Yellowstone was set aside as the world’s first national park because of its hydrothermal wonders. The park contains more than 10,000 thermal features, including the world’s greatest concentration of geysers as well as hot springs, mudpots, and steam vents. Research on heat-resistant microbes in the park’s thermal areas has led to medical, forensic, and commercial uses. Oil, gas, and groundwater development near the park and drilling in “Known Geothermal Resources Areas” identified by the US Geological Survey in Island Park, Idaho, and Corwin Springs, Montana, could alter the functioning of hydrothermal systems in the park.
Under the Surface
The park’s hydrothermal system is the visible expression of the immense Yellowstone volcano; they would not exist without the underlying partially molten magma body that releases tremendous heat. They also depend on sources of water, such as the mountains surrounding the Yellowstone Plateau. There, snow and rain slowly percolate through layers of permeable rock riddled with cracks. Some of this cold water meets hot brine directly heated by the shallow magma body. The water’s temperature rises well above the boiling point but the water remains in a liquid state due to the great pressure and weight of the overlying water. The result is superheated water with temperatures exceeding 400°F.
The superheated water is less dense than the colder, heavier water sinking around it. This creates convection currents that allow the lighter, more buoyant, superheated water to begin its journey back to the surface following the cracks and weak areas through rhyolitic lava flows. This upward path is the natural “plumbing” system of the park’s hydrothermal features.
As hot water travels through this rock, it dissolves some silica in the rhyolite. This silica can precipitate in the cracks, increasing the system’s ability to withstand the great pressure needed to produce a geyser. The silica coating the walls of Old Faithful’s geyser tube did not form a pressure-tight seal for the channel of upflow. Lots of water pours through the “silica- lined” walls after an eruption stops. Amorphous silica is a lot less strong than the rock it might coat. The pressure in the geyser tube is not contained by the strength of the wall, rather the water pressure in the tube is contained by the greater pressure of colder water outside of the tube.
At the surface, silica precipitates to form siliceous sinter, creating the scalloped edges of hot springs and the seemingly barren landscape of hydrothermal basins. The siliceous sinter deposits, with bulbous or cauliflower-like surfaces, are known as geyserite.
Explore Yellowstone's Hydrothermal Areas
Take a virtual tour around some of Yellowstone's more well-known hydrothermal areas.
Frequently Asked Questions
Yellowstone’s volcanic geology provides the three components for geysers and other hydrothermal features: heat, water, and a natural “plumbing” system. Magma beneath the surface provides the heat; ample rain and snowfall seep deep underground to supply the water; and underground cracks and ssures form the plumbing. Hot water rises through the plumbing to surface as hydrothermal features in Yellowstone, including geysers.
A geyser basin is a geographically distinct area containing a “cluster” of hydrothermal features that may include geysers, hot springs, mudpots, and fumaroles. These distinct areas often (but not always) occur in low places because hydrothermal features tend to be concentrated around the margins of lava flows and in areas of faulting.
Small mudpot areas occur at West Thumb Geyser Basin, Fountain Paint Pot, and Artists’ Paintpots. The largest group of mudpots can be found at Mud Volcano, at the southern end of Hayden Valley.
Terrace Mountain, near Mammoth Hot Springs, is evidence of carbonate hot spring deposits up to 406,000 years old.
Norris Geyser Basin is the hottest and most dynamic of Yellowstone’s active hydrothermal areas. The highest temperature yet recorded in any Yellowstone hydrothermal area was measured in a scientific drill hole at Norris: 459°F (237°C) just 1,087 feet below the surface. Norris shows evidence of having had hydrothermal activity prior to the last great ice age. The features change often, with frequent disturbances from seismic activity and water fluctuations. Norris is so hot and dynamic primarily because it sits at the intersection of three major faults, two of which intersect with a ring fracture zone from the Yellowstone caldera eruption of 640,000 years ago.
Yellowstone National Park’s hydrothermal resources cannot be tapped for geothermal energy because such use could destroy geysers and hot springs, as it has done in other parts of the world.
Dogs have died diving into hot springs. They also disturb wildlife and are prohibited from all park trails. In the few places pets are permitted, they must be leashed at all times. Ask at a visitor center where you can walk a pet.
YES. Geyser basins are constantly changing. Boiling water surges just under the thin crust of most geyser basins, and many people have been severely burned when they have broken through the fragile surface. Some people have died.
Cigarette butts quickly accumulate where smoking is allowed, and they—like any litter—can clog vents, thus altering or destroying hydrothermal activity.
No basin-wide changes in hydrothermal activity have been observed in the park in recent years. The average Old Faithful eruption interval is 90 minutes as of January 2017. Steamboat Geyser had a major eruption on September 3, 2014. Echinus Geyser, one of the largest acid-water geysers known, has periods of limited activity. Work continues on the park’s hydrothermal monitoring program, with progress made in documenting the status of the hydrothermal system by measuring the total amount of thermal water and the total heat output for selected geyser basins. Aircraft and helicopter thermal infrared images are used to document changes in the hydrothermal areas.
The widely dispersed locations of the park’s hydrothermal areas make it difficult to coordinate a systematic monitoring program to protect the features. The most visible changes in individual thermal features receive the most public attention but do not necessarily represent human influences or changes in the entire hydrothermal system. In order to distinguish human influences from natural changes, the natural variability of the hydrothermal system must be characterized by gathering reproducible data over many years. The park’s geothermal monitoring strategy therefore includes remote sensing, field studies of groundwater flow, measurement of individual hydrothermal feature temperatures and surface water flow, and collaboration with many researchers from outside the National Park Service. New research has harnessed current technology to expand data collection. One collaboration conducted in 2015 measured the seismic activity in the Upper Geyser basin and used the “harmonic tremors” preceding eruptions to create three dimensional images of geyser reservoirs and plumbing systems. This research will produce the first three-dimensional seismic images of the Old Faithful plumbing system.
National Park Service policy generally prohibits any interference with geothermal activity in Yellowstone. New road or other construction through hydrothermal areas is designed to mitigate impacts. In 1994, the National Park Service and State of Montana established a water rights compact and controlled groundwater area to protect geothermal resources in the park from groundwater or geothermal development that could occur in a designated area north and west of the park in Montana.
Yellowstone preserves earth's most extraordinary collection of hot springs, geysers, mudpots, fumaroles, and travertine terraces.
Hydrothermal Plant Communities
Fascinating and unique plant communities have developed in the expanses of thermally heated ground.
Hydrothermal Dynamics of Lake Project
Explore how the Hydrothermal Dynamics of Lake (HD-YLake) Project studies the hydrothermal system located beneath Yellowstone Lake.
Bryan, T.S. 2008. The Geysers of Yellowstone. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press. Fourth Edition.
Carr, B.B., C. Jaworowski, and H.P. Heasler. 2010. It’s not drying up, just changing: Mapping change at Mammoth Hot Springs using aerial photographs and visual observations Yellowstone Science. 18(3).
Cuhel, R.L., C. Aguilar, C.C. Remsen, J.S. Maki, D. Lovalvo, J.V. Klump, and R.W. Paddock. 2004. The Bridge Bay spires: Collection and preparation of a scientific specimen and museum piece Yellowstone Science. 12(4).
Cuhel, R.L., C. Aguilar, P.D. Anderson, J.S. Maki, R.W. Paddock, C.C. Remsen, J.V. Klump, and D. Lovalvo. 2002. Underwater dynamics in Yellowstone Lake hydrothermal vent geochemistry and bacterial chemosynthesis. In R.J. Anderson and D. Harmon, ed., Yellowstone Lake: Hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience?: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 27–53. Yellowstone National Park, WY: Yellowstone Center for Resources and The George Wright Society.
Evans, W.C., D. Bergfeld, J.P. McGeehin, J.C. King, and H. Heasler. 2010. Tree-ring 14C links seismic swarm to CO2 spike at Yellowstone, USA. Geology 38(12):1075–1078.
Farrell, J., F.G Lin, R. Smith and S.M Wu. 2016. Upper Geyser Basin Seismic Imaging Experiment: Geologic Hazards and the Yellowstone GeoEcosystem. In Abstracts of the 13th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, p. 58.
Fouke, B.W. 2011. Hot-spring systems geobiology: abiotic and biotic influences on travertine formation at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA. Sedimentology 58:170–219.
Fournier, R.O. 1989. Geochemistry and dynamics of the Yellowstone National Park hydrothermal system. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 17:13–53.
Henson, J., R. Redman, R. Rodriguez, and R. Stout. 2005. Fungi in Yellowstone’s geothermal soils and plants Yellowstone Science. 13(4).
Ingebritsen, S.E. and S.A. Rojstaczer. 1993. Controls on geyser periodicity. Science. 262: 889–892.
Jaworowski, C., H.P. Heasler, C.C. Hardy, and L.P. Queen. 2006. Control of hydrothermal fluids by natural fractures at Norris Geyser Basin. Yellowstone Science 14(4).
Jaworowski, C., H.P. Heasler, C.M.U. Neale, and S. Sivarajan. 2010. Using thermal infrared imagery and LiDAR in Yellowstone geyser basins. Yellowstone Science. 18(1).
Kieffer, S. W., J. A. Westphal, and R. A. Hutchinson. 1995. A journey toward the center of the Earth: Video adventures in the Old Faithful Conduit Yellowstone Science. 3(3).
Klump, V., T. Remsen, D. Lovalvo, P. Anderson, R. Cuhel, M. Kaplinski, J. Kaster, J. Maki, and R. Paddock. 1995. 20,000 leagues under Yellowstone Lake: Strangeness and beauty in the hidden deeps. Yellowstone Science. 3(4).
Remsen, C.C., J.S. Maki, J.V. Klump, C. Aguilar, P.D. Anderson, L. Buchholz, R. L. Cuhel, D. Lovalvo, R.W. Paddock, J. Waples et al. 2002. Sublacustrine geothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake: Studies past and present. In R. J. Anderson and D. Harmon, ed., Yellowstone Lake: Hotbed of chaos or reservoir of resilience?: Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 192–212. Yellowstone National Park, WY: Yellowstone Center for Resources and The George Wright Society.
Shean, D. 2006. Norris geyser basin’s dynamic hydrothermal features: Using historical aerial photographs to detect change. Yellowstone Science. 14(4).
Spear, J.R., J.J. Walker, and N.R. Pace. 2006. Microbial ecology and energetics in Yellowstone hot springs. Yellowstone Science. 14(1).
Taylor, R. 1998. Gazing at Yellowstone’s geysers. Yellowstone Science. 6(4).
Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. 2010. Protocols for geologic hazards response by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. US Geological Survey Circular 1351.
Last updated: August 27, 2018