A single breeding population has been identified in the Lower Geyser Basin east of Fairy Creek in Yellowstone National Park.
Protruding eyes with vertical pupils, and a prominent bony boss (raised bump) between the eyes.
Have a single, dark tubercle, or “spade,” on each of their hind feet.
Uses it’s spade to dig shallow summer burrows or deeper winter burrows. Newly metamorphosed animals may burrow in mud near their natal pond or hide in cracks in the hard earth.
Typically occur in warmer climates in the western United States, and it has been speculated that spadefoots may be found in geothermally influenced habitat in Yellowstone that facilitates overwinter survival.
Breeds in ephemeral pools following significant rainfall.
Tadpoles develop from eggs in 2 to 6 days.
Produces cannibalistic and noncannibalistic tadpole body types.
Tadpoles develop for 3 to 6 weeks before metamorphosis.