More than 190 species of resident and transient birds are known to use the park. Approximately half of these species breed in the park including eighteen species of warblers. Roughly thirty of the species are year-round residents including tufted titmice, red-tailed hawks, Carolina chickadees, wild turkeys, and barred owls.
Due to the park's location along the crest of the Blue Ridge and the extent of the forested habitat, Shenandoah provides essential habitat for neotropical migratory birds, both for nesting and as a travel corridor. Certain areas, such as Big Meadows, support species that can be found nowhere else in the park.