Definitions - D

DAB - Development Advisory Board

Davis-Bacon Act
Provides that contracts in excess of $2,000 to which the United States or the District of Columbia is a party for construction, alteration, or repair (including painting and decorating) of public buildings or public works within the United States, must contain a clause that no laborer or mechanic employed directly upon the site of the work must receive less than the prevailing wage rates as determined by the Secretary of Labor. (FAR 22.403-1)

DB - Design Build

DBB - Design Bid Build

DD - Design Development

DE - Division Engineer

Action taken by a debarring official to exclude a contractor from Government contracting and Government-approved subcontracting for a reasonable, specified period. (FAR 9.403)

Excluded from Government contracting and Government-approved subcontracting for a reasonable, specified period. (FAR 9.403)

Deceleration Lane
A speed-change lane that enables a vehicle to slow to a safe exit speed when making an exit turn.

Any condition or characteristic in any supplies or services furnished by the Contractor under the contract that is not in compliance with the requirements of the contract. (FAR 52.246-19(a))

A material failure of a proposal to meet a Government requirement or a combination of significant weaknesses in a proposal that increases the risk of unsuccessful contract performance to an unacceptable level. (FAR 15.301)

Denver Service Center (DSC)
The primary NPS office responsible for providing technical and professional services in support of the NPS general management program, construction program and the Federal Lands Highway program.

Descriptive Literature

  1. Information, such as cuts, illustrations, drawings, and brochures, which shows the characteristics or construction of a product or explains its operation. It is furnished by bidders as a part of their bids to describe the products offered. The term includes only information required to determine acceptability of the product. It excludes other information such as that furnished in connection with the qualifications of a bidder or for use in operating or maintaining equipment. (FAR 14.202-5)
  2. Information (e.g., cuts, illustrations, drawings, and brochures) that is submitted as part of a bid. Descriptive literature is required to establish, for the purpose of evaluation and award, details of the product offered that are specified elsewhere in the solicitation and pertain to significant elements such as (1) design; (2) materials; (3) components; (4) performance characteristics; and (5) methods of manufacture, assembly, construction, or operation. The term includes only information required to determine the technical acceptability of the offered product. It does not include other information such as that used in determining the responsibility of a prospective Contractor or for operating or maintaining equipment. (FAR 52.214-21(a))

In construction, defining the construction requirement (including the functional relationships and technical systems to be used, such as architectural, environmental, structural, electrical, mechanical, and fire protection), producing the technical specifications and drawings, and preparing the construction cost estimate. (FAR 36.102)

Design-Bid-Build (DBB)
The traditional project delivery method where design and construction are sequential and contracted for separately with two contracts and two contractors. (FAR 36.102)

Design-Build (DB)
A method of project delivery, combining design and construction in a single contract with one contractor. (FAR 36.102)

Design-Build (DB) Construction Documents - 100% Draft
DB Construction Documents which are 100% finished, fully meet the RFP requirements , and adequately show and describe the proposed construction. Prior to this submission the DB Project Team shall conduct a Quality Control (QC) review of the 100% Draft DB Construction Documents and incorporate QC comment edits.

Design-Build (DB) Construction Documents - 100% Complete
DB Construction Documents that are submitted for approval with all previous 100% Draft DB Construction Documents review comments resolved. Prior to this submission the DB Project Team shall conduct a Quality Control (QC) review of the 100% Complete DB Construction Documents and incorporate QC comment edits.

Design-Build (DB) Construction Drawings
Design-Build Construction Drawings that are considered 100% finished and are adequate to describe the proposed construction, and meet the requirements specified in the RFP. Quality Control review and edits, performed by the design team of the design-build contractor, have been completed.

Design-Build (DB) Design Development Drawings
Design Development Drawings are based on the approved final Schematic Design sketches, presentation models, and photographs, and meet the requirements specified in the RFP. They consist of formalized, formatted, and scaled drawings on standard NPS sheets. All of the required disciplines participate and begin integrating and cross-referencing graphic information. Design-Build (DB) Design Development Drawings are completed to the 40 percent DB Construction Drawing completion level.

Design Calculations
All calculations prepared by the design team to guide the selection and sizing of various components of the project.

Design Concept
A Design Concept is the informal presentation of design solutions and ideas that are based on both the existing Site and Building Character Assessment and the completed Project Program. It typically consists of rough thumbnail sketches, study models, electronic images, and narratives that convey various approaches. A Design Concept is still at the idea stage, prior to developing Schematic Design Alternatives.

Design Concepts Assessment
Based on the Contextual Analysis and Project Program, design concepts of the proposed landscape and building context, or functional context (in the case of an existing building), are illustrated at a sufficient presentation level to enable NPS assessment. Concepts for new structures shall exemplify site-integrated massing and architectural concepts. Rough thumbnail sketches, study models, electronic images, and annotation are used to convey these Design Concepts.

Design Contingencies
Design Contingencies are the mark-ups that relate to the accuracy of the estimate and completeness of the design/construction documents. Design Contingencies should NOT be confused with the Cost of Design or Construction Contingencies (modifications). Design Contingencies vary by project, but also vary (gradually reducing) by where the project is in the design process. At the preliminary stages of planning and design it is very difficult to determine the complete scope of the project in detail, therefore the design contingency is set at a high percentage.

Typical ranges for design contingency are:

  • Class C Estimate - Conceptual Design 15 to 50 Percent
  • Class B Estimate - Schematic Design 10 to 20 Percent
  • Class A Estimate - Construction Documents 0 to 10 Percent

Design Deficiencies
Deficiencies include:

  • Changes required to correct work that was improperly surveyed
  • Changes required to meet applicable codes
  • Changes required due to conflicts in or between drawings and specifications
  • Changes required because obsolete or incorrect equipment was specified
  • A clear drawing error or omission in drawings
  • Deficient technical specifications

Design Development (DD)
In general, design development is the evolution of the whole building and site as a system, including specific construction issues which may affect the final project. In this phase, the schematic design continues to be defined through plans, elevations and sections — the size of rooms, types of materials, and exact placement of the building on the site. Specific design issues are addressed and resolved in order to develop detailing. Particular attention is given to the quality of the design, its documentation, and agreement with the original goals set during Predesign. Additionally, selections of materials and engineering systems are tested against the overall project budget.

Specific to the National Park Service, designers shall provide the NPS with drafted to-scale drawings and outline specifications that illustrate and define the project. These drawings specifically delineate the site plan, floor plans and exterior elevations. It is important that the park staff provide feedback to the design team at this time, as the Draft Design Development Documents are used as the basis for the Construction Documents. Value Engineering and choices are made, if necessary, to align project scope against costs.

Design Development Drawings
Design Development Drawings are based on the approved final Schematic Design Sketches, presentation models, and photographs. They consist of formalized, formatted, and scaled drawings on standard NPS sheets. All of the required disciplines participate and begin integrating and cross-referencing graphic information. Draft Design Development drawings are completed to the 40 percent Construction Drawing completion level.

Design Development Deliverables
See Deliverables.

Design Documents Coordination Check
A process of reviewing and coordinating the design documents produced by various disciplines. The purpose is to ensure that the design documents are: properly coordinated and do not include conflicts; documents are consistent; errors and omissions are uncovered early in the processes; the quality of contract documents are improved and change orders reduced; and to ensure that codes and NPS conventions are met. This process may include internal checklists, specific techniques such as overlaying documents, or outside reviews. The Redicheck© method is an example of a formalized system of plan checking.

Design Hourly Volume (DHV)
The future two-way hourly traffic volume for use in design, usually the 30th highest hourly volume of the design year (30 HV).

Design Imperatives
Design Imperatives are essential criteria, practices, guidelines, laws, and policies that shall be considered and applied throughout all phases of the design and construction processes.

Design Intent
The creative objectives of a designer, architect, landscape architect, engineer, or artist that were applied to the development of a historic property.

Design Load
The loads that must be supported by a structure.

Design Noise Levels
The noise levels that represent the upper limit of acceptable traffic noise established for various activities or land uses. These levels are used to determine the degree of impact of traffic noise on human activities.

Design Process
The process includes the development of schematic design alternatives, design development, and the detailed construction drawings, specifications, cost estimates, and other contract documents that provide a contractor with the information needed to build the requested project (such as a facility, utility, or a road); includes architecture, landscape architecture, and civil, mechanical, electrical or structural systems. Technical review is completed primarily by the design team with minimal involvement from the park staff.

Design Speed
A speed selected for purposes of design and correlation of the geometric features of a highway and a measure of the quality of service offered by the highway. It is the highest continuous speed where individual vehicles can travel with safety upon a highway when weather conditions are favorable, traffic density is low and the geometric design features of the highway are the governing conditions for safe speed.

"Design Stage Value Analysis (DSVA)
Value analysis that occurs at the design stage when the design process and documentation is approximately 30%-50% complete (design and contract documents are in draft form). A thorough review of existing design documents and plans identifies major asset components/systems and proposes changes for reasons of performance, reliability, quality, and value. The VA provides recommendations to modify the design based upon value analysis principles."

A DSVA study may take several forms:
  1. Classic single, multi-day study and report
  2. Collection of smaller, Mini-VA's targeted on key decisions and typically assembled in a single report submission, or
  3. other appropriate forms or combination of methods focused on key decisions.

Study should be structured by the Value Analysis Job Plan. These studies will be guided by and targeted on high cost centers from a project cost model and how to improve performance and/or reduce cost for the project. Alternatives should be considered on all major cost centers. Life Cycle cost should be considered. Evaluation methods should allow benefit-cost comparisons and decision-making. Choosing by Advantages is one process used in the National Park Service to support benefit-cost decision-making.

Projects should plan on making an interim submission of value-based decision activities with the required DD submission, for quality control review (DSC). Final submission of the DSVA would be made with the CD submission for quality control review. If no VA activity occurred during CD's the final submission would document the DD activity. Final submission is submitted to WASO - Construction Program Management – Value Analysis, typically with the Director's Approval submission.

While not required for projects under $10 Million, DSVA's may be effectively used on an overall project basis or for selected systems and/or decisions.

NOTE 1: Quoted paragraphs are from the Department of the Interior, Departmental Manual: Effective Date: 12/19/08, Series: Management Systems and Procedures, Part 369: Value Analysis, Chapter 1: General Criteria and Policy.

NOTE 2: When reference is made to construction costs, it refers to "Net Construction".

Design Year
The future year used to estimate the probable traffic volume for which a highway is designed. A time ten to 20 years from the start of construction is usually used.

Destructive Investigation
Investigative techniques, such as selective demolition, necessary when non-destructive alternatives are inadequate to provide essential information for evaluating or treating a historic structure.

Determination and Findings
A special form of written approval by an authorized official that is required by statute or regulation as a prerequisite to taking certain contracting actions. The determination is a conclusion or decision supported by the findings. The findings are statements of fact or rationale essential to support the determination and must cover each requirement of the statute or regulation. (FAR 1.701)

Developed Area
An area managed to provide and maintain facilities (e. g., roads, campgrounds, housing) serving park managers and visitors. Includes areas where park development or intensive use may have substantially altered the natural environment or the setting for culturally significant resources.

Development Advisory Board (DAB)
A board made up of executive level NPS employees and external advisors who review design and construction projects for cost-effectiveness and the responsible use of NPS construction monies.

Developmental History (Historic Structure Report)
A scholarly report documenting the evolution of a historic structure, its current condition, and the causes of its deterioration. It is based on documentary research and physical examination. The scope of documentary research may extend beyond the physical development of the structure if needed to clarify the significance of the resource or to refine contextual associations; however, major historical investigation of contextual themes or background information should be conducted as part of a historic resource study.

Also referred to as a FAR deviation. Any one or combination of the following:

  • The issuance or use of a policy, procedure, solicitation provision, contract clause, method, or practice of conducting acquisition actions of any kind at any stage of the acquisition process that is inconsistent with the FAR.
  • The omission of any solicitation provision or contract clause when its prescription requires its use.
  • The use of any solicitation provision or contract clause with modified or alternate language that is not authorized by the FAR.
  • The use of a solicitation provision or contract clause prescribed by the FAR on a "substantially as follows" or "substantially the same as" basis if such use is inconsistent with the intent, principle, or substance of the prescription or related coverage on the subject matter in the FAR.
  • The authorization of lesser or greater limitations on the use of any solicitation provision, contract clause, policy, or procedure prescribed by the FAR.
  • The issuance of policies or procedures that govern the contracting process or otherwise control contracting relationships that are not incorporated into agency acquisition regulations. (FAR 1.401)

DHV - Design Hourly Volume

Director's Order 12 (DO-12)
Director's Order 12 and its accompanying Handbook provide the Servicewide implementing procedures and such supplemental material as may be necessary to carry out NPS responsibilities under NEPA and related statutes. Information can be found at the following website: (pdf)

Negotiations that occur after establishment of the competitive range that may, at the Contracting Officer's discretion, result in the offeror being allowed to revise its proposal. (FAR 15-306(d) and 52.215-1(a))

Divided Highway
A highway with separated roadways for traffic in opposite directions.

Division 1 Specifications
The Division 01 Specifications cover general condition requirements for a project. The National Park Service (NPS) Denver Service Center (DSC) maintains a complete set of 25 Division 01 Guide Specifications, MasterFormat 04 versions from 011000 through 019113.

Division Engineer (DE)
Line officer in charge of a Federal Lands Highway Division office. Similar to an NPS Regional Director.

DO-12 - Director's Order 12

Drawings, photographs, writings, and other media that depict cultural and natural resources.

Department of Transportation (e.g., CDOT = Colorado Department of Transportation)
See United States Department of Transportation.

DSC - Denver Service Center

DSC Transportation Division
A division in the Denver Service Center of the National Park Service which provides project support to parks, regions, and the NPS Washington office on Federal Lands Highway Program projects.

DSVA - Design Stage Value Analysis


Last updated: November 15, 2016