PART 2. RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION
2.1(a)(4) Designated areas for collection of dead wood on the ground for firewood
In accordance with Section 2.13(a)(1), fires are allowed within all areas designated as Recreation and Resource Utilization or Natural zones by the GMP except for the Canyons of the Escalante area and in the Orange Cliffs Management Area. Accordingly, this wood collecting designation is established in 2.1(a)(4) as it is determined that wood collecting will not have an adverse resource impact, particularly when drift wood is collected and burned, which is beneficial to lake operations in regards to safety.
2.1(a)(5) Designated areas and conditions for walking on, climbing, entering, ascending, descending, or traversing an archeological or cultural resource, monument, or statue
Both the National Historic Preservation Act and the Archaeological Resources Protection Act mandate that Federal agencies only disclose site locations if no harm, theft, or destruction of cultural resources will result from disclosure. To comply with these mandates, the cultural resources disclosure policy of the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area Archeological Resource Protection Plan establishes a classification of cultural resource sites. Site classification is based on the ability of the resource to withstand visitor impacts due to the nature of the sites themselves, active physical protection, indirect protective mechanisms, and visitor demands to access the sites.
The archeological and cultural resources listed belong to a class of sites possessing characteristics that allow for heavier use without unacceptable damage. Their locational information may be volunteered by Glen Canyon National Recreation Area employees and are open to the public for entering. There are no archeological or cultural resources designated for walking or climbing upon.
2.1(b) Designated trails
Pedestrian traffic within archeological and cultural resources is restricted to the constructed trails due to public safety concerns and site sensitivity. Deviating off the designated trails for any reason is prohibited.
2.1(c)(1) Designated fruits, nuts, berries, and unoccupied seashells to harvest by hand and collection restrictions
Collection of pinon nuts strictly for personal consumption does not significantly impact the resource.
Collection of fruit at the Lonely Dell Ranch Orchard strictly for personal consumption does not significantly impact the resource and assists with the maintenance of the orchard and fruit trees.
2.1 (c)(2) Established quantity of natural products
The amount of pinon nuts that are authorized for personal consumption, shall not exceed 1 pound per person per day. This is considered a reasonable amount for one person to consume in a day.
The amount of fruit that are authorized for personal consumption at the Lonely Dell Ranch Orchard is 5 gallons per person per day. This allows for the continued historical practice of canning and baking with fruit from the orchard.
2.2 (a)(2) Wildlife protection.
Osprey are listed as a special status species in Arizona and Utah. Recreational activities such as boating, fishing, picnicking and hiking in close proximity to the nest have been shown to agitate nesting osprey and could interfere with the birds breeding successfully.
2.2(d) Established conditions and procedures for transporting lawfully taken wildlife through park areas
No determination necessary.
2.2(e) Designated areas for wildlife viewing with artificial light
This order is intended to provide a measure of protection to wildlife species which may be subject to unlawful taking during other than lawful hunting hours or by persons who are otherwise engaged in unlawful wildlife activities. It is also intended to assure that the natural habits or activities of animals are not adversely affected while being artificially illuminated or that animals be unduly harassed which may affect feeding, resting, or mating.
2.3(d)(2) Fresh waters designated as open to bait fishing with live or dead minnows or other bait fish, amphibians, nonpreserved fish eggs or fish roe
There is a biological need to increase harvest of striped bass in Lake Powell. Striped bass successfully reproduce in Lake Powell, and exhibit cyclic population expansion beyond the capability of forage species to sustain striped bass population in a healthy condition. The health of the striped bass population is dependent upon matching the striped bass abundance with available forage food, which is primarily threadfin shad. Threadfin shad have periodic or cyclic population dynamics in which every two or three years the population declines to minimal abundance, then a year or two of adequate to good abundance. When striped bass numbers greatly exceed available forage, their growth becomes stunted and emaciated to the point that die-offs occur. Anglers lose interest in harvesting striped bass when emaciated fish condition precludes obtaining an edible filet portion. It is preferable to harvest as many striped bass as possible during years when the stripers are both abundant and in good condition. Angler harvest is the only method of control of striped bass abundance, and allowing fishing with anchovies as bait and broadcast attraction (chumming) with anchovies has been found to be an effective method in concentrating and catching striped bass. Use of dead anchovies for bait in Lake Powell conforms to State fishing regulations. The use of dead anchovies will not affect the sport fish, as there are catch and possession limits. To encourage striped bass harvest, there are no catch or possession limits for this species.
The use of dead anchovies as bait for fishing will be allowed in Lake Powell for attracting and taking striped bass. All other methods and materials of chumming remain prohibited. Angler harvest is the only viable method currently available for reducing striped bass numbers and allowing these actions are management tools for maintaining a healthy bass community.
The waters of Lake Powell are designated for the use of live waterdogs as bait for fishing. Scientific data indicate that this established bait would not adversely impact populations of native fish.
2.3(d)(8) Designated areas open for fishing from motor road bridges and public boat docks
By designating the Fishing Dock at the Wahweap Marina and the Antelope Point Marina as the only areas open to fishing from a public dock, it reduces the congestion and possible safety concerns in high traffic areas.
2.4 (a)(2)(i) Carrying, using, or possessing weapons at designated locations and times
Fishing regulations promulgated by the Utah Department of Wildlife Resources and the Arizona Game & Fish Department sanction bow & spear fishing. This section further defines and restricts a broad category of activities allowed by state law.
2.10(a) Camping: conditions and permits
Establishing quiet hours is necessary and appropriate for campgrounds to avoid user conflict.
In order to establish a reasonable schedule for public use limits, the park has implemented restrictions on camping which includes overnight occupancy of a slip, mooring buoy, or specific location, to include a campsite in a campground, on a beach, or any other location. The time limit is consistent for all overnight park stays and is intended to protect environmental and scenic values, equitable allocation and use of resources and avoid visitor conflicts. Park facilities were not designed nor were they intended for long term visitor use.
Limiting camping to specific areas is necessary for the maintenance of public health and safety, protection of the environmental and scenic values, protection of natural resources, implementation of management responsibilities, and equitable use of facilities and avoidance of conflict among visitor use activities.
Most paved roads in the area are major ingress/egress routes to major destinations within Glen Canyon NRA and experience higher volumes of traffic which are traveling at relatively high speeds. These restrictions are intended to provide an additional safety zone away from high-speed traffic and to maintain a visual corridor for motorists.
Camping restrictions in developed areas is intended to control use patterns in these busy areas where facilities are provided for the purpose of camping.
The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam experiences high visitation and fluctuating water levels. Campers are restricted to established campsites for visitor safety purposes and for the prevention of additional resource impacts.
The San Juan River is managed under a cooperative agreement between the NPS and BLM.
Unrestricted camping would cause carrying capacity levels to be exceeded, resulting in additional resource impacts and intrusions on legitimate river users.
During the period April 1 through June 15, peregrine falcons are nesting at Panorama Point in the Orange Cliffs Management Area. These are a protected species and require special management consideration.
Camping time limits are intended to prevent domination of a campsite or the area by a relative few and to more equitably allocate use of the area. Time limits are also intended as a means to prevent an accumulation of impacts to backcountry campsites. Such impacts include, but are not limited to, improvements to campsites, accumulation of body wastes and litter, expansion of campsite areas and trails, and similar resource impacts. The rule also applies to those camped in developed campgrounds where the number of sites is limited. Finally, this order is intended to prevent "homesteading" in the area by persons whose primary interest is long-term residency.
Groups with the size of over 40 people are required to obtain a special use permit. Glen Canyon NRA can minimize inconvenience to large gatherings while minimizing resource damage and large-scale contamination of Lake Powell waters by human solid waste and trash. Special use permits allow for orderly management of the Recreation Area ensuring appropriate recreational opportunities are available for all Recreation Area visitors.
Definition: Group- any collection or assemblage of persons, a group of visitors: a remarkable number of persons or things ranged or considered as being related in some way.
The maximum group size limit of 12 persons in backcountry areas is established to minimize impacts to the fragile desert environment and on other backcountry users. Large groups cause more impacts to natural resources resulting in a concentration of human waste and trampling of soil and vegetation, especially in campsites. Large groups are also more obtrusive to other visitors and complaints are received each year about oversize groups from individuals or smaller groups who are seeking the quiet and solitude of a wilderness experience. Although not absolutely uniform to all agencies, 12 is a common industry standard and is applicable in the interest of resource protection and consideration for other visitors. The group size limit is not applicable to those persons camping along the Lake Powell shoreline because most of these groups camp aboard vessels or below the high water mark where resource impacts are minimal or easily managed.
The maximum size limit in established campgrounds of 8 per single campsite and 30 per group campsite is established to minimize impacts to a fragile desert environment. These size limits are a common industry standard and are applicable in the interest of resource protection and to minimize obtrusiveness to other visitors. The maximum number of vehicles is established to minimize impacts to natural resources that would otherwise result in soil erosion and trampling of vegetation, and to minimize obtrusiveness to other visitors.
Requiring permits and restricting camping in the Orange Cliffs Unit to designated campsites and establishing a maximum capacity will reduce the impact on ecologically fragile areas. Continuity of regulations between Glen Canyon NRA and Canyonlands NP would ensure that campers would continue using low impact methods when crossing Glen Canyon NRA - Canyonlands NP boundaries.
Requiring permits in the Escalante District will reduce the impact on ecologically fragile areas.
Establishing special conditions is necessary for the maintenance of public safety, protection of environmental and scenic values, protection of natural resources, implementation of management responsibilities, and equitable use of facilities and avoidance of conflict among visitor use activities in public campgrounds.
Persons are permitted to camp within 100 feet of Lake Powell, again because additional impacts to resources are minimal.
Due to low water there are limited areas and facilities for boaters to conduct turn-a-rounds in the developed area of Bullfrog and during these times Hobie Cat Beach may be used for this purpose and vessels may camp on the shore for one night only.
2.10(d) Food storage: designated areas and methods
Glen Canyon NRA is the target destination for millions of visitors each year. The area is renowned for its unimpaired scenery and natural resources, as well as its diversity of recreational opportunities. Due to the limited access to shorelines, and ever increasing competition for acceptable shoreline camps, many areas experience highly concentrated camper use. Areas such as Lone Rock Beach, Stanton’s Beach, Crosby Canyon, and a myriad of other boat accessible only camping areas, experience highly concentrated and continual use from mid-May through October. Many of these areas are not provided with trash receptacles serviced by the NPS or the concessionaire/contractor. As a result many of these areas show a significant accumulation of trash, waste and garbage through out the boating season.
As a rule boaters are very conscientious concerning the disposal of their trash and make efforts to leave beaches clean and free of trash. A major factor contributing to the distribution and spread of litter within the NRA are birds and other forms of wildlife entering into camps, or onto vessels in search of food. These animals are easily habituated to the constant supply of available “human” food and have come to associate plastic trash bags, grocery bags, and open boxes with food. Campers and boaters storing their food or trash in plastic bags fall victim to these camp marauders and the result is food, trash, storage bags, and other wastes scattered throughout the camp, beach, and water. Much of this trash and waste is further blown by the near constant summer breezes far from camps and boats where it goes undetected, and un-retrieved. It has been determined that the largest contributing factor to the scatter of food and trash along the beach camps at Lake Powell is due to improper storage in thin, easily torn, plastic bags and/or open boxes.
Park Rangers performing patrols, in both remote and highly concentrated camping areas, are overwhelmed by the constant trash and litter pick up necessary to keep the area pristine and inviting to newly arriving visitors. Rangers are uncomfortable with issuing violation notices to the occupants of camps scattered with food and litter due to the fact that most campers feel that they have fulfilled their obligation to “keep a clean camp” by storing their food and trash in plastic bags. Many campers do not recognize the threat posed by “friendly camp birds” and are surprised when they return to find that their camp and surrounding area is a mess with litter. Efforts to educate newly arriving boaters and campers concerning proper food and trash storage was frustrating due to the fact that there was previously no requirement to adequately containerize food and waste. Additionally, Rangers have noted that pet food, and open bags of pet food, left out in camps and on vessels is especially attractive to birds and animals. Park Rangers feel that a combination of education, special food and trash storage conditions, and enforcement will significantly reduce the amount of litter and waste observed at camps and along the lake shorelines.
The conditions established by this determination are intended to stop the scatter of food, litter, and waste by assuring that birds and other wildlife do not have easy access to un-natural food sources. In addition, properly containerizing trash and other wastes will reduce the otherwise uncontrollable factors of wind and rapidly changing weather conditions which exacerbate the spread of litter throughout camps and shoreline areas.
2.11 Picnicking: designated areas
The use of glass containers in high traffic areas where visitors are most likely to be barefoot greatly increases the possibility of accidental cuts from broken glass due to improper disposal, accidental breakage, or vandalous discarding. Most products the visitor would find necessary to enhance their recreational experience, be it food, beverage, or health and beauty aids, are packaged in plastic, aluminum or steel containers. For this reason, this order does not place unreasonable restrictions on the visitor nor does it unreasonably limit their recreational opportunities.
2.13(a)(1) Fires: designated areas and conditions
Restricting fire debris protects soils and plants, and prevents the blackening of beaches.
These orders relax the prohibitions against fires as found in this section by designating where campfires are allowed. Allowing campfires in these areas will have minimal resource impact at this time because: Fires are restricted to grates installed for this purpose; resource impacts of fires below the high water mark of Lake Powell are negligible and their remains are washed away or impacts mitigated by fluctuating water levels; and backcountry visitation in other areas away from Lake Powell is slight except for within the Canyons of the Escalante. Limiting fires in developed areas to receptacles in campgrounds provided for that purpose is necessary for the maintenance of public health and safety, protection of environmental and scenic values, protection of cultural and natural resources, implementation of management responsibilities, and avoidance of conflict among visitor use activities.
Permitting charcoal fires in fire pans at designated vehicle campsites within the Orange Cliffs Unit is consistent with Canyonlands National Park.
Restricting campfires to designated campsites will reduce the number of areas impacted by campfires and will provide continuity of backcountry regulations between Glen Canyon NRA and Canyonlands NP.
Prohibiting fires in archaeological sites is meant to protect these sites from damage that may occur from fires. Such damage includes destruction of ancient vegetal or other combustible remains, soot stains on walls or other features, contamination of hearths or ancient fire remains which could preclude accurate dating or other analysis of the site, and detraction from experiencing an undisturbed site by future visitors.
Prohibiting fires at fuel docks, the marina, or vessels moored at these facilities is intended to protect life/health/safety and public and private property at areas where fires are especially hazardous and with severe destructive potential.
Most fire pits are not designated at Glen Canyon and most are constructed at or near beaches where persons are often barefoot. With rising and lowering water levels, sharp objects that were attached to firewood and left in the sand present safety hazards. Fires larger than 4 feet high and 4 feet wide create safety hazards and gathering points for large groups that disturb neighboring camps after quiet hours.
2.14(a)(2) Sanitation and refuse: conditions using government receptacles
No determination necessary.
2.14(a)(5) Sanitation: designated areas for bathing and washing
No determination necessary.
2.14(a)(7) Sanitation: designated areas for disposal of fish remains
Designated fish cleaning stations are located in Wahweap, Lees Ferry, Bullfrog and Halls Crossing for public health purposes.
2.14(a)(9) Sanitation: designated areas for disposal of human waste in nondeveloped areas
Human waste is a threat to public health and environmental and scenic values. Waste matter must be buried completely or packed out as required in the compendium when near water sources. Waste matter that is left on the surface desiccates and creates the possibility of spread of infectious elements and is aesthetically unpleasant to other visitors.
Visitation has drastically increased in the Coyote Gulch area and in other slot canyons of the park. Human waste is being scattered all over the area in close proximity to water sources. In order to address this threat and concern of public health, environmental and scenic values, the park has implemented requirements for visitors to pack out their human waste solids in those identified areas.
Toilet paper tends to dry into a solid mass which decomposes slowly if at all in the desert environment and therefore must be packed out of the area.
2.14(b) Sanitation: conditions concerning disposal, containerization and carrying out of human waste
Existing 36 CFR requirements for disposal of solid human waste do not adequately protect the water quality of Lake Powell and its tributaries because of extenuating visitor use patterns (2 million plus visitor nights per year) and fluctuating lake water levels. Disposal of solid human waste as required above is necessary to protect human health and the environment including water quality.
The use of plastic or paper bags is prohibited in human waste facilities because they clog the system or cause equipment to break. Human waste disposal facilities utilize a vacuum process that cannot work properly if plastic or paper bags are disposed of into them.
2.15(a)(1) Areas designated as closed to pets
The prohibition against pets in archaeological sites is intended to protect such areas from unnecessary impacts due to digging or depositing of waste matter.
Marinas, docks, walkways, and launch ramps are all areas which may be congested at times with many other people (and pets). These areas are restricted in order to prevent the unnecessary intrusion of a pet onto other visitors who may not want the pet in their immediate presence but cannot otherwise avoid it or who may feel the pet is in their way unnecessarily. It is also intended to prevent conflicts between visitors, persons and pets, or between animals by reducing the period during which a pet is in the immediate area. Sanitation is also an important factor in this determination as there are no appropriate places for pets to urinate or defecate.
Pets are prohibited along the San Juan River from Clay Hills Crossing upstream to the Glen Canyon NRA boundary per the Bureau of Land Management permit stipulations.
Pets are prohibited in the Orange Cliffs Management Area to remain consistent with the backcountry management plan for Canyonlands NP, which adjoins the boundary of Glen Canyon NRA. Canyonlands NP issues all permits for this area.
The Rainbow Bridge NM GMP establishes a prohibition against pets as an inappropriate activity within the Monument.
Dogs are prohibited from entering Coyote Gulch in order to preserve the scenic, cultural, and experiential values of this desert riparian habitat. Frequent observations of dogs not kept under physical restraint (leashed) indicates an increased potential for adverse impacts on vegetation, water quality, wildlife habitats, and natural quiet. This restriction further serves to limit the potential for the spread of canine diseases to or from native carnivore populations.
2.15(a)(3) Conditions for leaving pets unattended and tied to an object
No determination necessary.
2.15(a)(5) Pet excrement disposal conditions
Pet excrement contributes to sanitation problems along the shores of Lake Powell. It is imperative that, like human wastes, pet wastes are contained and deposited in appropriate and safe ways in order to keep Lake Powell waters safe.
2.15(b) Conditions for using dogs in support of hunting activities
No determination necessary.
2.16 (a)-(c) Horses and pack animals
Over 80 percent of the NRA is open for grazing by livestock. Horses, mules, llamas, goats and burros are common kinds of livestock traditionally used for packing. Accordingly, their use in an area already used by livestock would in and of itself have no additional negative impact on Glen Canyon NRA resources.
In 1988 the use of llamas as pack animals was examined in connection with a commercial use license application. It was determined that the use of llamas would not have an adverse impact relative to other authorized livestock and that in some respects llamas would have less impact than the other type of livestock. For these reasons, llamas are designated as an acceptable pack animal. The closure to llamas in the Orange Cliffs Management Area is addressed in the Canyonlands National Park/Orange Cliffs Backcountry Management Plan.
Horses, mules, burros, llamas, goats and other type of pack animals are prohibited from Stevens Canyon and Stevens Arch. These areas are known to be frequented by the North American Bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis). Bighorn sheep and domestic goats are known carriers of the organism pasteurella. This can be transmitted between Bighorn Sheep and goats if the two come within close contact with one another. This contact and transmission could have a negative impact on the health of the Bighorn herd and the goats as well.
Many studies have shown that both domestic sheep and goats can be a source of vectors for disease transmission to wild bighorn sheep populations in the western United States. Diseases that can affect bighorn populations include bacterial pneumonia, pasteurellosis, and kratoconjunctivitis, with results varying from partial to permanent blindness or death. The general review “Risk Analysis of Disease Transmission between Domestic Sheep and goats and Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep, 2012” (US Forest Service) should be consulted. Because the park has several bighorn herds and both the NPS and state game agencies are working to restore and enhance bighorn populations in the region, the use of goats for packing or other recreational use will not be allowed in Glen Canyon NRA.
Excluding horses and pack animals is intended to limit the amount of resource damage to these heavily used areas. Livestock use and associated by-products are not considered as compatible with heavy concentrations of recreational users.
Archeological sites are easily damaged by livestock and require special protection. Alcoves and overhangs are often archeological sites or paleontological sites, even if not obvious to the casual observer, which require protection from trampling or contamination. Likewise, they are sheltered from the weather and with slow to near zero biological decay rates, manure could accumulate and detract from or destroy natural and cultural values.
The group size limit of 12 animals conforms to the same group size limit established for persons in Section 2.10 and is established for similar reasons: To minimize resource impacts (which are considerably greater as livestock hooves can cause more soil disruption and vegetation damage, vegetation damage as a result of grazing or browsing, greater accumulations of manure, and so forth) and the presence of large numbers of livestock can be very obtrusive on other visitors. This group size limit allows for a minimum of one animal per person or up to 12 animals.
The requirement that only certified weed free feed be carried into the area is intended to prevent the introduction or spread of non-native vegetation.
The requirement to tether or picket stock so as to prevent damage to live trees or shrubs is intended to protect root systems, bark, and foliage from excessive damage which can occur if stock is left restrained in one area for an extended period, even overnight.
2.17(a)(1) Aircraft operation
See 1.5 of the Superintendent’s Compendium Appendix A Determination.
2.17(a)(2) Aircraft operation near docks, piers, swimming beaches and other designated areas
No determination necessary.
2.17(c)(1) Conditions for removing downed aircraft
Procedures were established to provide designated time frames for owners to remove their downed aircraft. Time frames established are reasonable and provide consistency on requirements. The established procedures allow the Superintendent or his/her designee, to track recovery initiation and operations and provides guidelines for charging recovery operation costs to owners if they fail to remove their downed aircraft.
2.18(c) Snowmobiles: designated areas for use
2.19(a) Winter activities on roads and in parking areas: designated areas
No determination necessary.
2.19(b) The towing of persons on skis, sleds, or other sliding devices by motor vehicle or snowmobile is prohibited, except in designated areas or routes
No determination necessary.
2.20 Skating and skateboards
The residential areas, housing areas for concession and NPS employees, provides the principle areas for play and activity by children of residents. Skating and using skateboards are activities one can expect children to enjoy. These areas do not have any conflicting uses involving visitor recreation and they are areas in which traffic hazards are minimized. Similarly, the other three listed areas are provided for use by visitors and are designated as places where the activity can be conducted safely and without conflict with other visitor uses during the periods specified.
No determination necessary.
2.22 (a)(2) Property: leaving property unattended for longer than 24 hours
Vehicles may be left overnight when parked within designated parking lots and in parking areas at designated trailheads to facilitate access to remote areas and for longer visitation opportunities.
Sunken or grounded golf carts and/or other mechanized equipment cannot be left unattended and must be removed from the park and it’s water bodies due to resource concerns.
2.35(a)(3)(i) Alcoholic beverages: areas designated as closed to consumption
No determination necessary.
2.38(b) Fireworks: permits, designated areas, and conditions
No determination necessary.
2.51(e) Public assemblies/meetings: designated areas for public assemblies
This action is necessary in order to comply with 36 CFR 2.51(c)(2) to provide a map (attached) showing the locations available for public assembly and for the sale or distribution of printed matter under 36 CFR 2.52.
The areas provided should not unreasonably interfere with visitor service, but should provide substantial public recognition for any public assembly activity.
2.52(e) Sale and distribution of printed matter: areas designated for such use
This action is necessary in order to comply with 36 CFR 2.51(c)(2) to provide a map (on file) showing the locations available for public assembly under 36 CFR 2.51 and for the sale or distribution of printed matter.
The sale or distribution of printed matter is allowed within park areas provided the material is not solely commercial advertising.
The areas provided should not unreasonably interfere with visitor service, but should provide substantial public recognition for any public assembly activity or the sale or distribution of printed matter.
2.60(a)(3) Designated areas for grazing
No determination necessary.
2.62(b) Memorialization: designation of areas for scattering ashes
All areas within the Natural and Recreation & Resource Utilization zones, as designated in the 1979 Glen Canyon NRA General Management Plan, excluding archaeological sites, are open to the scattering of human ashes from cremation without a permit. At present the incidence of this type activity is minimal. Such activity can occur without causing any negative impacts to the resources of the area.
Areas listed are outside of the Natural and Recreation & Resource Utilization zones.
Rainbow Bridge National Monument is not open to the scattering of human ashes due to it being a recognized culturally sacred site and the broad expanse of archeological sites throughout the monument.