PA - Programmatic Agreement
Paleontological / Paleoecological Resources
Resources such as fossilized plants, animals, or their traces, including both organic and mineralized remains in body or trace form. Paleontological resources are studied and managed in their paleoecological context (that is, the geologic data associated with the fossil that provides information about the ancient environment).
A parking facility where individuals access public transportation as a transfer of mode, usually from private automobiles. Public transportation usually involves express bus service from the lot to a central business district or major activity center. A park-and-ride lot can also serve the dual function of a carpool location.
Park Roads & Parkways Program (PRPP)
Funds for Park Roads & Parkways (PRP) are allocated based on a priority program of projects developed by the National Park Service (NPS) and approved by FHWA. Annually, each park submits to its Regional office a list of improvement priorities. Regional priorities are developed using the park requests. The Regional Directors then cooperatively develop a list of service-wide priorities. Each Federal Lands Highway Division meets periodically with appropriate NPS Regions to establish a program of project to be funded 5 to 10 years into the future. The program considers the service-wide as well as resurfacing, restoration, and rehabilitation and other miscellaneous projects that need improvements within the relative priority and availability of funds. The program of projects is then submitted to NPS Headquarters for coordination and consolidation to a nationwide Park Roads & Parkways Program that NPS Headquarters (WASO) then submits to Federal Lands Highway Office for approval. Information can be found at the following website: http://www.efl.fhwa.dot.gov/design/manual/pddmch02.pdf (pdf).
15% Design [Applies to Park Roads/FLHP Projects]
Provide preliminary centerline and profile with approximate design footprint showing cut and fill limits (to within 20% for 3R and if possible 30 - 40% for 4R projects). Show all alternatives or treatment options at the same level of detail. For each alternative develop horizontal and vertical alignment and all other improvements to best fit topography and minimize environmental and visual impacts. Identify proposed parking areas and overlooks, major drainage improvements, detour routes, and potential material sources and staging areas. Provide preliminary identification of bridges, retaining walls, and guardrails needing to be repaired, replaced, or retained. For each alternative show preliminary estimated affected resource areas and include potential wetland and other mitigation sites.
30% Design [Applies to Park Roads/FLHP Projects]
Provide centerline and profile with approximate design footprint showing cut and fill limits (to within 5% for 3R and if possible 10-15% for 4R projects). Show all alternatives or treatment options at the same level of detail. For each alternative develop horizontal and vertical alignment to best fit topography and minimize environmental and visual impacts. Identify proposed parking areas and overlooks, major drainage improvements, detour routes, and potential material sources and staging areas. Provide preliminary identification of bridges, retaining walls, and guardrails needing to be repaired, replaced, or retained. For each bridge show preliminary type, size, and location (TS&L). For each alternative show estimated affected resource areas and include potential wetland and other mitigation sites.
70% Design [Applies to Park Roads/FLHP Projects]
Provide centerline and profile with final design footprint showing cut and fill limits (within 5% for both 3R and 4R projects). For selected alternative, provide final horizontal and vertical alignment and all other improvements to best fit topography and minimize environmental and visual impacts. Provide final parking areas and overlooks, all drainage improvements, detour routes, and potential material sources and staging areas. Provide final identification of bridges, retaining walls, and guardrails needing to be repaired, replaced, or retained. For each bridge, show final TS&L. For selected alternative, show affected resource areas, and include potential wetland and other mitigation sites. Sometimes permits will be authorized closer to 80-90% design.
A program within Category I of the FLH Program. It is the resurfacing, repair, or rehabilitation of road projects which encompasses overlays, seal-coats and other work that usually doe not involve reconstruction, and is largely contained within the original roadway template.
Includes all of the 3R program with the addition of reconstruction.
Park Road Standards
"The Purpose of Park Roads", last revised in 1984, provides design guidelines and park road classifications applicable to all park units.
Employees of the National Park Service (NPS) who typically reside in or near a National Park or Monument.
Parks Transportation & Allocation Tracking System (PTATS)
A web based application which enables both the NPS and FLH staff to identify NPS Park Roads and Parkways projects approved for implementation and to track approvals at each stage of the project. The application meets NPS and Federal Lands Highway (FLH) requirements to track projects, including funding requests, funding approvals, and project document tracking such as project agreements and revegetation plans. Formerly the Master Budget Sheet (MBS).
PART - Program Assessment Rating Tool
Payments for accepted supplies and services that are only a part of the contract requirements are authorized under law. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-125, Prompt Payment, requires agencies to pay for partial delivery of supplies or partial performance of services unless specifically prohibited by the contract. Although partial payments generally are treated as a method of payment and not as a method of contract financing, using partial payments can assist contractors to participate in Government contracts without, or with minimal, contract financing. (FAR 32.102(d))
Partial Set-Aside for Small Business
Also referred to as a partial small business set-aside. A portion of an acquisition restricted for participation by small business concerns. (FAR 19.502-3(a))
Partial Small Business Set-Aside
See Partial Set-Aside for Small Business.
The termination of a part, but not all, of the work that has not been completed and accepted under a contract. (FAR 49.001)
The process of establishing working relationships among all parties involved in the project through a mutually-developed, formal strategy of commitment and open and free communication.
Any defect which exists at the time of acceptance and is not a latent defect. (FAR 46.101) Patent defects are easily and readily discoverable during a reasonable inspection. Patent defects must be brought to a contractor's attention at or before substantial completion or beneficial occupancy in order to hold the contractor responsible for correcting them.
The combination of sub-base, base course and surface course placed on a sub-grade to support the traffic load and distribute it to the roadbed.
A bond that assures payments as required by law to all persons supplying labor or material in the prosecution of the work provided for in the contract. (FAR 28.001)
PD - Predesign
Pedestrian Crossing / Crosswalk
An area reserved and clearly marked for the passage of pedestrians at street junctions or other locations where drivers must yield the right-of-way by stopping to enable pedestrians to cross safely.
Pedestrian Overpass / Underpass
A facility for pedestrian crossings justified by the following:
- pedestrian crossing volumes,
- type of highway to be crossed, and
- location of adjacent crossing facilities and predominating type and age of persons who will utilize the facility.
PEPC - Planning, Environment & Public Comment
Also referred to as performance-based service contracting. Structuring all aspects of an acquisition around the purpose of the work to be performed as opposed to either the manner by which the work is to be performed or broad and imprecise statements of work. (FAR 37.101)
A service contract that:
- Describes requirements in terms of results required rather than the methods of performance of the work;
- Uses measurable performance standards (i.e., terms of quality, timeliness, quantity, etc.) and quality assurance surveillance plans;
- Specifies procedures for reductions of fee or for reductions to the price of a fixed-price contract when services are not performed or do not meet contract requirements; and
- Includes performance incentives where appropriate. (FAR 37.601)
Contract financing payments made on the basis of:
- Performance measured by objective, quantifiable methods;
- Accomplishment of defined events; or
- Other quantifiable measures of results. (FAR 32.102(f))
A bond that secures performance and fulfillment of the contractor's obligations under the contract. (FAR 8.001(f))
The General Contractor is not released from the Bond until a Final Release of Claims has been executed.
A historic document that graphically depicts the appearance of a historic structure at a certain period through different mediums such as, line drawings, watercolors, engravings, and wood-cuts.
Period of Significance
The span of time in which a property attained the significance for which it meets the National Register Criteria.
Authority to do an act which without such authorization would have been unlawful. The authority is based on law not jurisdiction.
Permit (Compliance & Permitting)
Power or right of a legal or political agency to exercise its authority over a person, subject matter, or territory. Jurisdiction over a subject matter relates to authority derived from the country's constitution or laws to consider a particular case.
- Permitting Introduction
- Permitting, at its broadest, is gaining permission from an Agency with legal authority over a desired action and/or location.
- The National Park Service (NPS) designs and builds projects to meet its goals and responsibilities (16 U.S.C. l 2 3, and 4) as care takers of the National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, and other facilities (collectively referred to as parks). As part of this process, NPS project design teams are directed to comply (NPS Management Policies, 2006) with appropriate federal, state, and local laws, regulations, policies, and guidance. Since the history of each park is unique what are appropriate laws, regulations, policies, and guidance varies from park to park, and sometimes site to site.
- Permitting is dependent on the design process and is interrelated with the NEPA process. Generally the difference between compliance and permitting is that NEPA and Section 106 compliance is an internal process of analysis of project impacts and documentation, while permitting is typically a request for permission from an external Agency to perform an action within that agency’s jurisdiction.
The list of all permits required to implement/build a design at a site, in a jurisdiction, and using assumed standard means and methods of construction. The Permit List is generated by conducting a Permitting Assessment. For Denver Service Center-Line Item Construction (DSC-LIC) projects the permits on the Permit List are assigned by the project’s Interdisciplinary Team (IDT) to one of three classes: Government Furnished, Operational, or Construction Permit. Each class of permit has a different organization/staff responsible for acquiring those permits.
A Permit Plan is prepared for each Government Furnished Permit. The information in the plan is fundamental to the management of acquiring the Government Furnished Permits. This information can be place into two groups: what documentation that will need to be submitted; and how the permit process will proceed (steps and durations). Below are further details on how these two groups fit into the Denver Service Center-Line Item Construction (DSC-LIC) process.
- Submittal Information - Permit Submittal List
Submittal Information, the Permit Submittal List: As part of the Permit Plan, the Permit Lead will research, or direct the research of, the requirements for each permit’s documentation for the application. The Permit Submittal List is used as management tool for procuring, producing, and preparing the needed documents that are require for acquiring, as well as be carried forward and integrated into the final contract documents This includes mitigation, best management practices, and any associated filing fees, public notification, etc.
- Permit Timeline
The Permit Timeline consists of the steps in a permit’s path and how long each step typically takes. The Permit Timeline is applied to the project schedule becoming the Permit Schedule. The Permit Schedule and overall project deliverables must align.
The process of assessing a project’s required permits. The assessment is based on the various jurisdictions that apply to the project, the actions that are part of the project, and site conditions/characteristics. Based on these variables the Permitting Assessment evaluates circumstances that “trigger” specific permits. The output/product of the Permitting Assessment is the Permit List. The Permitting Assessment is an ongoing process throughout the design process (PD through CD) and will be used to evaluate changes. Denver Service Center (DSC) uses the Permit Assessment Form to structure the analysis to ensure it meets National Park Service (NPS), DSC, and Line Item Construction (LIC) needs, which include documentation of the decision process use to evaluate permitting.
The person responsible for the management of the permitting process on a project. The Permitting Lead may prepare all or some of the permitting forms/products. Based on who is the most logical for the project, the Permitting Lead may be a member of Denver Service Center (DSC), an Architect-Engineer (AE) staff, or a sub-consultant.
Physical Description (Historic Structure Report)
A narrative that contains a systematic accounting of all features, materials, and spaces according to age, significance, and condition. Copies of computer-generated inspection reports should be included in the appendix but summarized in the body of the chapter. The narrative should also discuss causes of deterioration and structural inadequacy.
A tangible, visible evidence resulting from materials analysis.
PIH - Plans-in-hand field review
Planning, Environment & Public Comment (PEPC)
Web-based database for use by all National Park System units to track projects and compliance. PEPC was designed to incorporate best practices from existing park and regional processes and can be used by contractors and other agencies.
Plans-in-hand field review (PIH)
Final field review of contract documents prepared for the project plans, specifications and cost estimate.
Plans, Specifications & Estimate (PS&E)
Documents that make up the construction contract for FLLP projects.
PM - Project Manager
PMIS - Project Management Information System
Power of Attorney
The authority given one person or corporation to act for and obligate another, as specified in the instrument creating the power; in corporate suretyship, an instrument under seal which appoints an attorney-in-fact to act in behalf of a surety company in signing bonds. See also Attorney-in-Fact. (FAR 28.001)
PPC - Project Planning & Compliance
This study reviews the significance and suitability of resources within a regional and national context leading to park designation as well as analyzes the feasibility of supporting site management.
A meeting used, generally in complex acquisitions, as a means of briefing prospective bidders and explaining complicated specifications and requirements to them as early as possible after the invitation for bids (IFB) has been issued and before the bids are opened. It must never be used as a substitute for amending a defective or ambiguous invitation for bids. (FAR 14.207)
An orientation meeting between representatives of the Government and a successful construction contract offeror before the start of construction at the work site. (FAR 36.212)
An orientation letter or other written communication from the Contracting Officer to a successful construction contract offeror prior to the start of construction at the worksite. (FAR 36.212)
In general, Predesign consists of the Project Program that has two integrated components, a narrative list of functions and a Site Analysis. Included are specific ideas of what functions should be included (or excluded), how they should be used, and how other functions should relate. This applies to new construction, rehabilitation projects, utility and site projects, adaptive use of historic structures and cultural landscape treatments.
Specific to the National Park Service (NPS), a building and site program evolves from previous analysis documented in the PMIS and Facility Planning Model , Historic Structure Report, and Cultural Landscape Report that shall be incorporated when provided. A Site Analysis is performed using the Site Analysis checklist.
- Programmatic workshops and interviews
- Preliminary site investigations
- Bubble Diagrams and or Matrices
Schematic Design alternative that is chosen through the value-based decision-making process. (See Value Analysis.)
A structure constructed in the period before recorded history.
Preliminary PA Scope [Applies to Park Roads/FLHP Projects]
Refine the initial scope of a project based on the PMIS project proposal. Scope at this stage will be focused on problem identification, not problem solution.
Roles and Responsibilities: Commissioning the project team: Identify key team members for project development. This will include at a minimum project manager(s), and critical sub-element managers such as an environmental manager. Also included will be the key points of contact for all entities involved in project delivery. Not all members of the final project development team need to be identified but it is understood that the key members have the authority within their respective organizations to obtain human resources necessary to fill gaps within the project team as needed.
Schedule Budget: Minimal. Dates and funds identified to prepare environmental work plan, reconnaissance report and preparation of comprehensive PA.
Management Endorsement: Management for all organizations agree with the initial project scope and direction and agree with the allocation of human resources associated with the commitments implied by the roles and responsibilities assigned.
PRES - Parkwide Road Engineering Studies
The act or process of applying measures necessary to sustain the existing form, integrity, and materials of an historic property. Work, including preliminary measures to protect and stabilize the property, generally focuses upon the ongoing maintenance and repair of historic materials and features rather than extensive replacement and new construction. New exterior additions are not within the scope of this treatment; however, the limited and sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems and other code-required work to make properties functional is appropriate within a preservation project.
Preservation (Cultural Landscape Report)
Preservation is defined as the act or process of applying measures necessary to sustain the existing form, integrity, and materials of a historic property. Work, including preliminary measures to protect and stabilize the property, generally focuses upon the ongoing maintenance and repair of historic materials and features rather than extensive replacement and new construction. New additions are not within the scope of this treatment; however, the limited and sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems and other code-required work to make properties functional is appropriate within a preservation project.
Action to mitigate wear and deterioration of a historic property without altering its historic character. Action includes protecting its condition, repairing when its condition warrants with the least degree of intervention including limited replacement in-kind, replacing an entire feature in-kind when the level of deterioration or damage or materials precludes repair, and stabilization to protect damaged materials or features from additional damage. For archeological sites it includes work to moderate, prevent, or arrest erosion.
- A notice sent to concerns on the solicitation mailing list, in lieu of initially forwarding complete bid sets. Use is at the discretion of the Contracting Officer, but is particularly suitable when invitations for bids and solicitation mailing lists are lengthy. It must:
- Specify the final date for receipt of requests for a complete bid set;
- Briefly describe the requirement and furnish other essential information to enable concerns to determine whether they have an interest in the invitation; and
- Notify concerns that, if no bid is to be submitted, they should advise the issuing office in writing if future invitations are desired for the type of supplies or services involved. Drawings, plans, and specifications normally will not be furnished with the presolicitation notice. The return date of the notice must be sufficiently in advance of the mailing date of the invitation for bids to permit an accurate estimate of the number of bid sets required. Bid sets must be sent to concerns that request them in response to the notice. (FAR 14.205-4(c))
- A notice sent to prospective bidders about a construction requirement sufficiently in advance of the invitation for bids to stimulate the interest of the greatest number of prospective bidders. Such notices must:
- Describe the proposed work in sufficient detail to disclose the nature and volume of work (in terms of physical characteristics and estimated price range);
- State the location of the work;
- Include tentative dates for issuing invitations, opening bids, and completing contract performance;
- State where plans will be available for inspection without charge;
- Specify a date by which requests for the invitation for bids should be submitted;
- Notify recipients that if they do not submit a bid they should advise the issuing office as to whether they want to receive future presolicitation notices;
- State whether award is restricted to small businesses;
- Specify any amount to be charged for solicitation documents; and
- Be publicized in the Commerce Business Daily. (FAR 36.213-2)
- A contract or contractual action entered into by the United States for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind. (FAR 3.502-1)
- A contract or contractual action entered into by the United States for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind. (FAR 52.203-7(a))
- A person who has entered into a prime contract with the United States. (FAR 3.502-1)
- Any person who holds, or has held, a Government contract subject to E.O. 11246. (FAR 22.801)
- A person who has entered into a prime contract with the United States. (FAR 52.203-7(a))
Procurement Technician (PT)
Performs clerical and technical work that supports procurement of supplies, services, and/or construction.
Product literature (data, cut sheets, product information, etc.) for all specified products, materials, and equipment.
Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)
A systematic method of assessing the performance of program activities across the Federal government.
The person responsible for program plans, funding, schedules, and timely completion within cost limitations. Planning responsibilities include developing acquisition strategies and promoting full and open competition.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 expanded access for people with disabilities. "No otherwise qualified individual…shall be excluded from or be denied the benefits of…any program or activity." Programs are many things: activities, education, publications, and interpretation/exhibits.
Programmatic Agreement (PA)
A document in the section 106 process that records the terms and conditions agreed upon
- when effects on historic properties are similar and repetitive or are multi-State or regional in scope;
- when effects on historic properties cannot be fully determined prior to approval of an undertaking;
- when nonfederal parties are delegated major decision making responsibilities;
- where routine management activities are undertaken at Federal installations, facilities, or other land-management units;
- where other circumstances warrant a departure from the normal section 106 process.
Specific types of non-adverse effect undertakings that can be reviewed for Section 106 purposes by NPS park personnel without further review by ACHP or SHPO.
Project Inspector or Supervisor / Construction Inspector
See Construction Management Representative (CMR).
The project management process encompasses these tasks:
- Assembling a project team with the expertise necessary to execute the project
- Establishing the technical objectives
- Planning the project
- Managing changes to the scope
- Controlling the undertaking so that it is completed on schedule and within budget.
Project Management Information System (PMIS)
A service wide intranet application within the National Park Service (NPS) to manage information about requests for project funding. It enables parks and NPS offices to submit project proposals to be reviewed, approved and prioritized at park units, regional directorates, and the Washington Office (WASO). PMIS is a centralized web-based relational database management system (RDBMS) hosted and maintained at the Information and Telecommunications Center (ITC) in WASO.
In response to a budget call for a particular NPS program for a specific fiscal year (FY), project proposals are submitted, reviewed, approved, prioritized and then formulated under an available funding source by utilizing PMIS. During formulation process for a budget call, a program manager at WASO or a budget officer at a regional directorate determines which project funding requests meet the eligibility criteria for the call to be considered as part of the NPS Budget for a specific FY.
PMIS Project Statement
The statement resulting from the budget call process that includes a project description, justification, amount of funds requested, and a Class C Estimate.
PMIS Class C Construction Cost Estimate
The conceptual construction cost estimate that is part of the PMIS Project Statement.
Project Management Plan (formerly "Project Agreement")
A document that is developed at the beginning of the project that defines the scope and schedule, as well as mechanism for modifications. The plan is signed by all shareholders.
Project Management Plan [Applies to FLHP Projects] (formerly "Project Agreement")
A plan between all parties involved in project development and implementation that defines the scope, schedule, budget, roles and responsibilities for the project. It is signed by officials at the park, region, DSC and FHWA who have the authority commission the project and commit fiscal and human resources to it. Changes to the project management plan are coordinated by the project manager.
Project Manager (PM)
The person responsible for program plans, funding, schedules, and timely completion within cost limitations. Planning responsibilities include developing acquisition strategies and promoting full and open competition. The Project Managers are the primary Contracting Officer Representatives (CORs) and may delegate alternate COR responsibilities to the Project Specialists.
Project Planning & Compliance (PPC)
Provides a conceptual project program, resource assessments, development alternatives, public involvement, and NEPA documentation for projects over $500,000. The project planning and compliance phase bridges the gap between planning and design. Early evaluation of project scope, natural and cultural resource impacts, design alternatives, and cost allows appropriate resource assessments, surveys, cost analyses and site planning to take place before beginning predesign. Assessing projects at this stage (2 to 4 years from construction) allows the project scope and cost estimate to be adjusted, leading to projects that can be built on schedule and in budget. Project planning and compliance is the first phase of the design process, providing the conceptual project program, resource assessments, development alternatives, public involvement, and NEPA documentation that ultimately translates into good design.
A 5-page report submitted to the Development Advisory Board (DAB). The Project Review Report provides information to WASO Construction Program Management staff, members of the Servicewide Development Advisory Board (DAB), and the non-NPS Advisers to the Director for their review of major construction projects, usually following schematic design. The report form is an MS Word file that 1) outlines the current proposed scope and cost of the project; 2) compares it to the original proposed scope and cost as well as to the comparable unit costs of similar facilities constructed by others; 3) describes alternatives considered including mandatory alternatives that are 90% and 75% of the original cost estimate; and 4) analyzes and explains the rationale for any changes. Required attachments include a Class B estimate (based on quantities rather than unit costs of comparable facilities), copies of any value analyses conducted during schematic design or predesign, and a copy of the checklist from the USGBC Leadership in Energy and Enviromental Design (LEED™) rating system showing the sustainable features to be included in any new building or major building rehabilitation projects. Other typical attachments include park brochures and graphics that provide an overview of the project, its location in the park, and a site plan showing project work.
The Project Program includes a Site Analysis, a Site Program, and an Architectural Program. (If the project does not include a building or structure, an Architectural Program may not be required. Conversely, if the project is strictly a building, with no site components, a Site Analysis and Site Program may not be required.)
Project Record Drawings
Marked up set of drawings maintained and edited by the Construction Contractor that may include shop drawings, modifications, sketches, or additional drawings depicting how the project was actually built.
Project Resource Coordinator
The Resource Coordinator is assigned to a Denver Service Center (DSC) branch with a regional geographic focus and will function as a project manager on specific projects and provide first line supervision to the project specialists.
Project Specialist (PS)
Project Specialists are responsible for the day-to-day management of A/E services, construction management services, and construction contractor activities under the direction of the PM. In parks with multiple projects, a PM may direct several project specialists. Project specialists may also serve as Alternate CORs.
The Government has strict policies on making invoice payments to contractors. Most payments are due the 30th day after the designated billing office has received a proper invoice from the contractor or the 30th day after Government acceptance of supplies delivered or services performed by the contract, whichever is later. Agencies must pay an interest penalty, without request from the contractor, for late invoice payments or improperly taken discounts. (FAR 32.903 and 32.905)
Action to safeguard a historic structure by defending or guarding it from further deterioration, loss, or attack or shielding it from danger or injury. Such action is generally of a temporary nature and anticipates future preservation treatment. Protection in its broadest sense also includes long-term efforts to deter or prevent vandalism, theft, arson, and other criminal acts against cultural resources.
Also referred to as a bid protest or protest against award. A written objection by an interested party to any of the following:
- A solicitation or other request by an agency for offers for a contract for the procurement of property or services;
- The cancellation of the solicitation or other request;
- An award or proposed award of the contract; or
- A termination or cancellation of an award of the contract, if the written objection contains an allegation that the termination or cancellation is based in whole or in part on improprieties concerning the award of the contract. (FAR 33.101)
Protest After Award
A protest filed before contract award.
Protest Against Award
Protest Before Award
A protest filed before contract award.
PRP - Park Roads & Parkways
PRPP - Park Roads & Parkways Program
PS - Project Specialist
PS&E - Plans, Specifications & Estimate
PT - Procurement Technician
PTATS - Parks Transportation & Allocation Tracking System
Public & Agency Scoping
Scoping is a process intended to obtain the views of other agencies and the public regarding the scope (breadth) of an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement. Scoping should occur as early as practicable in the NEPA process. The process should identify key issues on which to focus analyses; identify and eliminate insignificant issues; and determine other environmental review and consultation requirements.
The public is involved in planning and decision-making to ensure that the National Park Service (NPS) fully understands and consider the public's interests in the parks as part of their national heritage, cultural traditions, and community surroundings. (Director's Order 2, May 1998)
The Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) direct federal agencies to engage in a public scoping process, because public involvement is the cornerstone of decision-making in NEPA and ensuring that the public voice is heard and understood is the key to successful decisions. The scoping process identifies public and agency concerns; clearly defines the environmental issues to be examined and eliminates nonsignificant issues; and identifies state and local agency requirements which must be addressed. Effective scoping ensures that public concerns are identified early and properly studied, that issues of little significance do not consume time and effort, and that the NEPA process is thorough and balanced.
The manner in which public input is sought is left to the discretion of the agency. The scoping format may be a workshop, meeting, hearing, or other option. Public meetings, although often held, are not required. If a public meeting is held, attendees at public meetings must be allowed to express substantive concerns but speakers may be limited to a certain number of minutes to ensure that all who wish to speak are heard in a reasonable amount of time. The meeting should be advertised by a reliable method such as a purchased ad, direct mail, Internet electronic mail, notices posted in local gathering spots, or community or other organizations spreading the word. Press releases announcing the meeting are published or aired at the discretion of the media, and are not considered as reliable or effective as an advertisement.
Published Location Factor
This factor indicates the cost of commercial construction for major commercial centers(cities) and is expressed as a percentage compared to the national average. The approximate range of this factor is from 130 (New York, NY) to 65 (Clarksdale, Mississippi), which indicates that the cost of construction would be 30 percent more in New York City, and 35 percent less in Clarksdale when compared to the national average. There are many published location factors available. As an example, R.S. Means publishes location factors for over 500 U.S cities.
An itemized list of construction deficiencies identified during the final inspection that the contractor is required to correct before the client takes possession of the project.
An offer by the Government to buy supplies or services, including construction and research and development, upon specified terms and conditions, using simplified acquisition procedures. (FAR 13.001)
PWE - Project Work Element