Definitions - S

Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy For Users (SAFETEA-LU)
Enacted August 2005, it authorizes the Federal surface transportation programs for highways, highway safety, and transit for the 5-year period 2005-2009.

The proportion used in determining the relationship of a representation to that which it represents. To draw or reproduce in accordance with a particular proportion or scale.

Schematic Design (SD)
In general, Schematic Design is the process of transforming information from the Predesign phase into drawings, and other presentation media, that illustrate the scale and relationship of project components. As the design evolves, and the project comes to life, additional questions or new ideas will generate alternatives. Schematic sketches capture the essence of the design in plans, elevations, sections and perspectives. This is a critical phase for studying and resolving important design issues.

Specific to the National Park Service, Schematic Design is used to verify and clarify the technical and spatial assumptions made in the Project Program. The schematic design also carries the project to the level of detail required to identify any critical issues not covered in predesign. A presentation of the preferred schematic alternative is prepared for the Investment Review Board (IRB) just prior to completion of the Schematic Design phase. Comments from the Investment Review Board are then incorporated into the final Schematic Design.


  • Perspective presentation drawings
  • Physical and computer image models
  • Digital and Film photography
  • Microsoft PowerPoint slides
  • Computer Printers and Plotters

Schematic Design Alternatives
Schematic Design Alternatives are differing schematic design approaches applied to the same programmatic requirements or objectives developed in Predesign. Number of alternatives shall range between 2 and 10+ depending on what is an appropriate range for the specific project. Alternatives might include variations in sustainability level, indoor vs outdoor space, space sizes and organization, aesthetics and style, basic versus secondary functions, wants versus needs, orientation and siting, preservation of historic fabric or natural resources, varying levels of performance, speed of construction etc.

All alternatives shall be within net available funds and shall meet the program requirements established through Predesign tasks, with at least one alternative significantly below net available funds (75% +/- 5% net available funds). Schematic Design Alternatives are prepared prior to the Value Analysis. The preferred alternative is then selected using a Value Based Decision-Making process.

Schematic Design Drawings
Schematic Design Drawings are typically quick, free-hand, artistic sketches using various graphic media that can range anywhere from trace and pencil to presentation board with color photo-real computer simulations. Graphics are diagrammatic, not always to scale, illustrating preliminary building and site designs.

Schematic Design Preferred Alternative
The preferred design alternative, as selected by the National Park Service in the Conceptual Stage Value Analysis Study, to be further developed.

Scope and Budget Consistency Reviews
The ongoing processes utilized by the design and construction teams to ensure that the evolving design and design details are consistent with the approved Project Program, and within the available construction funds.

Scope of Services (SOSs)
Outline of Architect/Engineer contract services required.

A component under project initiation. During the scoping trip, the project manager coordinates with the park, region, and the Denver Service Center Planning Design Services to establish the scoping team. The project manager and park coordinate the scoping trip and develop the draft project management plan.

Scoping Meeting
Meeting held between lead designers, project manager, and key park staff, typically on the site of the project, to determine overall parameters of the proposed undertaking.

Scoping Report
A report documenting the detailed results of the engineering and resource field review that occurs during the initial scoping of the project. This is the first technical assessment of field conditions and issues identified in the preliminary project management plan. It forms the detailed basis for preparation of a comprehensive project management plan and the environmental work plan.

SD - Schematic Design

Seal Coat
An asphalt coating, sometimes with cover aggregate, applied to the surface of a pavement for the purpose of waterproofing and preserving the surface, altering the surface texture of the pavement or providing resistance to traffic abrasion.

Sealed Bidding
A method of contracting that employs competitive bids, public bid opening, and awards. Award is made to that responsible bidder whose bid, conforming to the invitation for bids, will be most advantageous to the Government consider only price and price-related factors included in the invitation. (FAR 14.101 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Section 106 Compliance
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, which requires federal agencies to take into account the effects of their proposed undertakings on properties included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places and give the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation a reasonable opportunity to comment on the proposed undertakings.

Section 404
Under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, the United States (U.S.) Army Corps of Engineers issues permits for activities that result in the discharge of dredged or fill material into "waters of the United States," including wetlands. Regulated activities range from depositing fill for building pads or roads to discharges associated with land-clearing.

The term "waters of the United States" is defined very broadly. It means navigable waters, tributaries to navigable waters, interstate waters, the oceans out to 200 miles, and intrastate waters which are used by interstate travelers for recreation or other purposes, as a source of fish or shellfish sold in interstate commerce, or for industrial purposes by industries engaged in interstate commerce.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers administers the day-to-day Section 404 program, including individual permit decisions and jurisdictional determinations, developing policy and guidance, and enforcing Section 404 provisions. An individual Section 404 permit is usually required for actions resulting in potentially significant impacts. However, for most discharges that will have only minimal adverse effects, the Army Corps of Engineers often grants general permits. These may be issued on a nationwide, regional, or state basis for particular categories of activities (for example, minor road crossings, utility line backfill, and bedding) as a means to expedite the permitting process.

Service Contract

  1. Any Government contract, the principal purpose of which is to furnish services in the United States through the use of service employees, except as exempted under Section 7 of the Service Contract Act, or any subcontract at any tier thereunder. (FAR 22.1001 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)
  2. A contract that directly engages the time and effort of a contractor whose primary purpose is to perform an identifiable task rather than to furnish an end item of supply. A service contract may be either a nonpersonal or personal contract. It can also cover services performed by either professional or nonprofessional personnel whether on an individual or organizational basis. Some of the areas in which service contracts are found include the following:
    1. Maintenance, overhaul, repair, servicing, rehabilitation, salvage, modernization, or modification of supplies, systems, or equipment;
    2. Routine recurring maintenance of real property;
    3. Housekeeping and base services;
    4. Advisory and assistance services;
    5. Operation of Government-owned equipment facilities, and systems;
    6. Communications services;
    7. Architect-Engineering;
    8. Transportation and related services; and
    9. Research and development. (FAR 37.101)

Service Contract Act
The Service Contract Act of 1965, as amended. It requires that service contracts over $2,500 contain mandatory provisions regarding minimum wages and fringe benefits, safe and sanitary working conditions, notification to employees of the minimum allowable compensation, and equivalent Federal employee classifications and wage rates. (FAR 22.1001 and 22.1002-1- Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Service Road
A road, generally unimproved, used to transport personnel, materials or equipment for the operation or maintenance of utilities located on a highway right-of-way.

Set-Aside for Small Business
The reserving of an acquisition exclusively for participation by small business concerns. A set-aside may be open to all small businesses. A set-aside of a single acquisition or a class of acquisitions may be total or partial. (FAR 19.501(a) - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

The physical environment of a historic property; the character of the place in which the property played its historical role.

Shop Drawings
Drawings submitted by the construction contractor or a subcontractor at any tier or required under a construction contract, showing in detail:

  1. The proposed fabrication and assembly of structural elements;
  2. The installation (i.e., form, fit, and attachment details) of materials or equipment; or
  3. Both. (FAR 36.102- Federal Acquisition Regulation)

SHPO - State Historic Preservation Officer

SIC - Standard Industrial Classification

Signature or Signed
The discrete, verifiable symbol of an individual which, when affixed to a writing with the knowledge and consent of the individual, indicates a present intention to authenticate the writing. This includes electronic symbols. (FAR 2.101 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

See Historical Significance.

Simplified Acquisition Procedures
The methods prescribed in Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 13 for making purchases of supplies or services. (FAR 2.101)

Simplified Acquisition Threshold
$100,000, except that in the case of any contract to be awarded and performed, or purchase to be made, outside the United States in support of a contingency operation or a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation, the term means $200,000. (FAR 2.101 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

SIP - State Implementation Plan

Site Analysis
Evaluation of an existing or potential site as it relates to the program, the budget and the schedule for the project. It provides direction for design through developing an understanding of the site and program and serves as a basis for site selection and program development. (American Institute of Architects (AIA))

Identification of specific site issues and requirements (all information and data gathered should be included in the Project Program; identify information source for each item) and prepare the Site Analysis (Narrative/graphic format) based on the Site Analysis checklist:

  • Topographic Analysis
  • Slope Analysis
  • Analysis of Physical Features
  • Accessibility Features and Deficiences
  • Access and Circulation, Traffic and Parking Studies
  • Vegetation
  • Existing Water Bodies
  • Site History
  • History of Existing Structures and Landscape
  • On-site Utility Studies
  • Off-site Utility Studies
  • Environmental Studies and Reports
  • Climate Studies
  • Geotechnical/Soils
  • Hydrologic Studies, Watershed Modeling Studies
  • Project Requirements
  • Existing Condition's Assessment, Hazmat Investigation

Site Analysis Checklist
A National Park Service checklist of requirements for the production of a Site Analysis. (See Design-Bid-Build (DBB) Predesign Deliverables.)

Site Character
Site character includes the tangible and intangible aspects of a landscape throughout its history; these aspects individually and collectively give a landscape its character and aid in the understanding of its cultural importance. Landscape characteristics range from large-scale patterns and relationships to site details and materials. The Site Contextual Analysis includes the description of existing and proposed site character:

Description of Existing: Document existing site context, describing the significant characteristics and features of the site based on the site history and existing conditions of the proposed site. Both narrative and images may be used.

Site History gives a historical description of the landscape and all significant characteristics and features. The text is based on research and historical documentation, with enough support material to illustrate the physical character, attributes, features, and materials that contribute to the significance of the landscape. This section identifies and describes the historical context and the period or periods of significance associated with the landscape.

Existing Conditions describes the landscape as it currently exists, including the documentation of such landscape characteristics as land use, vegetation, circulation, and structures. It is based on both site research and site surveys, including on-the-ground observation and documentation of significant features.

Description of Proposed: Document the significant characteristics and features of the proposed site concept based on analysis of the existing site character to determine the key elements that define the site.

Site Character Analyses already documented in Historic Structure Reports (HSRs), Cultural Landscape Reports (CLRs), and Design Guidelines may be referenced, but shall be made current with the proposed undertaking.

Significant Site Characteristics and Features: (may be documented in the site analysis or the contextual analysis)

Three-dimensional configuration of the landscape surface characterized by features and orientation.

Spaces, features, and materials that constitute systems of movement.

Archeological Sites
Sites containing surface and subsurface remnants related to historic or prehistoric land use.

Natural Systems and Features
Natural aspects that often influence development and resultant form of a landscape.

Indigenous or introduced trees, shrubs, vines, ground covers, and herbaceous materials.

Constructed Water Features
The built features and elements that utilize water for aesthetic or utilitarian functions.

Buildings and Structures
Three-dimensional constructs such as houses, barns, garages, stables, bridges, and memorials.

Views and Vistas
Features that create or allow a range of vision, which can be natural or designed and controlled.

Spatial Organization
Arrangement of elements creating the ground, vertical, and overhead planes that define and create spaces.

Land Use
Organization, form, and shape of the landscape in response to land use.

Cultural Traditions
Practices that influence land use, patterns of division, building forms, and the use of materials.

Cluster Arrangement
The location of buildings and structures in the landscape.

Small-Scale Features
Elements that provide detail and diversity combined with function and aesthetics.

Site Inspection and Examination of Data
Also referred to as a site visit. An opportunity arranged by the Contracting Officer for prospective offerors to inspect the work site and to examine data available to the Government which may provide information concerning the performance of the work, such as boring samples, original boring logs, and records and plans of previous construction. The data should be assembled in one place and made available for examination. The solicitation should notify offerors of the time and place for the site inspection and data examination. If it is not feasible for offerors to inspect the site or examine the data on their own, the solicitation should also designate an individual who will show the site or data to the offerors. (FAR 36.210 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Site of Construction
The general physical location of any building, highway, or other change or improvement to real property that is undergoing construction, rehabilitation, alteration, conversion, extension, demolition, or repair; and any temporary location or facility at which a contractor, subcontractor, or other participating party meets a demand or performs a function relating to a Government contract or subcontract. (FAR 22.801 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Site of the Work
In construction:

  1. The term is limited to the physical place or places where the construction called for in the contract will remain when work on it is completed, and nearby property (as described in Paragraph b of this definition) used by the contractor or subcontractor during construction that, because of proximity, can reasonably be included in the site.
  2. Except as provided in Paragraph c of this definition, fabrication plants, mobile factories, batch plants, borrow pits, job headquarters, tool yards, etc., are parts of the ''site of the work'', provided they are dedicated exclusively, or nearly so, to performance of the contract or project, and are so located in proximity to the actual construction location that it would be reasonable to include them.
  3. The term does not include permanent home offices, branch plant establishments, fabrication plants, or tool yards of a contractor or subcontractor whose locations and continuance in operation are determined wholly without regard to a particular Federal contract or project. In addition, fabrication plants, batch plants, borrow pits, job headquarters, yards, etc., of a commercial supplier or material man which are established by a supplier of materials for the project before opening of bids and not on the project site, are not included in the term. Such permanent, previously established facilities are not a part of the ''site of the work'', even if the operations for a period of time may be dedicated exclusively, or nearly so, to the performance of a contract. (FAR 22.401 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Site Map
A large-scale map of a specific small area (e.g., bridge site).

Site Program
A Site Program is a narrative list of facility functions, descriptions and functional adjacencies and concept sketches (bubble diagrams) showing the relationships of project site functions. Included are specific ideas of what functions should be included (or excluded), how they should be used, and how other functions should relate. The Site Program is based on the GMP (General Management Plan), PMIS (Project Management Information System) Statement, Facility Planning Model, Interpretive Plan, Historic Structure Report, and Cultural Landscape Report and in-depth interviews with key park staff and stakeholders.

Site Utility Assessment
Site Utility Assessment refers to evaluating present and future types of: uses and maximum daily user capacities; quality and quantity of potable water and wastewater flows; fire suppression; and power requirements. In addition, they further include consideration of State approved options for supply and treatment of both water and wastewater (do local municipalities exist), local soils conditions, site constraints (physical or environmental), and site power supply limitations.

Site Visit

  1. Offerors or quoters are urged and expected to inspect the site where services are to be performed and to satisfy themselves regarding all general and local conditions that may affect the cost of contract performance, to the extent that the information is reasonably obtainable. (FAR 52.237-1(a) - Federal Acquisition Regulation)
  2. See Site Inspection and Examination of Data.

Size Standard
A maximum level of average employment or annual revenue at which a firm can qualify as a small business.

Small Business Concern
A concern, including its affiliates, that is independently owned and operated, not dominant in the field of operation in which it is bidding on Government contracts, and qualified as a small business under the appropriate criteria and size standards presented in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). (FAR 19.001)

Small Business Concern Owned and Controlled by Women
See Woman-Owned Small Business Concern.

Small Business Firm
A small business concern as defined under law and implementing regulations of the Administrator of the Small Business Administration. (FAR 27.301- Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Small Business Set-Aside
See Set-Aside for Small Business.

Small Business Subcontractor
Any concern that:

  1. In connection with subcontracts of $10,000 or less has a number of employees, including its affiliates, that does not exceed 500 persons; and
  2. In connection with subcontracts exceeding $10,000, has a number of employees or average annual receipts, including its affiliates, that does not exceed the size standard set forth in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) for the product or service it is providing on the subcontract. (FAR 19.701).

Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) Concern

  1. For subcontractors, a small business concern that is at least 51 percent unconditionally owned by one or more individuals who are both socially and economically disadvantaged, or a publicly owned business that has at least 51 percent of its stock unconditionally owned by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and that has its management and daily business controlled by one or more such individuals. This term also means a small business concern that is at least 51 percent unconditionally owned by an economically disadvantaged Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian Organization, or a publicly owned business that has at least 51 percent of its stock unconditionally owned by one of these entities, that has its management and daily business controlled by members of an economically disadvantaged Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian Organization, and that meets the requirements of 13 CFR 124 (Code of Federal Regulations).
  2. For prime contractors, generally an offeror that represents, as part of its offer, that it is a small business under the size standard applicable to the acquisition; and either:
    1. It has received certification from the Small Business Administration (SBA) as a small disadvantaged business concern consistent with 13 CFR 124 Subpart B, and
      1. No material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has occurred since its certification;
      2. Where the concern is owned by one or more disadvantaged individuals, the net work of each individual upon whom the certification is based does not exceed $750,000 after taking into account the applicable exclusions set forth at 13 CFR 124.104(c)(2); and
      3. It is listed, on the date of its representation, on the register of small disadvantaged business concerns maintained by the Small Business Administration; or
    2. It has submitted a completed application to the Small Business Administration or a Private Certifier to be certified as a small disadvantaged business concern in accordance with 13 CFR 124, Subpart B, and a decision on that application is pending, and that no material change in disadvantaged ownership and control has occurred since its application was submitted. In this case a contractor must receive certification as a Small Disadvantaged Business by the Small Business Administration prior to contract award. (FAR 19.001- Federal Acquisition Regulation)

SOF - Statement of Findings

Sole Source Acquisition
A contract for the purchase of supplies or services that is entered into or proposed to be entered into by an agency after soliciting and negotiating with only one source. (FAR 6.003 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)


  1. A document sent to prospective contractors by a Government agency requesting submission of an offer, quote, or information.
  2. The process of issuing a document requesting submission of an offer, quote, or information and obtaining responses.

Solicitation Provision
Also referred to as a provision. A term or condition used only in solicitations and applying only before contract award. (FAR 52.101 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

SOS - Scope of Services

Source Selection
The process of identifying which offeror(s) will receive a contract in a competitive negotiated acquisition. (FAR 15.300 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Source Selection Information
Any of the following information which is prepared for use by a Federal agency for the purpose of evaluating a bid or proposal to enter into a Federal agency procurement contract, if that information has not been previously made available to the public or disclosed publicly:

  1. Bid prices submitted in response to a Federal agency invitation for bids, or lists of those bid prices before bid opening.
  2. Proposed costs or prices submitted in response to a Federal agency solicitation, or lists of those proposed costs or prices.
  3. Source selection plans.
  4. Technical evaluation plans.
  5. Technical evaluations of proposals.
  6. Cost or price evaluations of proposals.
  7. Competitive range determinations that identify proposals that have a reasonable chance of being selected for award of a contract.
  8. Rankings of bids, proposals, or competitors.
  9. Reports and evaluations of source selection panels, boards, or advisory councils.
  10. Other information marked as source selection information based on a case-by-case determination by the head of the agency or designee, or the Contracting Officer, that its disclosure would jeopardize the integrity or successful completion of the Federal agency procurement to which the information relates. (FAR 3.104-3 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

SOW - Statement of Work

Space Schematics / Flow Diagrams
Two- or three-dimensional spatial study diagrams to determine whether it is even possible to house the program in an existing facility or on a site. This may aid in understanding the program issues or questions beyond words. (American Institute of Architects (AIA))

Chipping along the edges, as at joints in concrete pavement and structures.

Special Inspections
See Structural Tests and Special Inspections.

Special Resource Study (SRS)
A Congressionally-mandated study that focuses on determinations of significance, suitability, feasibility, and necessity for direct National Park Service management for proposed new system units.

"Specials" Specifications [Applies to Park Roads/Federal Lands Highway (FLH) Program Projects]
Specifications for road and bridge projects that are either not included in the Federal Project (FP) Standard Specifications or vary in some way from the standard specifications.

Specifications [Applies to Park Roads/Federal Lands Highway (FLH) Program Projects]
The compilation of provisions and requirements for the performance of the prescribed work.

  • Standard Specifications. The book of Standard specifications for construction of roads and bridges on Federal Highway projects issued periodically and designated as FP-XX (e.g., FP-03, or simply FP).
  • Supplemental Specifications. Approved additions and revisions to the Standard Specifications issued by the Federal Lands Highway office.
  • Special Contract Requirements (SCR). Additions and revisions to the Standard Specifications and Supplemental Specifications applicable to individual projects and generally issued by the applicable Federal Lands Highway Division offices.

SRS - Special Resource Study

See Preservation Maintenance.

An individual, group, or other entity that has a strong interest in decisions concerning park resources and values. Stakeholders may include, for example, recreational user groups, permittees, and concessioners. In the broadest sense, all Americans are stakeholders in the national parks.

Standard Drawings [Applies to Park Roads/Federal Lands Highway (FLH) Program Projects]
Drawings issued by the Federal Lands Highway office and approved for repetitive use.

Standard General Conditions
Standard General Conditions generate costs to the government (from the contractor) which are basically the cost items defined in the Division 1 Project Specifications. Sometimes, some Division 1 items (Profit, Overhead) are included in the cost of individual bid items when preparing an estimate. These costs (that the Contractor passes on to the government through bid items) are indirect costs of the construction project. Standard General Conditions costs run from 4 to 20 percent, depending on the size, location and complexity and other variables of the project and estimate.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
A code published by the Government in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual. These codes classify and define activities by industry categories and is the source used by the Small Business Administration as a guide in defining industries for small business size standards. (FAR 19.102(g) - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO)
State Historic Preservation Officers administer the national historic preservation program at the state level, review National Register of Historic Places nominations, maintain data on historic properties that have been identified but not yet nominated, and consult with federal agencies during Section 106 review (federal agencies seek the views of the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer when identifying historic properties and assessing effects of an undertaking on historic properties). The governor of their respective state or territory designates State Historic Preservation Officers.

State Implementation Plan (SIP)
This term refers to two different although related, documents. Metropolitan areas prepare regional State Implementation Plans showing steps they plan to take to meet Federal air quality standards (outlined in the Clean Air Act). Several State Implementation Plans make up the statewide plan for cleaning up the air.

State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP)
A list of projects which includes all transportation initiatives proposed for Federal funding within a state for a there-year period. It includes regionally significant projects; metropolitan transportation improvement projects are incorporated into the State Transportation Improvement Program without modification.

Statement of Findings (SOF)
Separately identifiable document attached to National Park Service National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision documents that explains why an action would adversely impact wetlands or floodplains, what alternatives were considered to avoid these impacts and why they are not suitable, mitigation measures to minimize adverse impacts, and what the effects on floodplain and/or wetland values would be. Preparation, review, and public disclosure of statements of findings are key elements of the National Park Service process for implementing Executive Order 11990 Protection of Wetlands and Executive Order 11998 Floodplain Management.

Statement of Findings for Floodplains
Executive Order 11988 Floodplain Management directs federal agencies to avoid adverse impacts upon floodplains and their occupants if there is a practicable alternative. The National Park Service is further directed to take action to reduce the risk of flood loss, to minimize impacts of flooding on human safety, health, and welfare, and to restore and preserve the natural and beneficial values of floodplains.

The National Park Service Director's Order 77-2 Floodplain Management requires that a statement of findings documenting consistency with Executive Order 11988 be prepared if the preferred alternative would result in occupation or modification of floodplains or that would result in impacts to floodplain values. The statement of findings is generally included as an appendix in an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement.

Statement of Findings for Wetlands
Executive Order 11990 Protection of Wetlands directs the National Park Service to provide leadership and take action to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands; to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial values of wetlands; and to avoid direct or indirect support of new construction in wetlands unless there are no practicable alternatives to such construction and the proposed action includes all practicable measures to minimize harm to wetlands.

Actions proposed by the National Park Service that have the potential to have adverse impacts on wetlands must be addressed in an environmental assessment (EA) or an environmental impact statement (EIS). If the preferred alternative in an EA or EIS would result in adverse impacts on wetlands, a statement of findings documenting compliance with this executive order and the National Park Service Director''s Order 77-1 Wetland Protection is completed and generally included as an appendix in the EA or EIS.

Statement of Significance
An explanation of how a structure meets the National Register criteria, drawing on facts about the history and the historic trends - local, state, national - that the structure reflects.

Statement of Work (SOW)
Also referred to as a work statement. A document that defines service contract requirements in clear, concise language identifying specific work to be accomplished. It must be individually tailored to consider the period of performance, deliverable items, if any, and the desired degree of performance. In the case of task order contracts, the statement of work for the basic contract need only define the scope of the overall contract. Individual task orders must define specific task requirements. (FAR 37.602-1 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

The cultural and natural resource protection ethic of employing the most effective concepts, techniques, equipment, and technology to prevent, avoid, or mitigate impacts that would compromise the integrity of park resources.

STIP - State Transportation Improvement Program

Stop-Work Order
Under a negotiated fixed-price supply, cost-reimbursement supply, research and development, or service contract, a contract clause permits the Contracting Officer to order the contractor to stop work, if a work stoppage is required for reasons such as advancement in the state-of-the-art, production or engineering breakthroughs, or realignment of programs. Generally, a stop-work order will be issued only if it is advisable to suspend work pending a decision by the Government and a supplemental agreement providing for the suspension is not feasible. Issuance of a stop-work order must be approved at a level higher than the Contracting Officer. (FAR 42.1303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

STP - Surface Transportation Program

Strategic Plan
A Service-wide, 5-year plan required by the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) (5 USC 306 - United States Code) in which the National Park Service states:

  1. how it plans to accomplish its mission during that time, and
  2. the value it expects to produce for the tax dollars expended.

Similarly, each park, program, or central office has its own strategic plan, which considers the Service-wide mission plus its own particular mission. Strategic plans serve as "performance agreements" with the American people.

Structural Tests and Special Inspections
Tests and inspections of the materials, installation, fabrication, erection or placement of components and connections that require special expertise to ensure compliance with approved construction documents and referenced standards.

Structure Type
A grouping of individual structures based on a set of shared physical or associative characteristics.


  1. A contract or contractual action entered into by a prime contractor or subcontractor for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind under a prime contract. (FAR 3.502-1 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)
  2. A transfer of commercial items between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or subcontractor. (FAR 12.001)
  3. Includes a transfer of commercial items between divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor or a subcontractor. (FAR 15.401)
  4. Any agreement (other than one involving an employer-employee relationship) entered into by a Government prime contractor or subcontractor calling for supplies and/or services required for performance of the contract, contract modification, or subcontract. (FAR 19.701)
  5. Any agreement or arrangement between a contractor and any person (in which the parties do not stand in the relationship of an employer and an employee) -
    1. For the furnishing of supplies or services or for use of real or personal property, including lease arrangements that, in whole or in part, is necessary to the performance of any one or more Government contracts, or
    2. Under which any portion of the contractor's obligation under any one or more Government contracts is performed, undertaken, or assumed. (FAR 22.801)
  6. Any contract entered into by a subcontractor to furnish supplies or services for performance of a prime contract or a subcontract. It includes but is not limited to purchase orders, and changes and modifications to purchase orders. (FAR 44.101)
  7. A contract or contractual action entered into by a prime Contractor or subcontractor for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind under a prime contract. (FAR 52.203-7(a))


  1. Any person, other than the prime contractor, who offers to furnish or furnishes any supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind under a prime contract or a subcontract entered into in connection with such prime contract. The term includes any person who offers to furnish or furnishes general supplies to the prime contractor or a higher tier subcontractor. (FAR 3.502-1 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)
  2. Any person who holds, or has held, a subcontract subject to Executive Order 11246. (FAR 22.801)
  3. Any supplier, distributor, vendor, or firm that furnishes supplies or services to or for a prime contractor or another subcontractor. (FAR 44.101)
  4. Any person, other than the prime contractor, who offers to furnish or furnishes any supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind under a prime contract or a subcontract entered into in connection with such prime contract. The term includes any person who offers to furnish or furnishes general supplies to the prime contractor or a higher-tier subcontractor. (FAR 52.203-7(a))

A sample, manufacturer's data, shop drawing, or other such item submitted to the owner or the design professional by the contractor for the purpose of approval or other action, usually a requirement of the contract documents.

Substantial Completion
The condition of the work when major components that make up the project are complete and the project is functional for its intended use. Any items remaining to be completed should, at this point, be duly noted or stipulated in writing (see Punch List). The one year warranty period begins on the date of substantial completion. If you have more than one date of substantial completion (e.g. multiple buildings) and/or beneficial occupancy for different systems, etc., you will end up with multiple warranty periods.

Supplemental Services
Services that may include any of the following:

  • Constructability
  • Cost Estimating
  • Energy Study
  • Geographic Information System (GIS)
  • Geotechnical Investigations
  • Graphics
  • Hazardous Material Studies
  • Life Cycle Cost Analysis
  • Model Construction
  • Noise Survey
  • Renderings
  • Special Studies
  • Topographic Surveys
  • Analysis
  • Visual Simulation
  • Visitor Experience Planning

Surface Transportation Program (STP)
A transportation funding program within Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21. Surface Transportation Program funds may be used for roadway construction and improvements, operational improvement, transportation systems, bicycle and pedestrian facilities, transit, ridesharing programs and facilities and transportation planning and studies.

Suspension of Work
Under construction or Architect/Engineer contracts, a contract clause permits the Contracting Officer to order the contractor to suspend work for a reasonable period of time. If the suspension is unreasonable, the contractor may submit a written claim for increases in the cost of performance, excluding profit. (FAR 42.1302 - Federal Acquisition Regulation)

Sustainable Design Practices
Sustainable Design Practices allow for use and enjoyment by the current generation, while ensuring that future generations will have the same opportunities. Sustainable Design Practices include those choices, decisions, actions and ethics that will best achieve ecological/biological integrity; protect qualities and functions of air, water, soil and other aspects of the natural environment; and preserve human cultures.

Development that has been sustainably designed sits lightly upon the land, demonstrates resource efficiency, and promotes ecological restoration and integrity, thus improving the environment, the economy and society.

Sustainable design applies the Guiding Principles for Sustainable New Construction and Major Renovations including integrated design, energy performance, water conservation, indoor environmental quality and materials.

Recommended sustainable strategies should address topics such as the following:

  • Planning sustainable sites
  • Improving energy efficiency
    • Renewability of energy sources
  • Conserving materials and resources
  • Enhancing indoor environmental quality
  • Safeguarding water
  • Facility maintenance and operations
  • Cultural and natural resource influences
  • Interpretation/education

A functionally related group of elements forming a collective entity such as electrical or mechanical components.


Last updated: April 22, 2021

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