• Many Glacier Hotel at Glacier National Park, Montana

    DSC Workflows

Definitions - C

CAP - Capital Asset Plan

Capital Asset Plan (CAP)
A Capital Asset Plan is prepared at the beginning of Predesign for all capital construction projects over $2.0 mil. The CAP establishes:

  1. Project schedule
  2. Funding expenditure schedule tied to specific funds
  3. Project performance measures
  4. Outlines contracting and procurement for construction contracting
  5. Measures achievements against the original baselines
  6. Proposes corrective actions for a project that shows deviation from the schedule, funding, or performance baseline

CAPs are updated on a quarterly basis. Projects exceeding $10 million in construction require capital asset plans that are submitted to Department of Interior (DOI) and Office of Managerial Budget (OMB) for approval.

Capital Funds
Funding dedicated to new projects or projects to expand the capacity of the transportation system, including freeway widening, rail extensions, transit station improvements, new bicycle and pedestrian lanes.

Capital Improvement
The construction, installation, or assembly of a new facility, or the alteration, expansion, or extension of an existing facility to accommodate a change of function or unmet programmatic needs.

Capital Planning and Investment Control (CPIC)
A structured, performance-based, integrated approach to managing the risks and returns of capital assets for a given mission. The CPIC process provides for the annual cycle of selection, and a continuous control, life cycle management, and evaluation of IT and construction investments. The process is focused on the effective use of investment resources to carry out the Department's mission.

Categorical Exclusion (CE)
Documentation that actions have no measurable or significant adverse environmental impacts and for which no exceptional circumstances exist and that meet agency requirements as defined for categorical exclusions outlined in DO-12.

CBA - Choosing by Advantage

CDs - Construction Documents

CE - Categorical Exclusion

Centerline
For a two-lane highway the centerline is the middle of the traveled way, and for a divided highway the centerline may be the center of the median. For a divided highway with independent roadways, each roadway has its own centerline.

Central Federal Lands Highway Division (CFLHD)
Information can be found at the following website: http://www.cflhd.gov/.

CEQ - Council on Environmental Quality

CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

CFLHD - Central Federal Lands Highway Division

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations

Channel Stabilization
Protections of open channels from excessive erosion and scour by channel lining.

Character-Defining Feature
A prominent or distinctive aspect, quality, or characteristic of a historic property that contributes significantly to its physical character. Structures, objects, vegetation, spatial relationships, views, furnishings, decorative details, and materials may be such features.

Excerpt from Secretary of Interior Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitation:

Guidance for the treatment Rehabilitation begins with recommendations to identify the form and detailing of those architectural materials and features that are important in defining the building's historic character and which must be retained in order to preserve that character. Therefore, guidance on identifying, retaining, and preserving character-defining features is always given first. The character of a historic building may be defined by the form and detailing of exterior materials, such as masonry, wood, and metal; exterior features, such as roofs, porches, and windows; interior materials, such as plaster and paint; and interior features, such as moldings and stairways, room configuration and spatial relationships, as well as structural and mechanical systems.

Charette
A focused, short-term workshop engaging diverse disciplines and interest in an effort to explore a range of design opportunities and solutions. The ideas are expressed graphically and supported by text.

Choosing by Advantage (CBA)
A selection and ranking process used by NPS that is based on the relative advantages and costs of the each project in accomplishing service-wide goals and objectives.

Chronology of Development and Use (Historic Structure Report)
The physical construction, modification, and use of the structure is summarized. The narrative should be based on historical documentation with corroboration from first-hand observation and materials analysis.

Claim
A written demand or written assertion by one of the contracting parties seeking, as a matter of right, the payment of money in a sum certain, the adjustment or interpretation of contract terms, or other relief arising under or relating to the contract. A claim arising under a contract, unlike a claim relating to that contract, is a claim that can be resolved under a contract clause that provides for the relief sought by the claimant. However, a written demand or written assertion by the contractor seeking the payment of money exceeding $100,000 is not a claim under the Contract Disputes Act of 1978 until certified as required by the Act and the FAR. A voucher, invoice, or other routine request for payment that is not in dispute when submitted is not a claim. The submission may be converted to a claim, by written notice to the Contracting Officer, if it is disputed either as to liability or amount or is not acted upon in a reasonable time. (FAR 33.201)

Class A Construction Cost Estimate
The National Park Service uses Class A Construction Cost Estimates at completion of construction drawings and specifications, when the project is ready to be advertised for construction. It is often referred to as the Independent Government Estimate (IGE). The estimate is based on complete quantity take-offs from completed construction drawings and specifications and shall correspond to the bid schedule. The minimum Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for the estimate shall be summarized by Bid Item, broken down to UNIFORMAT II (level 2). Itemized detailed cost backup data shall be submitted on each bid item identifying the cost of equipment, materials, and labor for the work referenced. The detailed cost backup data shall be summarized to UNIFORMAT II, level 2; with individual cost elements subtotaled to UNIFORMAT II, level 3; supported by itemized sub-element costs, detailed to either UNIFORMAT II, level 4, or the CSI MasterFormat, section and line number level. Support information to develop the estimate shall include:

  • Final construction drawings and specifications
  • Basis of Estimate Statement, documenting all sources of cost information and estimate assumptions
  • Estimate based on complete quantity take-offs
  • Local market cost research
  • Final Bid Schedule
  • A summary report, by bid item, with estimate mark-ups (including general requirements) allocated to each bid item, to be submitted as the cover sheet for the Class A estimate

The Direct Construction Costs presented for all estimates shall reflect current year construction costs and incorporate the following into the direct cost, unit costs, and totals:

  • Park Location Factor
    • Published Location Factor
    • Remoteness Factor
    • Federal Wage Rate Factor
    • State and Local Taxes
  • Historic Preservation Factor

The following cost factors (mark-ups, add-ons, adjustments) shall be accounted for as additions to the Direct Cost in the Class A Construction Cost Estimate:

  • Design Contingency
  • General Conditions/ General Requirements (General Conditions costs shall be shown in detail, not as a percentage of direct costs)
    • Standard General Conditions
    • Government General Conditions
  • Overhead
  • Profit
  • Bonds and Permit costs, if not already included in the General Conditions
  • Contracting Method Adjustment
  • Inflation Escalation to estimated midpoint date of Construction

Class A Cost Estimate [Applies to Revegetation/FLHP Projects]
A detailed cost estimate which is prepared for construction and installation of the revegetation plan administered through the FHLP program. Costs are itemized and expressed in unit or lump sum costs. It is often referred to as the Official Government Estimate.

Class B Construction Cost Estimate
A Class B Construction Cost Estimate is prepared at the end of Schematic Design and is based on the "Fully Developed Schematic Design Preferred Alternative" and Basis of Design Report. The Class B Construction Cost Estimate is updated at the end of Design Development when the project has reached approximately the 40% complete Construction Document level. A project must have a Class B Construction Cost Estimate when submitted for Development Advisory Board approval. A Class B Construction Cost Estimate may be derived partially from lump sum (conceptual costs) and unit costs, but should at least match the level of detail shown on the plans. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for a Class B Construction Cost Estimate shall be Bid Item, UNIFORMAT II, level 2; with individual cost elements subtotaled to UNIFORMAT II, level 3. Greater levels of detail should be provided when possible. Support information to develop the estimate shall include:

  • Site design (existing and proposed utilities, grading, planting, etc.)
  • Building design (plans, elevations, and typical wall sections showing structural systems, proposed room finishes)
  • Schematic mechanical and electrical systems design (may be in the form of written analysis, based upon available information)
  • Outline specifications including cut sheets of proposed equipment, fixtures or specialty items which may significantly influence estimate
  • Basis of Estimate Statement, documenting all sources of cost information and estimate assumptions

The Direct Construction Costs presented for all estimates shall reflect current year construction costs.

The following cost factors (mark-ups, add-ons, adjustments) shall be accounted for as additions to the Direct Construction Costs in the Class B Construction Cost Estimate:

  • Park Location Factor
    • Published Location Factor
    • Remoteness Factor
    • Federal Wage Rate Factor
  • State and Local Taxes
  • Design Contingency
  • General Conditions
    • Standard General Conditions
    • Government General Conditions
  • Historic Preservation Factor
  • Overhead
  • Profit
  • Bonds and Permit costs.
  • Contracting Method Adjustment
  • Inflation Escalation to estimated midpoint date of Construction

Class B Cost Estimate [Applies to Revegetation/FLHP Projects]
An estimate prepared based on the fully developed schematic design, typically at the 30% to 50% complete construction drawing level. The Class B cost estimate continues to be revised and refined which results in the Class A cost estimate or Official Government Estimate.

Class C Construction Cost Estimate
A conceptual cost estimate based on square foot cost (or unit cost) of similar construction. These estimates are often prepared without a fully defined scope of work. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for a Class C Construction Cost Estimate shall, at a minimum, divide the work into Major Asset, or Project Elements. Itemized detailed cost backup data shall be submitted for each asset or element. The cost back up data shall be summarized to UNIFORMAT II, level 2; with individual cost elements detailed to UNIFORMAT II, level 3, whenever possible. The estimate should include costs, projections or allowances for all anticipated systems or elements necessary to provide a complete and fully functional facility. Support information should include:

  • Basis of Estimate Statement, documenting all sources of cost information and estimate assumptions
  • Anticipated square footage and building type
  • Anticipated site development including existing and proposed facilities
  • Anticipated mechanical and electrical needs (i.e., will the structure be heated and/or cooled?)
  • Anticipated structural systems
  • Anticipated utility needs (i.e., will the site require leach field or well?)
  • Anticipated utility systems

The direct construction cost for all estimates shall reflect current year construction costs.

The following cost factors (mark-ups, add-ons, adjustments) shall be accounted for in the Class C Construction Cost Estimate:

  • Park Location Factor
    • Published Location Factor
    • Remoteness Factor
    • Federal Wage Rate Factor
  • State and Local Taxes
  • Design Contingency
  • General Conditions
    • Standard General Conditions
    • Government General Conditions
  • Historic Preservation Factor
  • Overhead
  • Profit
  • Bonds and Permit costs.
  • Contracting Method Adjustment
  • Inflation Escalation to estimated date of Construction

Class C Cost Estimate [Applies to Revegetation/FLHP Projects]
A conceptual cost estimate based on unit costs (i.e. acres) of similar construction. They are often prepared with a fully defined project scope.

Clear Zone
That area along the side of the traveled way (including the shoulder) that is available for recovery of an errant vehicle.

CLI - Cultural Landscape Inventory

Climbing Lane
An additional traffic lane provided for slow moving vehicles on the upgrade side of a highway.

CLR - Cultural Landscape Report

CLR Drawings - Cultural Landscape Report Drawings

CMAQ - Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program

CMR - Construction Management Representative

CMS - Congestion Management Systems

CO - Contracting Officer

Collections Management Plan
Provides short-term and long-term guidance to park and center staffs in the management and care of museum objects and archival and manuscript collections.

Commercial Item
Includes:

  1. Any item, other than real property, that is of a type customarily used for nongovernmental purposes and that:
    1. Has been sold, leased, or licensed to the general public; or
    2. Has been offered for sale, lease, or license to the general public;
  2. Any item that evolved from an item described in Paragraph 1 of this definition through advances in technology or performance and that is not yet available in the commercial marketplace, but will be available in the commercial marketplace in time to satisfy the delivery requirements under a Government solicitation;
  3. Any item that would satisfy a criterion expressed in Paragraphs 1 or 2 of this definition, but for:
    1. Modifications of a type customarily available in the commercial marketplace; or
    2. Minor modifications of a type not customarily available in the commercial marketplace made to meet Federal Government requirements. Minor modifications means modifications that do not significantly alter the nongovernmental function or essential physical characteristics of an item or component, or change the purpose of a process. Factors to be considered in determining whether a modification is minor include the value and size of the modification and the comparative value and size of the final product. Dollar values and percentages may be used as guideposts, but are not conclusive evidence that a modification is minor;
  4. Any combination of items meeting the requirements of Paragraphs a, b, c, or e of this definition that are of a type customarily combined and sold in combination to the general public;
  5. Installation services, maintenance services, repair services, training services, and other services if such services are procured for support of an item referred to in Paragraphs a, b, c, or d of this definition, and if the source of such services:
    1. Offers such services to the general public and the Federal Government contemporaneously and under similar terms and conditions; and
    2. Offers to use the same work force for providing the Federal Government with such services as the source uses for providing such services to the general public;
  6. Services of a type offered and sold competitively in substantial quantities in the commercial marketplace based on established catalog or market prices for specific tasks performed under standard commercial terms and conditions. This does not include services that are sold based on hourly rates without an established catalog or market price for a specific service performed;
  7. Any item, combination of items, or service referred to in Paragraphs a through f, notwithstanding the fact that the item, combination of items, or service is transferred between or among separate divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor; or
  8. A nondevelopmental item, if the procuring agency determines the item was developed exclusively at private expense and sold in substantial quantities, on a competitive basis, to multiple State and local governments. (FAR 2.101)

Competitive Range
Based on the ratings of each proposal against all evaluation criteria, all of the most highly rated proposals, unless the range is further reduced for purposes of efficiency. (FAR 15.306(c))

Complete Stamped and Signed DB Construction Documents
Complete Stamped and Signed DB Construction Documents with all review comments resolved. These documents will be utilized for project construction and the basis for Project Record Drawings.

Compliance
The process through which natural and cultural resources are taken into account in federal actions. Regulatory requirements that frame compliance activities include the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, and executive orders as well as state requirements.

Compliance Consistency Reviews
The ongoing processes utilized by the design and construction teams to ensure that the evolving design, including design alternatives, and details, are consistent with those that were evaluated within the Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), or Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD).

Compliance Drawings
For SHPO/THPO review, historic structures, preferred alternative drawings are annotated to indicate impacts on character defining features and qualities that make the structure eligible for the National Register of Historic Places (see Design Development).

For drawings and supporting obtaining Section 404 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and other permits.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)
This act deals with hazardous wastes and materials. It has reporting and testing requirements that, if not followed, can be used to prosecute the responsible individuals, both corporately and individually. This means a contractor can be sued and the Government is not responsible for the fine if one is incurred. Maximum fines for violation of the Act is $25,000.00 per day per incident.

Comprehensive Historic Preservation Planning
The logical organization of preservation information pertaining to the identification, evaluation, registration, and treatment of historic properties and the setting of priorities for accomplishing preservation activities.

Comprehensive PA - Scope [Applies to Park Roads/FLHP Projects]
Shift from problem identification to include preliminary approaches to solutions.

Roles and Responsibilities: Fill in missing development team members based on further knowledge of specialized design or resource information needs.
Schedule & Budget: Comprehensive. Dates and funds are identified to develop project fully. Budgets and schedules will be modified by subsequent PA updates but the schedule and budget developed at this stage should be the first comprehensive project schedule and budget.
Management Endorsement: Higher level signature required to support human and fiscal resource commitments made with comprehensive schedule and budget.

"Conceptual Stage Value Analysis (CSVA)
Value analysis that occurs at the conceptual/schematic stage of project development and considers project scope, needs, alternatives, and cost. All the various solutions or alternatives available to meet the identified need are considered and a preferred alternative is selected. Recommendations provided by the analysis to develop the selected alternative have a high probability of being included in subsequent stages of project development. At the conclusion of the analysis, project scope is well defined and major activities required for further project development have been identified."

A CSVA may take several forms:
  1. Classic single, multi-day study and report focused on proposals to improve the conceptual/schematic design,
  2. Study designed to select a preferred alternative from a broad range of alternatives, or
  3. Study combining both approaches.

Study should be structured by the Value Analysis Job Plan. These studies will be guided by and targeted on high cost centers from a project cost model and how to improve performance and/or reduce cost for the project. Alternatives should be considered on all major cost centers. Life Cycle cost should be considered where possible. Evaluation methods should allow benefit-cost comparisons and decision-making. Choosing by Advantages is one process used in the National Park Service to support benefit-cost decision-making.

Final submission of the CSVA would be made with the Schematic submission for internal (DSC) quality control review. Final submission is submitted to WASO - Construction Program Management - Value Analysis, typically with the Development Advisory Board submission.

NOTE 1: Quoted paragraphs are from the Department of the Interior, Departmental Manual: Effective Date: 12/19/08, Series: Management Systems and Procedures, Part 369: Value Analysis, Chapter 1: General Criteria and Policy. http://elips.doi.gov/app_DM/act_getfiles.cfm?relnum=3820

NOTE 2: When reference is made to construction costs, it refers to "Net Construction".

Condition
The physical state of a structure or its components.

Condition Assessment
An evaluation of the physical condition of a structure, distilled by elements and details, with a description of deteriorated areas and the cause for the deterioration.

Condition Assessment Report
A formal report which presents the condition assessment data. This report may cover the entire historic structure or a single feature or system.

Conduct Data Collection
The process of gathering existing data on cultural and natural resources, visitor use and experience, and the socioeconomic environment in the project area, to be used in assessing the potential impacts of the project alternatives on these resources and values.

Conformity
A process by which transportation plans, and spending programs are reviewed to ensure consistency with Federal clean air requirements; transportation projects collectively must not worsen air quality.

Congestion Management Systems (CMS)
A systematic process for managing congestion that provides information on system performance and on alternative strategies for alleviating congestion and enhancing the mobility of persons and goods. A CMS includes methods to monitor and evaluate performance, identify alternative actions, assess and implement cost-effective actions and evaluate the effectiveness of implemented actions. Information can be found at the following website: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/resourcecenter/teams/planning/cms.cfm

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ)
An FHWA program established in 1991 for projects and activities that reduce congestion and improve air quality. Most of these funds are spent in areas that do not meet air quality standards, known as non-attainment areas.

Constructability Analysis
A Constructability Analysis for a design project is performed using the Constructability Checklist. This typically involves interaction with park staff and modification of the Division I Specifications for Design-Bid-Build projects. For Design-Build, the Design-Build Constructability Checklist is utilized. This information is used to edit Part 1 and Part 2 of the Design-Build Request for Proposal Template.

Constructability Strategies
The ongoing processes utilized by the design and construction teams to ensure that the evolving design, including design alternatives, and details, are constructable.

Construction Bid Schedule
The document utilized by the construction contractor to assign pricing to various aspects of work. The unfilled Construction Bid Schedule is prepared by the design team.

Construction Contract Procurement
All activities and processes, as required by the Federal Acquisition Regulation, associated with awarding a construction contract to a Contractor.

Construction Documents (CDs)
In general, all of the discussions, decisions and drawings that result from Predesign, Schematic Design, and Design Development are conveyed as precisely as possible, both graphically and quantitatively, in a set of detailed documents. These documents outline the expected level of performance and quality, both in written and graphic format. Construction documents ensure the final product matches the product ultimately envisioned after working through the design process.

Specific to the National Park Service, when the construction documents are complete, the NPS shall have sufficient information to secure construction contractor bids and obtain the required permits. The construction documents are required so a contractor can build the project as it has been conceived by the NPS and designers.

Construction Documents - 100% Draft
100% Draft Construction Documents establish the detailed requirements for construction of the project. The drawings are complete and free of ambiguities, are fully dimensioned, survey control and layout information is provided; all required details are shown and clearly cross-referenced. All required specification sections are provided and have been fully edited. Drawings, specifications, and attachments have been coordinated within, and between, all disciplines. The design team's internal Quality Control reviews have been completed and comments have been reconciled within the documents.

The 100% Draft Construction Documents are used as the basis for the Class A Construction Cost Estimate. The Class A Construction Cost Estimate is often referred to as the "Official Government Estimate."

Construction Documents - 100% Complete
Construction Documents that are submitted with previous 100% Draft review comments resolved for verification by NPS Quality Assurance Branch reviewers. Delay in approval and additional verification reviews will be required if Quality Assurance comments are not adequately resolved. 100% Complete Construction Documents are approved by the NPS Quality Assurance Branch Chief.

Construction Documents - Final
Drawings and Specifications that are complete with all review comments incorporated. Construction Documents that are ready for NPS archiving and contract procurement processes.

Construction Drawings
After approval of the Design Development drawings, the same drawings are then further evolved into Construction Drawings with the inclusion of more detailed technical information, such as dimensions, notes, schedules and referenced large-scale details. Completed Construction drawings will accompany the final specifications to create a legal document for bidding purposes. All construction drawings shall meet the NPS standard.

Construction Management Representative (CMR)
A contract employee who provides project administration and inspection services for construction projects.

Construction Specifications
Written requirement for materials, equipment, construction systems, standards, and workmanship for the work as well as standards for the construction services required to produce the work. The specifications are usually presented in the project manual, along wit the bidding requirements, contract forms, and conditions of the contract. (AIA)

Construction Survey
A survey executed to locate or lay out engineering works. In highway construction applications, this survey is used to set grading elevation stakes, reference points, slope stakes and other such controls.

Contextual Analysis
Existing and proposed contextual elements (site and architectural character) are compiled on the Contextual Analysis Template to enable side-by-side comparison for judging the extent of contextual design compliance. This analysis is accomplished primarily through narrative, but may be accompanied by character sketches and images, if needed.

Contextual Design Philosophy
The design of the facility will embrace timeless design practices. The facility will express strength, stability, endurance, conceived of this time and place.

Past building traditions and practices will be respected, embracing new sustainable practices and technologies and the facility will be significant but not monumental. The size of the facility will always relate to the human scale, welcoming and comfortable, not intimidating. The architectural form and expression will avoid architectural clichés of the day, will be non-intrusive, and will embrace a minimalist aesthetic.

The facility will achieve comfort through simplicity, and beauty through compatibility with its surroundings.

Contour
A line that depicts equal elevation on a land surface. The line representing this on a map.

Contract
A mutually binding legal relationship obligating the seller to furnish the supplies or services (including construction) and the buyer to pay for them. It includes all types of commitments that obligate the Government to an expenditure of appropriated funds and that, except as otherwise authorized, are in writing. In addition to bilateral instruments, contracts include (but are not limited to) awards and notices of awards; job orders or task letters issued under basic ordering agreements; letter contracts; orders, such as purchase orders, under which the contract becomes effective by written acceptance or performance; and bilateral contract modifications. Contracts do not include grants and cooperative agreements. (FAR 2.101)

Contract Action
An action resulting in a contract, including contract modifications for additional supplies or services, but not including contract modifications that are within the scope and under the terms of the contract, such as contract modifications issued pursuant to the Changes clause, or funding and other administrative changes. (FAR 32.001)

Contract Bid Schedule (or Contract Price Schedule)
A Contract Bid Schedule is prepared as part of the specifications and describes the extent of work. When the extent of the work cannot be adequately shown in a Lump Sum, each bid item is listed by specification section in a numerical order that describes the bid items measurement and payment.

Contract Document Hierarchy
There are five essential parts to a contract and a requirement occurring in one is as binding as if occurring in all. They are intended to be complementary and to describe and provide for a complete work. In case of discrepancy, numerical dimensions will prevail over scaled dimensions and the parts of the contract will prevail in the following order:

  • Contract Clauses, 48 CFR, Chapters 1 and 12
  • Special Contract Requirements
  • Plans
  • Supplemental Specifications
  • Standard Specifications (FP-XX)

Contract Documents
Documents that form the legal agreement between owner and contractor. These include all construction documents except bidding requirements. (AIA)

Contract Modification
Also referred to as a modification or mod. Any written change in the terms of a contract. (FAR 43.101)

Contract Price

  1. The award price of a contract or, for requirements contracts, the price payable for the estimated quantity; or for indefinite-delivery type contracts, the price payable for the specified minimum quantity. (FAR 52.228-15(a))
  2. The total amount of a contract for the term of the contract (excluding options, if any) or, for requirements contracts, the price payable for the estimated quantity; or for indefinite-delivery type contracts, the price payable for the specified minimum quantity. (FAR 52.228-16(a))

Contract Price Schedule
See Contract Bid Schedule.

Contract Specialist (CS)
Performs professional work involving procuring supplies, services, and construction using formal advertising or negotiation procedures, evaluating contract price proposals, and contract administration or termination and closeout.

Contracting Methods Factor
The Contracting Method Factor is the varying cost factor associated with the type of construction contract used for a specific construction project. The National Park Service seldom awards construction contracts based on the low-bidder of full and open competitive bid solicitations. The contracting methods, most often employed by the NPS, add additional cost to the construction projects as compared to a competitive bid solicitation. The primary procurement method is competitive negotiation, where award is based on negotiating a price with the best technically-qualified bidder. The NPS also awards many contracts through the Small Business Administration's 8-A program. Depending on the Procurement method chosen, cost can be affected, as much as, 15-30 percent.

Contracting Officer (CO)
A person with the authority to enter into, administer, and/or terminate contracts and make related determinations and findings.

Contracting Officer Representative (COR)
Also referred to as Contracting Officer Technical Representative. A person designated by the Contracting Officer to assist in the technical monitoring or administration of a contract. Procedures vary from agency to agency, but generally a COR must be designated in writing with a copy furnished the contractor and the contract administration office. The designation does not include any authority to make any commitments or changes that affect price, quality, quantity, delivery, or other terms and conditions of the contract.

Contracting Officer Technical Representative (COTR)
See Contracting Officer Representative.

Contractor

  1. Any individual or other legal entity that:
    • Directly or indirectly (e.g., through an affiliate), submits offers for or is awarded, or reasonably may be expected to submit offers for or be awarded, a Government contract, including a contract for carriage under Government or commercial bills of lading, or a subcontract under a Government contract; or
    • Conducts business, or reasonably may be expected to conduct business, with the Government as an agent or representative of another contractor. (FAR 9.403)
  2. Includes the terms prime contractor and subcontractor. (FAR 22.801)
  3. Includes a subcontractor at any tier whose subcontract is subject to the provisions of the Services Contract Act. (FAR 22.1001)
  4. For subcontracting requirements, the total contractor organization or a separate entity of it, such as an affiliate, division, or plant, that performs its own purchasing. (FAR 44.101)

Copeland (Anti-Kickback) Act
Makes it unlawful to induce, by force, intimidation, threat of procuring dismissal from employment, or otherwise, any person employed in the construction or repair of public buildings or public works, financed in whole or in part by the United States, to give up any part of the compensation to which that person is entitled under a contract of employment. The Act also requires each contractor and subcontractor to furnish weekly a statement of compliance with respect to the wages paid each employee during the preceding week. Contracts subject to the Act must contain a clause requiring contractors and subcontractors to comply with the regulations issued by the Secretary of Labor under the Act. (FAR 22.403-2)

COR - Contracting Officer Representative

Cost Comparability
Comparable construction costs to the project being programmed. Data is obtained from actual construction costs of similar projects, in similar localities, for comparison to the Class C estimated construction cost. Use non-NPS projects for comparison.

Cost Comparability Analysis
Collaboratively research comparability costs for the project for inclusion in the Predesign Submittal. Information should reflect the following:

  • Substantial project components broken down into units such as cost per square foot of building, cost per toilet fixture, cost per parking space, cost per linear foot of pipe, and cost per linear foot of roadway
  • Regionalized costs
  • Costs presented quantitatively, as well as graphically, using histograms, pie charts, etc.
  • Information current within 5 years and be adjusted for inflation
  • Provide a good representation of similar projects constructed by other Federal, state, or local government agencies and private sector investments.

Cost Estimate [Applies to Revegetation/FLHP Projects]
Estimated cost for revegetation, broken out year by year, which is an essential part of the overall revegetation plan prepared by the Denver Service Center or Park. This may be amended as required during the life of the project.

Cost Factors
Cost Factors are design and construction issues or parameters that influence both direct and indirect construction costs. They are typically spread throughout a construction estimate and if ignored or inadequately considered will result in construction cost estimate inaccuracies. Examples of Cost Factors include: Location Factor, Federal Wage Rate Factor, Overhead & Profit, General Conditions, Historic Preservation Factor, Contracting Methods Adjustment, Inflation Escalation, and Design Contingencies.

COTR - Contracting Officer Technical Representative
See Contracting Officer Representative.

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)
The Council on Environmental Quality coordinates federal environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. The Council's Chair, who is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, serves as the principal environmental policy adviser to the President. In addition, CEQ reports annually to the President on the state of the environment; oversees federal agency implementation of the environmental impact assessment process; and acts as a referee when agencies disagree over the adequacy of such assessments.

Cover Page (Cultural Landscape Report)
The cover page includes the: report title, name(s) of structure(s), name(s) of primary authors and investigators with affiliated office, regional office, department, and date of report. Project managers and other contributors who did not prepare the text may be more appropriately listed in an acknowledgement section. A signature page should follow the cover page with "recommended by" and "approved by" signature lines to document acceptance of the CLR. Traditionally the CLR is recommended by the person preparing the report or a park cultural resources specialist and approved by a park superintendent and/or regional director.

Cover Page (Historic Structure Report)
The cover page includes the: report title, name(s) of structure(s), name(s) of primary authors and investigators with affiliated office, regional office, department, and date of report. Project managers and other contributors who did not prepare the text may be more appropriately listed in an acknowledgement section. A signature page should follow the cover page with "recommended by" and "approved by" signature lines to document acceptance of the HSR. Traditionally the HSR is recommended by the person preparing the report or a park cultural resources specialist and approved by a park superintendent and/or regional director.

CPIC - Capital Planning and Investment

Control Cross Section
The transverse profile of a road showing horizontal and vertical dimensions.

CS - Contract Specialist

CSVA - Conceptual Stage Value Analysis

Cultural Landscape
A geographic area, including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or person or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values.

Cultural Landscape Inventory (CLI)
A computerized, evaluated inventory of all cultural landscapes for which the National Park Service has or plans to acquire any legal interest. The CLI includes a description of the location, historical development, landscape characteristics and associated features, and management of cultural landscapes in the national park system.

Cultural Landscape Report (CLR)
A report that serves as the primary guide to treatment and use of a cultural landscape, and that prescribes the treatment and management of the physical attributes and biotic systems of a landscape, and use when use contributes to historical significance.

Cultural Landscape Report Drawings or Historic Structure Report Drawings (CLR or HSR Drawings)
HSR or CLR drawings are prepared in support of Historic Structure Reports and Cultural Landscape Reports and are formatted to DSC HSR and CLR Standards. There are typically three types of HSR and CLR Drawings:

  1. Historic Drawings - Reproduced from original historic design documents (may be scanned and vectorized for conversion to AutoCAD.)
  2. Existing Condition Drawings - Drawings and annotations (typically AutoCAD) based on field measurements, sketches, and on-site observations in support the HSR Physical Description narrative.
  3. Recommended Treatment Drawings - Drawings and annotations based on Existing Condition Drawings that illustrate and annotate recommended preservation, restoration, adaptive use, or rehabilitation treatments (typically AutoCAD) in support of the HSR Recommended Treatments narrative.

All of these drawing types may be used to develop Contract Drawing Documents.

Cultural Resource
An aspect of a cultural system that is valued by or significantly representative of a culture or that contains significant information about a culture. A cultural resource may be a tangible entity or a cultural practice. Tangible cultural resources are categorized as districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects for the National Register of Historic Places and as archeological resources, cultural landscapes, structures, museum objects, and ethnographic resources for NPS management purposes.

Cultural Resource Management
The range of activities aimed at understanding, preserving, and providing for the enjoyment of cultural resources. It includes research related to cultural resources, planning for actions affecting them, and stewardship of them in the context of overall park operations. It also includes support for the appreciation and perpetuation of related cultural practices, as appropriate.

Culvert
Any structure that provides an opening under the roadbed but does not meet the classification of a bridge.