis:Vernacular Architecture Forum, 2005, pp. 109-116.
Minge, Ward A. Ácoma: Pueblo in the Sky. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991.
Morgan, Richard Jr., A Guide to Historic Missions and Churches of the Arizona-Sonora Borderlands,
Tucson: Adventures in Education Inc., 1995
Morrow, B.H. A Harvest of Reluctant Souls: Fray Alonso de Benavides's History of New Mexico, 1630
. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2012.
Murphy, Daniel O. Salinas Pueblo Missions –Abo, Quarai, and Gran Quivira
. Arizona: Western National Parks Association, 1993.
Nelson, George S. The Alamo: An Illustrated History
. 1st ed. Dry Frio Canyon: Aldine Press, 1998.
Officer, James. Hispanic Arizona, 1536-1856. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1989.
Roca, Paul M., Spanish Jesuit Churches in Mexico's Tarahumara. Tucson:University of Arizona Press, 1979.
Pickens, Buford, ed. The missions of northern Sonora: a 1935 field documentation. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993.
Quirarte, Jacinto. The Art and Architecture of the Texas Missions. 1st ed. Jack and Doris Smothers Series in Texas History, Life, and Culture no. 6. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.
Roberts, David. The Pueblo Revolt: The Secret Rebellion That Drove the Spaniards Out of the Southwest. New York: Simon &Schuster, 2004.
Roca, Paul M., Paths of the Padres Through Sonora. Tucson: Arizona Pioneer's Historical Society, 1967.
Sánchez, Joseph P. Comparative Colonialism, the Spanish Black Legend, and Spain's Legacy in the United States: Perspectives on American Latino Heritage and Our Story. Spanish Colonial Research Center, National Park Service, 2013.
Sánchez, J.P., R.L. Spude, and A. Gómez. New Mexico: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.
Sando, Joe S., and Herman Agoyo. Po'pay: Leader of the First American Revolution. Clear Light Publishers, 2005.
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Sheridan, Thomas E. Landscapes of Fraud: Mission Tumacácori, the Baca Float, and the Betrayal of the O'odham. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2007.
Sheridan, Thomas E. Arizona: A History. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1995.
Spicer, Edward. Cycles of Conquest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1962.
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The Missions of Northern Sonora: a 1935 Field Documentation. The Southwest Center Series. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1993.
Torres, Luis. San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. Tucson: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1992.
Zavala, Adina &Richard R. Flores. History and Legends of the Alamo and Other Missions in and Around San Antonio. Texas: Arte Publico Press, 1997.
(Spanish, from Arabic) Most commonly used to refer to large, molded, and sun-dried blocks of clayey mud and water, sometimes also incorporating a binder such as manure or straw;also used for the mud mixture itself when used as mortar or for building walls, as in puddled adobe, which is set in "puddles" and left to dry, eventually building up to form a wall—in contrast to adobe masonry which uses blocks set in mortar and is often covered by a mud plaster made water resistant through the addition of caliche, a naturally occurring calcium deposit found in local soil, or lime.
Ak chin farming
Farming made possible by the diversion of water from canyon mouths onto cultivated fields that is a strategy that is particularly effective for cultivation in arid environments and was practiced throughout the Southwest in both the prehistoric and historic periods.
Franciscan institutions established to receive and train priests for service in the missions. Examples Colegio Apostólico de Santa Cruz de Querétaro, founded in 1683, and Colegio de Nuestra Señora de Guadelupe de Zacatecas founded in 1707, both in Mexico.
The apse is the semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or aisles of a church. In relation to church architecture it is generally the name given to where the altar is placed or where the clergy are seated.
(Spanish) A desert wash, dry except after rainfall, when it can become a torrential river.
(Spanish) A walled forecourt before a church.
also known as a macho in Spanish) An architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall used to support and reinforce by directing the weight of the wall to the base of the structure. Adobe buttresses were used at Abo and San Agustin de Isleta in New Mexico.
(Spanish) A primary mission complex where a priest would reside most of the time.
(Spanish) A wall with openings to hold bells, the campanario was unique to Spain and Mexico. It was either freestanding or incorporated into the mission buildings, and an excellent example can still be seen today at Mission San Juan Capistrano.
(Spanish) Probably the most well-known mission bell support, was a large tower which held one or more bells;these were usually domed structures. Good examples of campaniles can be seen today at Mission San Xavier and San Estevan de Acoma.
Spanish) A channel used to drain water from adobe roofs;it projects through the parapet of the roof and often has a flared opening with ornamental pieces perpendicular to the opening.
A cluster of connected buildings. Most missions were built as a quadrangle including a church, padre's quarters and workshops, native quarters, warehouses and other buildings.It housed workshops for crafts and served as the center of daily mission life.
(Spanish)A residence for clergy serving a mission church and a residence for visitors, often shaped in rectangle of rooms that surrounded a central courtyard and formed the mission quadrangle.
An architectural element, either wood or stone, protruding from a wall and used to support beams, rafters and occasionally, arches.
Central patio of mission quadrangle that served as an activity and living area for the mission and was often surrounded by the convento, also called a garth.
Ornamental false fronts that made the buildings appear more imposing than they truly were.Espadañas hid the flat, low roofline.
Gente de Razon
(Spanish) Literally, educated people. A phrase used to characterize those who followed Spanish customs. Used to designate non-Indians.
(Spanish) A large estate;also the main dwelling of such an estate.
(Spanish) Orchards and small gardens, often outside of mission walls.
(Spanish) A building with walls constructed of vertical timbers plastered with mud, stones, or sticks. Example-- Mission Corpus Christi de la Isleta.
Structure that served as warehouse and surplus storage for the mission and can be seen at missions like San José de Tumacácori and San José y San Miguel de Aquayo.
A Pueblo Indian chamber used for religious and other purposes, usually circular and wholly or partly subterranean.
(Spanish) Word used in Texas for the larger fields where crops such as corn, beans, squash, cotton, and sugarcane were grown. Examples: Mission Concepción.
(Spanish) Slender wooden poles or twigs, such as saguaro ribs or ocotillo branches, placed across vigas and upon which an earthen roof is applied in traditional Sonoran construction.
A ceramic glaze used on pottery and tile in which bright colors are applied to a white base coat. Frequently found at missions, majolica was manufactured and brought north from Mexico.
A complex comprising a church, residence, and school for the purpose of converting the local population and administered by a resident priest.
The nave is the main body of a church and extends from the entrance to the sanctuary. It is frequently oriented east-west and is where most people at a mission would have been standing during a mass.
Entrance foyer, separated from the main nave, where penitents and unbaptized stood to hear mass. In a mission context, this was the place that unbaptized people from the native community would have been.
Common in Moorish architecture of Spain, the doorways and windows of the churches were often elaborately decorated. There is also evidence that the walls, both interior and exterior, were painted with vibrant colors.
When the Spanish first arrived in Southern Arizona, they called the O'odham Indians Pimas. This area of present-day southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico, became known by the Jesuit order of Catholic missionaries as the Pimería Alta, and is still known by the same name today. The Spanish words Pima-ería alta mean "place of the upper Pimas" in English.
(Spanish) A doorway, gate, entrance hall, or colonnaded passageway.
(Spanish) A walled garrison containing living quarters and various types of buildings.
(Spanish) A settlement, town, or people;may refer to both traditional Native American communities and Spanish Colonial new towns.
(Spanish) A post-and-beam shade structure open on all four sides and covered with lightweight brush and sometimes mud.
(Spanish) An Indian settlement where dwellings are not permanent and are scattered some distance from each other.
(Spanish) A location where herding, animal husbandry, and ranching took place using the domesticated animals introduced by the mission priests. Ranchos could belong to a family or to a mission. In the case of San Antonio missions, the ranchos were originally nearby the missions, but the herds of cattle became so large that they interfered with farming. The herds of each mission were moved to ranchos to graze 25 miles to the south.
(Spanish) Spanish strategy of concentrating, stabilizing, and controlling native populations through missions.
(Spanish) A decorative structure of wood or plaster behind or above an altar in Spanish Colonial churches whose purpose was to form a frame for holy statues and paintings of religious figures;often elaborately painted in rich colors and gold leaf.
Area adjacent to the main church space where the materials for mass were prepared.
The process under which the Mexican government removed the mission lands from the jurisdiction of the Franciscans (who were replaced by secular priests) and half the mission land was theoretically turned over to the Indians. The bylaws for secularization were enacted by the Mexican Congress in 1828, ratified in 1833 and fully enforced in 1834.
(Spanish) Segment of land for planting herbage.
(Spanish) Fortified tower, occasionally built at missions for defense. Example-- San José de Aguayo.
The section of a cruciform church whose axis crosses that of the nave;sometimes thought of as the "arms" in the figure of a Latin cross. Examples-- Mission San José de Aguayo, Quarai, and Abó.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The 1848 agreement between Mexico and the United States that ended the Mexican War, and ceded 58 percent of Mexican territory, including Alta California, to the United States.
A society consisting of several communities united by kinship, culture, language and other social institutions.
(Spanish) Native cowboys who cared for the livestock at the mission at the ranchos
(Spanish) Round or rectangular wooden beams used to support a flat roof;sometimes projecting beyond the supporting walls and thus exposed on the exterior.
(Spanish) A secondary mission complex;similar to a mission but without a resident priest. Visitas were generally smaller communities, but their status often changed through time. MissionTumacacori, for example, was a visita and later replaced Guevavi as cabecera when the Franciscans took over the administration.
An infilled wall in a post-and-beam structure made of a weave of plant material (wattle) with mud filling in the small holes and forming an exterior plaster (daub).
(Spanish, from Arabic) A covered entrance hall leading from the street into a courtyard;eventually such halls were enclosed, creating a spacious semi-public room from which other rooms were entered.
(Spanish) Name for ditch used for irrigation. Examples—San José de Tumacacori.