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Schooner Victory Chimes|
National Historic Landmark Study
by Nicholas Dean and edited by Kevin J. Foster, 1997
Designated September 25, 1997
Present and Historic Physical Appearance
Built in 1900 in Bethel, Delaware as Edwin And Maud, Victory Chimes' dimensions are: length 127.5 feet, breadth 23.8 feet and depth 8.6 feet; 208 tons gross, 178 tons net. She is constructed with an oak keel, double sawn frames and deck timbers and Georgia pine planking. In 1988 she was extensively repaired at Sample's Shipyard in Boothbay Harbor, Maine while owned by Domino's Pizza. Traditional working methods and materials were used to replace rotten areas in-kind. Despite an active working life in a harsh environment and required changes for passenger safety, Victory Chimes is estimated to retain about 70 percent of her original fabric.
The traditional "ram" rig was a standing jib, flying jib, staysail (also called a forestaysail), foresail, mainsail and spanker (or mizzen), which Victory Chimes carries today. The heads of the fore, main and mizzen sails are supported by gaffs and the feet are laced to booms. The present masts of Oregon Douglas fir are over eighty feet in height. The mizzenmast was replaced in 1976, the main in 1988, and the fore in 1989. "A straight tree 110 feet tall is required to get the necessary length a full twenty-one inches in diameter." The original wooden bowsprit was replaced by one of steel to the same dimensions in 1965.
The standing rigging is steel wire. Standing rigging was minimal on rams, to enable deck cargo to be stowed on uncluttered decks. Each mast is supported by three shrouds on each side. The foremast has three stays and springstays run from its masthead to the main and mizzen masts.
Just as when Victory Chimes was built, the schooner does not carry an engine. Maneuvering assistance is provided by a nineteen foot wooden yawlboat which pushes against the stern. When not in use it is towed astern. The current yawlboat was built in 1991 by Captain Kip Files and George Allen to enable the vessel to compete with other vessels in the passenger schooner trade which have been modified to carry engines. The yawlboat is, says Captain Files, "probably a bit bigger than would have originally been used." It is powered by a 135 horsepower Ford diesel engine. Three other boats are carried on davits. The current yawlboat should not be considered a contributing resource for this nomination.
Victory Chimes is largely original, although a limited number of changes have been required to allow adaptive reuse of a freight carrying schooner as a passenger vessel. The deck plan is consists of a large forward deckhouse with a companionway leading into the main saloon, a low narrow deckhouse amidships (added during the schooner's conversion to passenger use) featuring multiple porthole sidelights and a second companionway, and a third large deckhouse aft, which is set on a raised quarterdeck. Three hatches gave access to the cargo hold. Tall bulwarks and taffrail frame the deck, although the quarterdeck features an open balustrade.
Below decks, the cargo hold has been subdivided into nineteen cabins with the main saloon and galley forward. There are nineteen cabins, fifteen fitted with two berths, two with four berths, and one each with a single and triple berth. The introduction of these facilities has been carried out in a reversible manner so that the original hull framing and planking characteristics remain. There are no deck lights. A single centerboard is offset alongside the mainmast. The centerboard trunk is original, whereas the centerboard was most recently replaced in 1965. Victory Chimes draws 7 feet 6 inches with the centerboard up and 18 feet with the centerboard down.
The hull is painted green with white bulwarks and is painted below the waterline. The decks are natural, as are the masts up to the crosstrees, from which point they are painted white. Deckhouses are painted white with detailing in red, green and grey. Hatches and bitts are picked out in contrasting diamond patches as was common in well kept coasting vessels.
1. Thirty-second Annual List of Merchant Vessels of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900).
2. Captain Kip Files, interview with Nicholas Dean (phone), 28 January, 1997.
3. Virginia L. Thorndike, Windjammer Watching on the Maine Coast (Camden: Down East Books, 1993), p.86.
4. Files, op. cit.
5. Thorndike, op. cit. p. 86.
6. Files, op. cit.
8. Deck and belowdeck arrangements from Section 7, VICTORY CHIMES 1993 National Register nomination.
9. Captain Kip Files, interviews with Nicholas Dean, 17 December, 1996 and 28 January, 1997.
Statement of Significance
Development of the Large American Wooden Cargo Schooner
Both the origins of the schooner and the word "schooner" itself are somewhat obscure. A print engraved after the Dutch artist, Van de Velde, who died in 1707, shows a two-masted vessel with a gaff-rigged sail on each mast. Quentin Snediker and Ann Jensen, in their history of Chesapeake Bay schooners, list the thirty-five ton Sarah as "the first schooner known to have been built in Maryland." A painting in the collections of the Maryland Historical Society, dated ca. 1770, clearly shows two Maryland two-masted schooners. By 1780 the British lexicographer and poet William Falconer, in his Universal Dictionary of the Marine defined a schooner as:
It is likely, then, that the schooner appeared in Colonial America based on European models. Webster's Dictionary calls the term "schooner" of "origin unknown." However there is a Scottish verb to "scoon," or "skim along the water." According to a Massachusetts legend, the term dates to 1713, when a such a vessel was launched in Gloucester. The ease with which she entered the water caused a witness to inadvertently name the type when he exclaimed: "Oh, see how she scoons!"
The early American merchant schooners were generally small and operated mainly in the coasting trade, which had been reserved to American flag vessels by an Act of Congress in 1789. These small vessels were "handy, economical, easily built of readily accessible materials, perfectly suited to their task and their number was legion." Although the early coasting trade was carried out in vessels of a number of types, eventually the schooner supplanted square-rigged vessels in the coasting trade for very practical reasons:
The place and date of the "invention" of the three-masted or "tern" schooner is uncertain. There is a reference to a three-masted American schooner, Success, reported at Kingston, Jamaica, bound for San Domingo in March 1801. In his History of American Sailing Ships, Howard I. Chapelle cites the three-masted Baltimore-built Flying Fish, which was in the Royal Navy by 1806. Chapelle feels that it was "reasonable to place the date of the launch of this vessel about 1800." David R. MacGregor, in his Schooners in Four Centuries, comments that "three-masted schooners were not built much outside the Chesapeake area until the 1850s, but in that decade they suddenly became popular. . ." After that time, and particularly after the American Civil War, writes Chapelle, "the three-masted schooner almost monopolized the coasting trades, particularly the lumber business. There were two types of three-master at this time, a rather deep-draft keel model and a shoaler centerboarder." Captain Francis E. ("Biff') Bowker estimates that approximately two thousand three-masted schooners of both types were built on the American east coast.
The deeper draft schooners to which Chapelle refers evolved, in due course of time, into large vessels of four, five and six masts, with one seven-master, principally involved in the trade of carrying coal and lumber along the Atlantic coast. Coal from ports such as Norfolk and Newport News headed northward, as did southern hard pine for building and vessel construction. No examples of this type of schooner remain afloat, though there are several rapidly deteriorating large schooner hulks on the Maine coast. On the west coast there developed two distinct large schooner types: multi-masted lumber schooners, of which C.A. Thayer, a National Historic Landmark (NHL), now preserved at San Francisco, and Wawona, at Seattle, are examples, and the NHL steam schooner Wapama, whose fate at San Francisco is, as of early 1997, extremely uncertain, Victory Chimes is the only operating large American cargo schooner.
Evolution of the Chesapeake Ram Schooner
Shoal-draft centerboard schooners were built and used in the Great Lakes, along the Atlantic coast, and in the Gulf of Mexico. In each area they were adapted to optimize them for local conditions, but with similarities in their general arrangement. In the Great Lakes and on the mid-Atlantic coast, shoal draft schooners were built to operate through navigation canals between larger bodies of water. Built to fit inside restricting locks and sail in shallow water these "canalers" were peculiar adaptations to particular geographical conditions. The Chesapeake rams, such as Victory Chimes, were adapted to operate on the middle Atlantic coast and in the shallow Chesapeake, taking advantage particularly of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.
Over the two centuries that commerce in the Chesapeake Bay region was dominated by commercial sail, a definite pattern grew up that lasted in schooners converted to power up into the early 1970s. . . . Schooners carried grain, lumber, cordwood, oysters, and farm products to Norfolk, Richmond, Alexandria, Washington, Baltimore, and Annapolis from river landings and small towns from one end of the Bay to the other.
There was also waterborne commerce through canals, such as coal headed for Philadelphia, which passed through the Delaware and Raritan Canal, and the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal between Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River, which provided an inside passage that avoided the often treacherous outside run past the Delaware Capes. It was for transit of the C & D Canal that the type known as a Delaware, or Chesapeake Bay, ram schooner developed. It was a flat-bottomed, slab-sided, shallow draft centerboard schooner which could pass through the narrow canal locks. In his Chesapeake Sailing Craft, Robert Burgess, citing historian John Lyman, speculates that "canal-type craft with schooner rig were used on the canal system of the Schuylkill River" as early as 1863. One such vessel, Reading Railroad No. 34, built at Hamburg, Pennsylvania in 1863, (106 feet x 19.1 feet x 8.6 feet) apparently was refitted as a three-masted schooner about 1883 at Seaford, Delaware, "a short distance from Bethel." It was at Bethel, in 1889, that the first of the Chesapeake rams was built.
It is worth noting that the canal for which many, though not all, of the Chesapeake Rams were intended, was a vital transportation link, in addition to its merits as an inside passage. The Chesapeake and Delaware was completed in 1829, and its peak year was 1872 when 1.3 million tons passed through it. Unfortunately, towards the end of the nineteenth century the canal apparently was not making money and repairs were neglected, even though it was agreed that canals should be improved "to carry the low-grade bulk freight which was clogging the railroads and delaying the shipment of other commodities which trains were best able to carry." By 1907, the railroads viewed canal traffic as serious competition because freight by rail from Philadelphia to New York took a week or more due to terminal delays, "whereas the slower but steady waterways carried their much smaller volumes of freight between the two points overnight." President Theodore Roosevelt lobbied hard for government purchase of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which finally took place in 1919. Today it is 450 feet wide and 35 feet deep and still cuts three hundred miles off the trip from Philadelphia to Baltimore.
It was in 1889 that J.M.C. Moore designed and built the first of the ram schooners, J. Dallas Marvel, at Broad Creek in Bethel, Delaware. At 112.8 feet, she was the smallest of the rams and cost approximately $7500 to build at a time when ship carpenters made two dollars a day. "All the material for her planking was hauled into Bethel by mule team and sawed by hand." No view of this schooner has been found, but a similar vessel, Levin J. Marvel, was built two years later, and she has been called "as homely a vessel as ever cleaved the waters of the Bay. Her cumbersome hull resembled a canal barge. The characteristics of these craft were wall sides, bluff bows, flat bottoms, little sheer and no topmasts." Exactly where the term "ram" originated is unclear. Robert Burgess credits one Billy Borthwick, owner of a ship chandlery at Chesapeake City, Maryland, as having watched the first of the type going through the canal and exclaiming, "Look at that d-- thing butting her way through the other schooners; she's acting just like a ram."
In any case, the name stuck to the type early on. The rams may have been homely, but with their bald-headed rig (no topsails) they could be handled with a small crew, assisted by a gasoline powered donkey engine for hoisting the anchor and sails and a gasoline-powered yawlboat to push in calm weather. "A lot of freight could be hauled long distances at little labor expense." All told, between 1889 and 1911 twenty-six rams were built, ranging in length from 112.8 to 163 feet, at Bethel and Sharptown, Maryland. "Two were also built in Baltimore and one at Madison, Maryland. So the design must have been successful, if not eye-pleasing." Edwin And Maud was the fourteenth of the twenty-one rams built at Bethel.
Cargoes varied, but the standby was lumber. Headed down Chesapeake Bay for Virginia or the Carolinas to pick up lumber or cordwood, the cargo south might be coal, fertilizer, empty cans for canning factories or supplies for stores in "river towns near the lumbering operations." A large ram might carry as much as two hundred thousand board feet of lumber on the return voyage. Another major cargo was grain from the Carolinas, Virginia and Maryland to the mills in Baltimore. By the 1930s and 1940s fertilizer had become a major item, with schooners picking up phosphate in Florida for Maryland fertilizer factories. It could also work the other way: "A load of fertilizer typically became return freight once a cargo of grain was unloaded in Baltimore."
By 1933 there were still thirteen rams sailing on the Bay, and Edwin And Maud was among them. In those early Depression years "most of them kept busy in the lumber and fertilizer trade, making trips from the Carolina Sounds through the Albemarle & Chesapeake Canal, up Chesapeake Bay to Philadelphia via the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, and return. Baltimore was also a regular port of call." However, between 1934 and 1942, fire, foundering, stranding and other causes took a heavy toll. By 1945 there remained only two of the rams in commercial use. For example, Granville R. Bacon, the last ram built at Bethel in 1911, stranded at Weekapaug, Rhode Island in 1934 and was later burned. Agnes S. Quillan, built in 1894, went ashore in the Potomac River in 1938. The Sharptown-built ram Charles T, Strann, renamed Kincora, was converted to power and sold to Dominican Republic interests in 1943.
Career of Edwin and Maud as a Cargo-carrying Ram
Originally home ported in Seaford, Delaware, Edwin And Maud spent much of her working career as a freighter out of Baltimore, owned by C.C. Paul & Co. and Albert F. Paul, normally carrying a crew of four. C.C. Paul was one of Baltimore's largest grain brokers, dealing mainly in corn and wheat. When Edwin And Maud carried fertilizer, which was carried bagged on the smaller schooners, recalled William Stevens, "we never ran many bags...We carried it loose in her hold." Stevens also stated that "whenever we'd load grain or fertilizer in the hold we'd always seal the hatches. Sometimes on the Edwin and Maud, the water'd be coming across and you could have rowed a skiff around on deck if it weren't so rough. Of course we didn't mind 'cause she was a nice boat." Stevens and his father made several trips to North Carolina in the three years they sailed the ram, carrying fertilizer or soft coal down. When picking up their return cargo of lumber, it was "loaded by hand and carefully distributed. If it was dry, a third of it was placed in the hold and two-thirds on deck. A load of green lumber was split half and half and it was often so heavy that, instead of figuring the rate by board feet, the captain charged a flat rate for the load.
"We'd load the Maud with dry lumber until she'd tilt," said Stevens. "When she'd tilt a little bit, we knew we could only put on another 4,000 or 5,000 feet. We'd pile it eight feet on deck and could hardly see over it standing on the quarterdeck." On the return trip the yawl boat was critical, as on occasion Stevens and his father sailed EDWIN AND MAUD by themselves. "We carried 750 gallons of gas and we hauled it over the stem to the yawl boat, 20 gallons at a time. That was all right when the Maud was loaded, because you didn't have to step far, but when she was light we'd have to get a ladder." Stevens and his father worked Maud until 1946, "when they could not make any more money running freight under sail." In 1946 Herman Knust bought her for his Chesapeake Bay Vacation Cruises. Edwin And Maud had carried cargo for forty-six years.
Career of Edwin and Maud as a Chesapeake Bay Windjammer
There had been several attempts at operating "dude" schooners on Chesapeake Bay, beginning shortly before the outbreak of World War II, but they had not been notably successful. On the Bay, shortly before the war, Captain D'Arcy Grant began passenger operations with the seventy-three foot, two-masted schooner Henry Disston, but by 1945 she had been abandoned. Another attempt with the schooner Edward L. Martin ended when she was converted to power in 1943. In 1944 Knust acquired the ram schooner Levin J. Marvel, investing a reported eighteen thousand dollars in her purchase and conversion to passenger service. Two years later he added Edwin And Maud. Cruises varied from five days to two weeks, and the two schooners were operating at ninety percent capacity during the June to October cruising season.
In 1954, Knust sold off his schooners, Marvel to a Pennsylvania entrepreneur and Maud to a Maine syndicate. In August 1955, Marvel was lost in a hurricane on Chesapeake Bay with the loss of seven lives. The Coast Guard inquiry blamed Marvel's poor condition and bad judgement on the part of her owner/captain. It would be another twenty years before passenger service returned to the Bay.
Career of Edwin and Maud as a Maine Windjammer
Edwin and Maud was purchased in 1954 by a syndicate, Maine Schooner Cruises, of Belfast, of which Captain Frederick Boyd Guild of Castine was a member. Summer "windjamming" on the Maine coast began in the 1930s when Frank Swift of Bucksport observed the rapidly vanishing sailing coasting trade and conceived the idea of carrying passengers for hire during the summer months. It was a concept similar to the "dude ranch" concept in the American west and was the first time "the concept of operating, adaptive use of a historic vessel was applied to maritime preservation."
By the time Swift began his operations with the 1881 schooner Annie F. Kimball, sail on the Maine coast had "all but lost its commercial viability," but by 1939 Swift had a waiting list for his fleet of three schooners and by 1948 had nine vessels operating out of Camden. In the late thirties he advertised one or two week cruises:
There are now some eighteen schooners operating in Maine waters during the summer months. Seven of these have been designated National Historic Landmarks, and like Victory Chimes and a few other historic vessels, are an "adaptive re-use" of a vessel. Some, like the schooner Heritage, built in Rockland in 1983, are a modern version of a traditional type, carrying "the only cargo that loads and unloads itself."
Part-owner Captain Frederick Guild skippered Edwin And Maud, now re-named Victory Chimes, in the summers of 1954 and 1955. In the spring of 1959 he purchased her "on his own." Assisted by his wife, Janet, and a crew of nine he operated her until 1984 and then sold her to a Duluth, Minnesota banker in 1985. At that time she traveled to the Great Lakes. Thomas Monaghan of Domino's Pizza next purchased her, renamed her Domino Effect and offered cruises aboard her as incentives to Domino's employees. "But while many people in Maine remember Domino's Pizza only for having changed the vessel's name, Domino's should be remembered for having saved the vessel's life," wrote Virginia Thorndike in her book on Maine windjammers. As has been mentioned, the schooner received an extensive and much-needed refit in 1988.
Domino Effect returned to Maine in the fall of 1989, and in the spring of 1990 she was purchased by Captains Kip Files and Paul DeGaeta, who renamed her Victory Chimes. In 1991, "the State of Maine honored the Victory Chimes with the special Joint Resolution H.P. 1369 recognizing her as one of the premier vessels in the American Windjammer Fleet. She is the only Maine windjammer to receive this distinction." When cruising during Maine summers she carries up to forty passengers and a crew of nine.
At the time of this writing, Victory Chimes is the largest historic vessel still sailing in the United States. She owes her survival to hardworking owners and crews over her ninety-six year career as a working vessel. They have kept the schooner alive by keeping her in working condition; replacement in kind has been practiced as a matter of course throughout her working life. For the last fifty years history-minded passengers have also shared the experience of sailing on board one of the last great American windjammers.
1. E. P. Morris, The Fore-and-Aft Rig in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927), p. 178.
2. Quentin Snediker and Ann Jensen, Chesapeake Bay Schooners (Centreville, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1992), p. 12.
3. Ibid., p. 12. This painting is also reproduced in Joseph A. Goldenberg, Shipbuilding in Colonial America (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976), Plate 4.
4. William Falconer, A Universal Dictionary of the Marine (London: T. Cadell, 1780), p. 257.
5. Webster's Third New International Dictionary (Springfield: G. & C. Merriam & Co., 1981), p. 2031.
6. Eric Partridge, Origins (New York: Greenwich House, 1983), p. 594.
7. Joseph E. Garland with Captain Jim Sharpe, Adventure, Queen of the Windjammers, (Camden, Maine: Down East Books, 1985) p. 6.
8. Charles S. Morgan, "New England Coasting Schooners," in E.W. Smith, ed., Workaday Schooners, (Camden: International Marine Publishing, 1975), p. 156.
9. Henry Hall, Report on the Ship-Building Industry of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1882), p. 93.
10. Carl C. Cutler, Greyhounds of the Sea, (New York: Halcyon House, 1930), pp. 37-38.
11. Howard I. Chapelle, American Sailing Ships, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1935), p. 259.
12. David R. MacGregor, Schooners in Four Centuries (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1982), p. 54.
13. Chapelle, Sailing Ships, op. cit., p. 259.
14. Francis E. Bowker, Three-Masted Schooners, A Compilation of Three-Masted Schooners Built on the American East Coast (Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 1991), "Prologue," p. i.v.
15. Chapelle, Sailing Ships, op. cit., p. 259; Paul C. Morris, American Sailing Coasters of the North Atlantic, (Chardon, Ohio: Bloch and Osborn Publishing Company, 1973) pp. 20-24; James Cooke Mills, Our Inland Seas, Their Shipping and Commerce For Three Centuries, reprint of 1910 ed. (Cleveland, Ohio: Freshwater Press, 1976) pp. 158-159; and Jacques LeStrang, Cargo Carriers of the Great Lakes: The Saga of the Great Lakes Fleet, North America's Freshwater Merchant Marine (Boine City, Michigan: Harbor House Publishers, 1985) pp. 18-23; .
16. Snediker and Jensen, op. cit., p. 78.
17. There is some confusion over just how narrow the C & D locks actually were. Most historians of the rams cite a lock width of twenty-four feet, for example, Robert H. Burgess, Chesapeake Sailing Craft, (Cambridge, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1975), p. 173. However, in his The National Waterway: A History of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, 1769-1965 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1967), Ralph D. Gray cites a twenty-two foot lock width and seven foot depth. (p. 67).
18. Burgess, Sailing Craft, op. cit. p. 173. Burgess is apparently referring to the article on rams published in Lyman's Log Chips, Volume 2, p. 123.
19. Burgess, Sailing Craft, op. cit., p. 173.
20. 18 Gray, op. cit. p. viii.
21. Gray, op. cit. p. 190.
22. Ibid. p. 190.
23. Ibid. p. viii.
24. Snediker and Jensen, op. cit. p. 139.
25. Robert H. Burgess, Chesapeake Bay, (Cambridge, MD: Cornell Maritime Press, 1963), p. 113.
26. Burgess, Sailing Craft, op. cit. p. 173.
27. Burgess, Chesapeake Bay, op. cit. p. 113.
28. Ibid. p. 174.
29. Ibid. p. 173; It should be noted that with her graceful sheer and balanced proportions Edwin And Maud was considered an attractive example of a generally homely type.
30. Snediker and Jensen, op. cit., p. 84.
31. Ibid., p. 82.
32. Burgess, Chesapeake Bay, op. cit., p. 113.
33. Ibid., p. 114.
34. Ibid., p. 114; James E. Marvill, Sailing Rams (Lewes, DE: The Sussex Press, 1974, second edition) p. 51.
35. List of Merchant Vessels of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900).
36. Ibid., various years to 1946.
37. Snediker and Jensen, op. cit., p. 80.
38. Ibid., p. 82.
39. Ibid., p. 81.
40. Ibid., p. 84.
42. Ibid., p. 99.
43. Ibid., p. 106.
44. Ibid., p. 161.
45. Ibid., p. 160.
46. Ibid., p. 162.
47. Ibid., p. 169.
48. James P. Delgado, National Historic Landmark nomination for schooner AMERICAN EAGLE. Quoted in National Register nomination for VICTORY CHIMES,1993.
49. Virginia L. Thorndike, Windjammer Watching on the Coast of Maine (Camden: Down East Books, 1993), p. 12.
51. Undated pamphlet in possession of Nicholas Dean.
52. Captain Douglas K. Lee, interview with Nicholas Dean, Rockland, Maine, May 1990.
53. Down East, May 1973, p. 55.
54. Thorndike, Windjammer Watching, op. cit. , p. 86.
55. VICTORY CHIMES brochure, Rockland, ME, n.d.
56. Thorndike, Windjammer Watching, op. cit., p. 87.
Bowker, Francis E., Three-Masted Schooners, A Compilation of Three-Masted Schooners Built on the American East Coast (Mystic: Mystic Seaport Museum, 1991).
Burgess, Robert H., Chesapeake Bay (Cambridge MD: Cornell Maritime Press, 1963).
, Chesapeake Sailing Craft (Cambridge MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1975).
Chapelle, Howard I., American Sailing Ships (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1935).
Cutler, Carl C., Greyhounds of the Sea (New York: Halcyon House, 1930).
Falconer, William, An Universal Dictionary of the Marine (London: T. Cadell, 1780).
Hall, Henry, Report on the Ship-Building Industry of the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1882).
Le Strang, Jacques, Cargo Carriers of the Great Lakes: The Saga of the Great Lakes Fleet, North America's Freshwater Merchant Marine (Boine City, Michigan: Harbor House Publishers, 1985).
List of Merchant Vessels of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900-1972).
MacGregor, David R., Schooners in Four Centuries Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1982).
Mills, James Cooke, Our Inland Seas, Their Shipping and Commerce For Three Centuries, reprint of 1910 ed. (Cleveland, Ohio: Freshwater Press, 1976).
Morris, Paul C., American Sailing Coasters of the North Atlantic, (Chardon, Ohio: Bloch and Osborn Publishing Company, 1973).
Morris, E.P., The Fore-and-Aft Rig in America (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927).
Snediker, Quentin, and Jensen, Ann, Chesapeake Bay Schooners (Centreville MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1992).
Thorndike, Virginia L., Windjammer Watching on the Coast of Maine (Camden: Down East Books, 1993).