Sand Dunes to Sandstone

How big were the Navajo desert sand dunes? How did they become sandstone?

The ancient sand dunes were similar to dunes in modern deserts, probably reaching several hundred feet at their greatest height. Only the bottom portion of a dune is preserved in the sandstone, but layer upon layer of dunes built up, until the total thickness of the pile of sand grew to be over 2,000 feet thick (although most of this thickness would have been underground).
The sand was eventually turned into sandstone due to the pressure from overlying layers, combined with the cementing effects of mineral-laden groundwater. Groundwater containing dissolved minerals –particularly calcium carbonate –percolated through and around the sand grains below the water table, leaving behind calcium carbonate that glued the grains together—turning sand dunes into the Navajo Sandstone.

Return to the Navajo Sandstone

Return to the main Rock Layers page

Last updated: June 13, 2015

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

Zion National Park
1 Zion Park Blvd.
State Route 9

Springdale, UT 84767


Recorded park information available 24 hours a day. Phones are answered 9 am to 4 pm Mountain Daylight Time. You can also send your questions to us at

Contact Us