On-line Book
Cover book to Battling for Manassas: The Fifty-Year Preservation Struggle at Manassas National Battlefield Park. [Image of cannon in the battlefield]
Battling for Manassas: The Fifty-Year Preservation Struggle at Manassas National Battlefield Park


Table of Contents




Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

current topic Bibliography

Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

Appendix IV

Appendix V (omitted from on-line edition)

Appendix VI

Appendix VII

Appendix VIII

National Park Service Arrowhead


Primary Sources

National Park Service Repositories

Manassas National Battlefield Park, Manassas, Va. (MNBP)

  • Historian's Files include general management plans, interpretive plans, legislative records, and other documents saved sporadically over the years. The park also holds a series of cultural resources files that contain vertical files for select subjects relating to the park's history, cultural resources, and historic structures. A separate section of the vertical files includes information about individual Civil War units.

  • Library Collection has published materials relating to the Civil War battles, copies of the Sons of Confederate veterans newsletter, park historic structure reports, and a few secondary sources on Civil War battlefield preservation and topics pertaining to northern Virginia.

  • Museum Collection, in addition to its vast artifact collection, includes some documentary materials relating to George Carr Round, early park preservation efforts, visitor center exhibit plans, and the 1961 First Manassas reenactment.

  • Newspaper Clippings Files begin in 1973 with the Marriott theme park proposal and continue in chronological order to the present.

  • Land Holding Records contain individual files on each tract of land acquired since the 1936 establishment of the Bull Run Recreational Demonstration Area. There is also a useful compilation of land acquisitions from 1936 to 1966.

  • Anne D. Snyder Files include personal correspondence, newspaper clippings, federal and local government reports, and other materials related to the many preservation battles Snyder participated in over the years. Snyder donated her files to the Manassas National Battlefield Park.

National Park Service History Division Files and Archives, Washington, D.C.

  • NPS History Division Files have correspondence dating from the 1930s through the 1980s between the Manassas National Battlefield Park and other Park Service representatives and various internal reports relating to such topics as land acquisition, historic structures, interpretation, the 1961 First Manassas reenactment, the national cemetery proposal, Interstate Highway 66, and the William Center tract. I also consulted the William Center tract files of former cultural resources manager Jerry Rogers.

  • NPS History Division Archives has additional internal reports relating to the park.

National Capital Region Files, Washington, D.C.

  • Land-Use Files contain maps for the park's boundary changes and associated correspondence and internal reports.

  • Gary Scott Files are the regional historian's office files and contain materials relating to the park's historic structures and interpretive program.

National Park Service History Collection, Harpers Ferry Center, Harpers Ferry, W. Va. (HFC)

  • Park Historic Reference Files are organized by individual park and contain park brochures, annual reports, newsclippings, interpretive program reports, management reports, master plans, and other related materials.

  • Civilian Conservation Corps Files include background materials on the recreational demonstration area program.

  • Oral History Collection has the tapes and transcripts of interviews with Park Service officials; Francis Wilshin's oral history transcript is available here.

National Park Service Historic Photographic Collection, Charles Town, W. Va.

  • An extensive collection of photographs related to the history of time National Park Service and records relating to museum exhibit production from Mission 66 through the 1970s. Photographs illustrating the Manassas National Battlefield Park and its structures were found in files labeled Civil War, 1861-65, Bull Run; Manassas; Manassas National Battlefield Park; NPS History-Architecture; and Eastern Office of Design and Construction (EODC) files. Exhibit files for Manassas yielded 1960s visitor center plans.

Non-National Park Service Repositories

National Archives and Records Administration, Archives II, College Park, Md. (NARA)

  • Strong on documents relating to the Manassas National Battlefield Park dating from the 1930s and 1940s.

  • Record Group 79 National Park Service is divided by entry. Records pertinent to this history were found in entry 7, Central Classified File, and entry 47, Recreational Demonstration Area Program files.

  • Record Group 48 Secretary of the Interior, Central Classified Files, contains a few documents on the Bull Run Recreational Demonstration Area. Copies of many of the documents in RG 48 are also found in RG 79.

Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Md. (WNRC)

  • Records that remain under the custody and control of the originating agencies. Researchers must obtain permission from the National Park Service's National Capital Region office to review records relating to the Manassas National Battlefield Park. Useful materials ranging in date from the 1940s through the 1980s include Mission 66 planning documents, land acquisition reports, 1961 First Manassas reenactment prospectus, annual reports, monthly reports, museum exhibit reports, and related correspondence.

Prince William County Archives, Manassas, Va.

  • Minutes of the Board of County Supervisors meetings.

Bull Run Library, Virginiana Room, Manassas, Va.

  • An array of materials ranging from the 1920s Manassas Battlefield Confederate Park to 1980s Prince William County budgets and planning documents. The 1970s Prince William County newsletters following the Marriott proposal are also located here.

Manassas Museum, Manassas, Va.

  • Documents and photographs related to George Carr Round.

National Parks and Conservation Association, Washington, D.C. (NPCA)

  • Bruce Craig Files on the William Center and horse controversies contain correspondence, planning documents, newspaper clippings, government reports, and other associated materials.

Department of the Interior Natural Resources Library, Washington, D.C.

  • A few Department of the Interior reports and legislative history records related to the Manassas National Battlefield Park.

Papers of Howard Worth Smith, Special Collections Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

  • Contain a copy of the 1949 boundary expansion bill that Smith introduced and information about Smith's role as honorary chairman of the First Manassas Corporation.

Secondary Sources

Albright, Horace M. Origins of National Park Service Administration of Historic Sites. Philadelphia: Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1971.

Albright, Horace M., as told to Robert Cahn. The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years 1913-33 Salt Lake City: Howe Brothers, 1985.

Blackford, Susan Leigh, and Charles Minor Blackford. Letters from Lee's Army or Memories of Life In and Out of the Army in Virginia During the War Between the States. Ed. Charles Minor Blackford III. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1947.

Bodnar, John. Remaking America: Public Memory, Commemoration, and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Boge, Georgie, and Margie Holder Boge. Paving over the Past: A History and Guide to Civil War Battlefield Preservation. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993.

Civil War Sites Advisory Commission. Report on the Nation's Civil War Battlefields. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1993.

"Civil War Sites Face Grave Threats." National Parks 67 (November/ December 1993): 10-11.

Dierenfield, Bruce J. Keeper of the Rules: Congressman Howard W Smith of Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987.

Dwight, Theodore, ed. The Virginia Campaign of 1862 Under General Pope. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1895.

Fitts, Deborah. "Interior Dept. Plans National Fundraising for CW Battlefields." Civil War News, January/February 1991, 1, 32.

Fordney, Chris. "Embattled Ground." National Parks 68 (November/December 1994): 27-31.

Foresta, Ronald A. America's National Parks and Their Keepers. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1984.

Frome, Michael. Regreening the National Parks. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1992.

Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

Gillette, Jane Brown. "Fields Forgotten." Historic Preservation 45 (July/August 1993) 34-39, 86.

"Hallowed Ground." The Economist, 20 August 1988, 25-26.

Hennessy, John J. Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Kammen, Michael. Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

Krick, Robert E. L. "The Civil War's First Monument." Blue & Gray, April 1991, 32-34.

Lamme, Ary J. III. America's Historic Landscapes: Community Power and the Preservation of Four National Historic Sites. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989.

Lee, Ronald F. The Origin and Evolution of the National Military Park Idea. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1973.

Lewis, Thomas A. "Fighting for the Past." Audubon, September 1989, 58-72.

Linenthal, Edward Tabor. Sacred Ground: Americans and Their Battlefields. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Linenthal Edward Tabor, and Tom Engelhardt, eds. History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 1996.

Lusk, William Thompson. War Letters. New York: privately printed, 1911.

Mackintosh, Barry. The National Parks: Shaping the System. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1984.

_____. National Park Service Administrative History: A Guide. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1991.

_____. "The National Park Service Moves into Historical Interpretation." Public Historian 9 (spring 1987): 51-63.

O'Donnell, Mike. At Manassas: Reunions, Reenactments, Maneuvers. Mechanicsville, Va.: Rapidan Press, 1986.

Powell, Jody. "Battling over Manassas" National Parks 62 (July/August 1988): 12-13.

Rainey, Reuben M. "The Memory of War: Reflections on Battlefield Preservation. In The Yearbook of Landscape Architecture: Historic Preservation, ed. Richard L. Austin, et al. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, n.d., 69-89.

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. Public Papers and Addresses. New York: Random House, 1938.

Runte, Alfred. National Parks: The American Experience. 2d ed., rev. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

Sellars, Richard West. "Vigil of Silence: The Civil War Memorials." History News, July/August 1986, 19-23.

"Stables Expansion at Manassas Defeated." National Parks 65 (September/October 1991): 14.

"Stables for Quayle Planned at Manassas National Parks 65 (March/April 1991): 11.

Swain, Donald C. Wilderness Defender: Horace M. Albright and Conservation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Unrau, Harlan D. Administrative History: Gettysburg National Military Park and Gettysburg National Cemetery, Pennsylvania. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, July 1991.

Unrau, Harlan D., and G. Frank Williss. "To Preserve the Nation's Past: The Growth of Historic Preservation in the National Park Service During the 1930s." Public Historian 9 (spring 1987): 19-49.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. General and Oversight Briefing Relating to Developments Near Manassas National Battlefield Park: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation. 93d Cong., 1st sess., 3 April 1973.

_______. National Outdoor Recreation Programs and Policies: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on National Parks and Recreation. 93d Cong., 1st sess., March 1973.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Veterans' Affairs. Bills Related to the National Cemetery System and to Burial Benefits: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Cemeteries and Burial Benefits. 94th Cong. 1st sess., December 1975, January and February 1976.

_______. National Cemetery Site Selection, Pennsylvania, and the Vicinity of the District of Columbia: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Cemeteries and Burial Benefits. 94th Cong., 1st sess., 17 November 1975.

______. Proposed Establishment of a National Cemetery Adjacent to Manassas National Battlefield Park: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Hospitals on HR. 8818 and Related Bills. 91st Cong., 1st sess., 23 September 1969.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Manassas Battlefield and Historic Sites: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Parks and Recreation. 95th Cong., 1st sess., 28 June 1977.

_______. Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia; and Miscellaneous Hawaii Park Proposals: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Parks, Recreation, and Renewable Resources. 96th Cong., 2d sess., 3 September 1980.

_______. Manassas National Battlefield Park Amendments of 1988: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Public Lands, National Parks and Forests on H.R. 4526. 100th Cong., 2d sess., 8 September 1988.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Providing for Increases inn Appropriation Ceilings and Boundary Changes in Certain Units of the National Park System, and for Other Purposes. 92d Cong., 1st sess. 1971, S. Rept. 452.

Utley, Robert M. "A Preservation Ideal." Historic Preservation 28 (April/June 1976).

Van Dyne, Larry. "Hit the Road, Mick." Washingtonian, January 1995, 58-63, 114-27.

Webb, Robert. "Storm over Manassas: A Plan to Develop Part of Virginia's Famed Civil War Battlefield Is Provoking the Greatest Preservation Battle in Years." Historic Preservation 40 (July/August 1988): 40-45.

Will, George F. "Where Men Fought and Fell." Newsweek, 18 July 1988, 68.

Personal Interviews

In conjunction with the researching and writing of this history, the author conducted twenty-three interviews with people prominent in the history of the park. These interviews, in addition to one with Francis Wilshin conducted by S. Herbert Evison in 1971, are listed below. All interviews have been transcribed. The National Park Service retains custody of the audio cassettes and transcripts. The Wilshin interview is held at Harpers Ferry Center; the interviews conducted by the author are held at Manassas National Battlefield Park.

Michael Andrews, U.S. House of Representatives (D-Tex.), 1983-95. 1 November 1994

Kenneth E. Apschnikat, MNBP superintendent, 1988-95. 10 August 1994

Edwin C. Bearss, NPS chief historian, 1981-94.5 April 1994.

Russell W. Berry Jr., MNBP superintendent, 1969-73. 10 February 1994.

Dale Bumpers, U.S. Senate (D-Ark.), 1974-present. 7 December 1994.

Bruce Craig, cultural resources program coordinator, National Parks and Conservation Association. 16 June 1994

Berry Duley, local activist. 14 July 1994.

A. Wilson Greene, president, Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites. 2 August 1994.

Carl Hanson, MNBP park ranger, law enforcement, visitor protection, 1970-present. 19 August 1994.

Herb Harris, U.S. House of Representatives (D-Va.), 1975-81. 16 June 1994.

John T. ("Til") Hazel, president, Hazel/Peterson Companies. 7 November 1994.

Richard E. Hoffman, MNBP superintendent, 1973-77. 31 March 1994.

James Oliver Horton, historical advisor to the Walt Disney Company. 24 August 1996.

Richard Moe, president, National Trust for Historic Preservation. 17 November 1995.

Susan K. Moore, MNBP management assistant, 1986-88. 10 May 1994.

L. Van Loan Naisawald, MNBP park historian, 1957-60. 2 February 1994.

John Parsons, National Capital Region, associate regional director, land-use coordinator, 1977-96. 14 June 1994.

Jody Powell, public relations, Ogilvy-Mather, 1988. 18 October 1994.

Peter Rummell, president, Disney Design and Development. 9 May 1996.

Jerry L. Russell, national chairman, Civil War Round Table Associates, 27 July 1994.

Kathleen K. Seefeldt, chairman, Prince William County Board of Supervisors, 1976-present. 21 November 1994.

Anne D. Snyder, local activist. 19 October 1993.

Rolland R. Swain, MNBP superintendent, 1980-88. 6 April 1994.

Francis F. Wilshin, MNBP superintendent, 1955-69. 29 June 1971.



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