Exploring Visibility

Content Standards for California Public Schools

Grade seven Physical Principles in Living Systems (Physical Science): 6. Physical principles underlie biological structures and functions. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know visible light is a small band within a very broad electromagnetic spectrum. b. Students know that for an object to be seen, light emitted by or scattered from it must be detected by the eye. c. Students know light travels in straight lines if the medium it travels through does not change. f. Students know light can be reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed by matter.

Grade eight Chemistry of Living Systems (Life Science): 6. Principles of chemistry underlie the functioning of biological systems. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms. b. living organisms are made of molecules largely consisting of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. Reactions: 5. Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know: a. reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties. c. chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat Earth in the Solar System (Earth Science): 4. The structure and composition of the universe can be learned from studying stars and galaxies and their evolution. As a basis for understanding this concept: d. Students know that stars are the source of light for all bright objects in outer space and that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, not by their own light.

Grade eight United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict: Students in grade eight study the ideas, issues and events from the framing of the Constitution up to World War I, with an emphasis on America’s role in the war. After reviewing the development of America’s democratic institutions founded in the Judeo-Christian heritage and English parliamentary traditions, particularly the shaping of the Constitution, students trace the development of American politics, society, culture and economy and relate them to the emergence of major regional differences. They learn about the challenges facing the new nation, with an emphasis on the causes, course and consequences of the Civil War. They make connections between the rise of industrialization and contemporary social and economic conditions. 8.12 Students analyze the transformation of the American economy and the changing social and political conditions in the United States in response to the Industrial Revolution, in terms of: 1. patterns of agricultural and industrial development as they relate to climate, natural resource use, markets, and trade, including their location on a map; 5. the location and effects of urbanization, renewed immigration, and industrialization (e.g., effects on social fabric of cities, wealth and economic opportunity, and the conservation movement)
Language Arts

Grade seven Listening and Speaking Strategies: Comprehension: 1.1 Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker’s claims and conclusions.

Grade eight Listening and Speaking Strategies: Comprehension: 1.2 Paraphrase a speaker’s purpose and point of view and ask relevant questions concerning the speaker’s content, delivery, and purpose.


Grade seven Mathematical Reasoning: 1.0 Students make decisions about how to approach problems: 1.1 Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and prioritizing information, and observing patterns.

Grade eight Probability and Statistics: 8.0 Students organize and describe distributions of data by using a number of different methods, including frequency tables, histograms, standard line and bar graphs, stem-and-leaf displays, scatterplots, and box-and-whisker plots.

Last updated: February 28, 2015

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