Coastal Processes

spray from large wave
Huge wave crashes against the rocky coast, Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Hawaii 2016.

NPS Photo.

About 70% of Earth's surface is covered by water, and the coast, which forms the interface between land and water, is the site of an array of geomorphic processes and a range of landforms. For example, waves and tides involve movement and dissipation of large amounts of energy capable of causing rapid and spectacular changes in landforms along coasts.

The following are driving forces that affect shorelines:

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Last updated: April 19, 2019

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