Definitions - L

Land, Water Conservation Fund Act (LWCFA)
Implemented in 1965, this Act provides National Park Service and other Federal land management agencies with the authority to collect recreation use and entrance fees. It also regulates how funds can be collected and utilized.

Landscape Characteristics
The tangible and intangible characteristics of a landscape that define and characterize the landscape and that, individually and collectively gives a landscape its character and aid in understanding its cultural value.

Latent Defect
A defect which exists at the time of acceptance but cannot be discovered by a reasonable inspection. (FAR 46.101 - Federal Acquisition Regulation) There is no time limit on a latent defect; the contractor is always responsible for correcting latent defects.

LCS - List of Classified Structures

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED™)
The United States Green Building Council's (USGBC) LEED Green Building Rating System is a proprietary program that evaluates environmental performance from a "whole building" perspective over a building's life cycle, providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a "green building". LEED is based on accepted energy and environmental principles and strikes a balance between known effective practices and emerging concepts. LEED is a self-certifying system designed for rating new and existing buildings.

LEED™ - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

LEED™ Project Checklist
A summary of the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) evaluation using the checklist provided by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC).

Left-Turn Lane
A traffic lane within the normal surfaced width of a roadway, or an auxiliary lane adjacent to or within a median, reserved for left-turning vehicles at an intersection.

Letter Contract
A written preliminary contractual instrument that authorizes the contractor to begin immediately manufacturing supplies or performing services. (FAR 16.603-1 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Level-of-Service Analysis (LOS)
An analysis that describes the amount of traffic congestion in an area.

Levels of Documentary Research (Historic Structure Report (HSR))

  • Exhaustive - Research employing all published and documentary sources of known or presumed relevance, interviewing all knowledgeable persons regardless of location, and thoroughly analyzing and presenting findings from all data of direct and indirect relevance.
  • Thorough - Research in selected published and documentary sources of known or presumed relevance that are readily accessible without extensive travel and that promise expeditious extraction of relevant data, interviewing all knowledgeable persons who are readily available, and presenting findings in no greater detail than required by the project management plan.
  • Limited - Research in available published sources, usually of a secondary character; research in documentary sources if easily accessible and known to be of high yield; brief interviews of readily available persons to answer specific questions; and a report in no greater detail than directly required by the scope in the project management plan.

Levels of Physical Investigation (Historic Structure Report (HSR))
Physical investigations can include three parts: recordation of physical evidence to interpret evolution of building construction and integrity, feature inventory, and condition assessment (which includes causes of deterioration). The need for any of the three should be explicitly defined in the scope of work.

  • Exhaustive - Investigating all features, with destructive investigation as necessary, to establish as exactly as possible all recoverable detail. This level of investigation is usually in response to a restoration or reconstruction management objective. National Park Service encourages non-destructive evaluation techniques and limited destructive investigations. A detailed feature inventory and a condition assessment most likely would be included in an exhaustive physical investigation.
  • Thorough - Nondestructive investigation using all appropriate technical means. This level of investigation is usually in response to a preservation management objective. A complete but not overly detailed feature inventory and condition assessment might be included in a thorough physical investigation.
  • Limited - Nondestructive investigation for specific materials. This level of investigation is usually in response to a management objective regarding a feature. Therefore it may not include a complete feature inventory or condition assessment. A limited physical investigation also might be used when recording an ancillary structure to an ensemble of structures on a property where only the main building retains primary significance.

The minimal level of investigation required for incremental research is a clear understanding of the period(s) of significance, a limited level of documentation for the overall structure, a limited level of physical investigation of the feature, and identification of all character-defining features for the entire structure.

LIC - Line-Item Construction

Life Cycle Costing (Analysis)
An accounting method that analyzes the total costs of a product or service, including construction, maintenance, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, useful life, salvage, and disposal.

Line-Item Construction (LIC)
The list of construction projects that are appropriated funds by project name each budget year. The list is made up of National Park Service requested and congressionally requested projects.

Liquidated Damages
A stipulation in a contract on monetary amount that must be paid by the contractor if the contractor fails to deliver supplies or perform services as specified in the contract or any modification. Payments are in lieu of actual damages related to the failure. The rate (e.g., dollars per day of delay) is fixed in the contract and must be reasonable considering probable actual (not punitive) damages related to any failure in contract performance. (FAR 11.502(b) and 52.211-11(a) - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

List of Classified Structures (LCS)
The primary computerized database containing information about historic and prehistoric structures in which the National Park Service has or plans to acquire any legal interest. Properties included in the LCS are either in or eligible for the National Register or are to be treated as cultural resources by law, policy, or decision reached through the planning process even though they do not meet all National Register requirements.

List of Deficiencies
An itemized list of construction deficiencies identified during the beneficial occupancy inspection that the contractor is required to correct before the client takes possession of the project.

The place where the historic structure was constructed or the place where the historic event occurred.

Location Factors
Location Factors consist of the Published Location Factor, the Remoteness Factor, and the Federal Wage Rate Factor. These factors can greatly influence the cost of labor, equipment and material.

LOS - Level-of-Service Analysis

LWCFA - Land, Water Conservation Fund Act


Last updated: April 22, 2021

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