Definitions - E

Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act. (FAR 19.800(a)) This is a program to ensure maximum practical contract opportunities to socially, economically disadvantaged firms.

8(a) Contract
A contract with the Small Business Administration under a program established by Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act. Under that program, the Small Business Administration is authorized to enter into all types of contracts with other agencies and let subcontracts for performing those contracts to firms eligible for program participation. (FAR 19.800(a))

8(a) Contractor
A Small Business Administration subcontractor under an 8(a) contract. (FAR 19.800(a))

EA - Environmental Assessment

Eastern Federal Lands Highway Division (EFLHD)

EC - Electronic Commerce

ECS - Environmental Commitment Summary

Effective Date of Termination
The date on which the notice of termination requires the contractor to stop performance under the contract. If the termination notice is received by the contractor subsequent to the date fixed for termination, then the effective date of termination means the date the notice is received. (FAR 49.001)

EFLHD - Eastern Federal Lands Highway Division

EFT - Electronic Funds Transfer

EIS - Environmental Impact Statement

Electronic Commerce (EC)
A paperless process including electronic mail, electronic bulletin boards, electronic funds transfer, electronic data interchange, and similar techniques for accomplishing business transactions. The use of terms commonly associated with paper transactions (e.g., copy, document, page, printed, sealed envelope, and stamped) must not be interpreted to restrict the use of electronic commerce. Contracting Officers may supplement electronic transactions by using other media to meet the requirement of any contract action governed by FAR (e.g., transmission of a hard copy of drawings). (FAR 4.502(a))

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
A transfer payment transaction instruction given to the Federal Reserve System. (FAR 32.902)

The vertical distance of a point above mean sea level or above another datum.

A raised earth structure on which the roadway pavement structure is placed.

Embankment Foundation
The material below the original ground surface, the physical characteristics of which affect the support of the embankment.

Emergency Relief for Federally Owned Roads (ERFO)
When Federal roads have suffered serious damage, the Secretary of Transportation may rule that Highway Trust funds can be used to repair the damage. This damage could have been the result of natural disasters over a wide area (such as floods, hurricanes, tidal waves, earthquakes, severe storms, landslides) or catastrophic failures from and external cause. For ERFO purposes, 23 U.S.C. 125 defines Federal roads as follows: Forest highways, forest development roads, park roads, parkways, public lands highways, public lands development roads, and Indian reservation roads.

Emerging Small Business Concern
A small business concern whose size is no greater than 50 percent of the numerical size standard applicable to the standard industrial classification code assigned to a contracting opportunity. (FAR 19.1002)

The release of pollutants into the air.

Enabling Legislation
The congressional mandate that establishes a National Park. It may include a park's boundaries, set the parameters for how the park is managed, describe its interpretive themes and significance. It may also mandate special conditions of operation or may establish conditions that are contrary to NPS policy.

Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA)
Requires federal agencies to insure that any action authorized, funded or carried out does not jeopardize the continued existence of any endangered or threatened species or result in the destruction or adverse modifications of critical habitat. Section 7 requires all federal agencies to consult with Interior and to " that any action authorized, funded or carried out by such agenc(ies) not likely to jeopardize the continued existence or destruction or adverse modification of habitat of such species which is...critical."

Energy Use Estimate
An estimate, generally at the schematic design level (or before), of the overall annual energy usage of the completed project. The energy use estimate should incorporate and reflect building specific modeling inputs (such as wall/window ratios, shading nominal R-Values, mechanical system efficiencies, lighting power densities, estimated infiltration rates, ventilation etc.). The energy use estimate should be based on local or nearby weather data and be provided in the following forms:

  • Energy Utilization Index (EUI) in kBTU/sf/year. If the project is a renovation of an existing building, an EUI should be calculated for the existing conditions as well as the proposed design. (For projects with no buildings annual energy use should be provided in kBTU/year)
  • Annual building consumption as a percentage of a similar building built to comply with ASHRAE 90.1(including all site energy sources)

An example tool for determining the energy use estimate is ENERGY-10©. Regardless of which tool is used, provide, in tabular form, all the assumed modeling inputs in a summary document. The EUI calculation shall also include information about the environmental impact of the project. This shall be provided in the following forms:

  • Greenhouse Gases (GHG) / CO2 Equivalent in Tons/year. If the project is a renovation of an existing building, the GHG/CO2 should be calculated for the existing conditions as well as the proposed design.

If the project will incorporate renewable energy systems (I.E. Photovoltaic, turbines, etc.), this information should be provided in the following forms:

  • Installation cost of the proposed renewable energy systems in $.
  • Amount of renewable energy generated in kWh/Year
  • A determination if the project will achieve carbon neutrality.

An FHWA program established in 1991 as a set-aside of 10% from the largest FHWA program, the Surface Transportation Program (STP). In FY 2006, $6.2 billion is available for the STP, making $620 million available for Enhancement projects.

Environmental Assessment (EA)
A brief NEPA document that is prepared to:

  1. determine whether the impact of a proposed action on the human environment could be significant;
  2. to aid NPS in compliance with NEPA by evaluating a proposal that will have no significant impacts, but may have measurable adverse impacts; or
  3. evaluate a proposal that either is not described on the list of categorically excluded actions, or is on the list but exceptional circumstances apply.

Environmental Commitment Summary (ECS)
A list of all environmental commitments from all sources such as an EIS/Record of Decision, EA/FONSI, BA/BO, Section 106 Memorandum of Agreement or Programmatic Agreement, Statement of Findings, consultation requirements, etc.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
A detailed NEPA analysis document that is prepared, with extensive public involvement, when a proposed action or alternatives have the potential for significant impact on the human environment.

Environmental Leadership
Advocating on a personal and organizational level best management practices and the principals of sustainability, and making decisions that demonstrate a commitment to those practices and principals.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The Federal agency charged with developing and enforcing national environmental policies. The EPA oversees Federal policy regarding air and water pollution, among other topics.

Environmental Work Plan (EWP)
A plan that defines the scope, schedule, budget, roles and responsibilities for environmental (cultural and natural) compliance activities. Schedule integrates resource issues and a compliance activities schedule into the project development process and design and construction schedule from FHWA and correlates to milestone dates established in the project agreement. Project compliance budget identified by elements and activities.

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency

ERFO - Emergency Relief for Federally Owned Roads

ESA - Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended

Ethnographic Landscape
An area containing a variety of natural and cultural resources that traditionally associated people define as heritage resources. The area may include plant and animal communities, structures, and geographic features, each with their own special local names.

Ethnographic Overview and Assessment
A basic report that emphasizes the analysis and review of accessible archival and documentary data relating to park ethnographic resources and the groups who traditionally define such cultural and natural features as significant to their ethnic heritage and cultural viability.

Ethnographic Resources
Objects and places, including sites, structures, landscapes, and natural resources, with traditional cultural meaning and value to associated peoples. Research and consultation with associated people identifies and explains the places and things they find culturally meaningful. Ethnographic resources eligible for the National Register of Historic Places are called traditional cultural properties.

Part of the discipline of cultural anthropology concerned with the systematic description and analysis of cultural systems or lifeways, such as hunting, agriculture, fishing, other food procurement strategies, family life festivals and religious celebrations. Ethnographic studies of contemporary people and cultures rely heavily on participant observation as well as interviews, oral histories, and review of relevant documents.

EWP - Environmental Work Plan

Executive Summary (Historic Structure Report)
This introductory text provides a concise account of:

  1. research done to produce the HSR
  2. major research findings
  3. major issues identified in the project management plan
  4. recommendations for treatment or use

Deviations from park planning documents should be identified here and discussed more fully in the body of the report. Also, limitations that were placed on the study can be described here. Additional research needs may also be acknowledged in this section.

Exhibit Plan
A guide for the development of exhibits that support the interpretive themes of a park. The final production-ready exhibit plan identifies the museum objects and graphics to be exhibited. Detailed drawings provide specifications on environmental and security needs for objects, exhibit cases and special mounts needed to support objects.

Exhibit Specialist
A craftsman with journeyman or master-level skills and specialized experience in historic preservation methods and philosophy.

Existing Conditions (Historic Structure Report)
Current physical condition of a structure is documented in narrative and graphic formats.

Exotic Plant or Exotic
NRCS website: Exotic Plant

In transportation terms, this is any allowable expense associated with a project or program.

Extensive Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation which alters or removes character defining features.

External Regulatory Permitting

  • Permitting Introduction
    • Permitting, at its broadest, is gaining permission from an Agency with legal authority over a desired action and/or location.
    • The National Park Service (NPS) designs and builds projects to meet its goals and responsibilities (16 U.S.C. l 2 3, and 4) as care takers of the National Parks, Monuments, Recreation Areas, and other facilities (collectively referred to as parks). As part of this process, NPS project design teams are directed to comply (NPS Management Policies, 2006) with appropriate federal, state, and local laws, regulations, policies, and guidance. Since the history of each Park is unique, appropriate laws, regulations, policies, and guidance varies from Park to Park, and sometimes site to site.
    • Permitting is dependent on the design process and is interrelated with the NEPA process. Generally the difference between compliance and permitting is that NEPA and Section 106 compliance is an internal process of analysis of project impacts and documentation, while permitting is typically a request for permission from an external Agency to perform an action within that agency’s jurisdiction.
  • The Department of Interior (DOI) and NPS require projects to be developed and constructed in accordance with all applicable laws, regulations, and codes. Permits and permissions shall be identified during the design process. NPS expects that External Regulatory Permitting will be reviewed during all stages of design to ensure projects can be legally built. Permitting in the design process is divided into 3 parts:
  • Permitting Lead
  • Permitting Process Flowchart (pdf)