John Hance

A black and white photograph of a man standing next to a mule.

The year 1919 marked two momentous occasions in the history of Grand Canyon: The birth of the National Park on February 26, and the death of ‘Captain’ John Hance a little more than a month prior. The timing of these events was, in a way, fitting - for if the National Park marked a new age of management and stewardship of the canyon, Hance had been the greatest living symbol of the previous era – wild, untamed, and filled with incredible stories.

Many of the details of the life of John Hance are unknown, for the man wrapped himself in a cloak of mystique and glamor. It’s believed he was born in 1840 in Tennessee, and he likely fought in the Civil War as a Confederate (Though he was never a captain). Arriving at Grand Canyon as its first permeant European-American settler in (Possibly) 1883, Hance improved an old Havasupai trail into the canyon and tried to mine for gold, silver, and asbestos. Very quickly, however, Hance found a more lucrative calling: guiding and providing lodging to visitors coming to the canyon to see if the stories of western explorers like Major John Wesley Powell were true.

As time passed and tourism grew, Hance became a legendary human fixture of the canyon. Visitors making their way down the treacherous Old Hance Trail would be entertained by stories of how the old frontiersman had dug the canyon himself, or how his horse Darby could cross the canyon from rim to rim by galloping atop banks of fog. As Hance himself would once say, “"I've got to tell stories to these people for their money; and if I don't tell it to them, who will? I can make these tenderfeet believe that a frog eats boiled eggs, and I'm going to do it; and I'm going to make 'em believe he carries it a mile to find a rock to crack it on."

Teddy Roosevelt, mounted on a horse, speaking to John Hance
John Hance speaking to Teddy Roosevelt

As the twentieth century approached, the South Rim of Grand Canyon saw increasing commercial development, with stagecoaches and railroads being built to take visitors travelling from across America and the world directly to the rim. With his popularity increasing, Hance continued to lead visitors down into the canyon, and constructed a brand-new trail when rockslides and washouts finally made the Old Hance Trail impassable. His legend became such that some began to say that “To see the canyon only and not to see Captain John Hance, is to miss half the show,” and the prestige of the old guide was such that when President Theodore Roosevelt came to Grand Canyon in 1903, it was John Hance who led him down the trail.

All the while, however, large commercial entities were moving in to the South Rim, supplanting Hance and other early pioneers and forcing them to give up their one-man operations. Hance continued to be a Grand Canyon fixture, however, providing his services as a guide and storyteller to visitors for the Fred Harvey Company. Later, he also served as the first postmaster for Grand Canyon, and opened the first post office on the South Rim.

Visit our keyboard shortcuts docs for details
7 minutes, 48 seconds

Captain John Hance (Portrayed by Ron Brown) tells the story of how he dug Grand Canyon. [Video description: In a cemetery at night, and sitting in a chair, an elderly man with a long beard is wearing a suit coat, vest, and pork pie hat. The entire video is a close-up talking head.]

The grave marker of John Hance

No life can last forever, no matter how large, and Captain John Hance passed into history on January 8th, 1919, at the alleged age of 84. His death was mourned by many, but his legacy is alive and well in the canyon.

Veteran hikers can still attempt the New Hance Trail, and experience the same terrors and thrills that Hance subjected his visitors to over a century ago.

Last updated: July 2, 2018

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

PO Box 129
Grand Canyon, AZ 86023



Contact Us