The Pu'uhonua o Hōnaunau is an important Hawaiian ceremonial site bounded on its southern and eastern sides by a massive L-shaped wall, known as the Great Wall, and on its
northern and western sides by the ocean. Within the Pu'uhonua there are several other important ceremonial structures including the Hale o Keawe, 'Āle'ale'a Heiau, and the Ancient Heiau.
In ancient Hawai'i a system of laws known as kānāwai enforced the social order. Certain people, places, things, and times were sacred – they were kapu, or forbidden. Kapu regulated fishing,
planting, and the harvesting of other resources. Any breaking of kapu disturbed the stability of society, and the punishment was often death. Any fugitive who had broken kapu (sacred law) could seek
refuge and forgiveness within the walls of the Pu'uhonua. In addition, in the event that war was declared, families of combatants could seek refuge and safety within the Pu'uhonua and be assured to return
home unmolested on cessation of battle regardless of the outcome. Although many pu'uhonua existed in ancient Hawai'i, Pu'uhonua o Hōnaunau is the best preserved and most dramatic.
The concept of refuge in Hawai'i is an ancient one, with roots found in the larger Polynesian culture. Traditional accounts indicate that a ruling chief of a kingdom could declare certain lands or heiau
(sacred structures) as pu'uhonua, and as long as they retained undisputed power these designations would remain in force. Unfortunately no absolute chronology exists for dating the original establishment
of Pu'uhonua o Hōnaunau. However, rough estimates can be made based on genealogies and traditional accounts. Some have indicated that the Pu'uhonua may have originally been established by 'Ehu kai
malino, ruling chief of Kona, around 450 years ago.
The staff of Pu`uhonua O Hōnaunau National Historical Park and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) have worked jointly to document the Pu'uhonua to assist the Park with interpretation and
preservation planning efforts. The field documentation teams consisted of HDP architects Todd Croteau (HAER), Paul Davidson (HABS), Dana Lockett (HAER), and Ryan Pierce (HALS) working with PUHO staff
Adam Johnson (Integrated Resources Manager), Shane Runmsey (Archeologist), and MaryAnne Maigret (Archaeologist).
For those planning to visit the park, please remember to be respectful of the site and not engage in off-trail exploration or other prohibited activities which may disturb or damage the cultural resources.
Please read this note regarding Preservation.
For more information please visit the Pu`uhonua O Hōnaunau National Historical Park website.
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