On-line Book




Chapter 1

Chapter 2
Urban Development

Chapter 3
Maritime Activity

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Appendix 1
Patterned Brick Houses

Appendix 2
Stack Houses

Appendix 3
Existing Documentation


Historic Themes and Resources within the
New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail Route
National Park Service Arrowhead



Cover photograph: View of Cedar Creek dock. Rutgers Collection, no date.




Project Description, Physical Description, Methodology, Pre-History, Early White and Permanent Settlement


County Development, Residential Architecture, Major Cities, Small Towns


Whaling, Trade, Ship Building, Oystering, Caviar, Menhaden, Crabbing, Lighthouses


Market Day/Fairs, Societies, Periodicals, Education, Crops, Farm Labor, Rural Residential Architecture, CCC Mosquito Control


Glassmaking, Canning, Iron Manufacture, Cedar Mining, Sandmining, Commerce


Ferry, Steamship, Railroad, Automobile/Truck, Airplane, Roads and Bridges


Academies/Early Private Schools, Free Public Schools, Libraries


Quakers, Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodists, Meeting Houses and Churches


Seaside Resorts, Fraternal Organizations/Clubs, Amusement Parks, Municipal Parks


Future Documentation and Research

APPENDIX I: Patterned Brick Houses

APPENDIX II: Stack Houses

APPENDIX III: Existing Documentation
National Register, HABS/HAER, Sanborns


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Sebold, Kimberly R., 1966-
Historic themes and resources within the New Jersey coastal heritage trail: southern New Jersey and the Delaware Bay: Cape May, Cumberland, and Salem counties / by Kimberly Sebold and Sara Amy Leach.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Historic buildings—New Jersey—New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail Route. 2. Historic buildings—New Jersey—Cape May County. 3. Historic buildings—New Jersey—Cumberland County. 4. Historic buildings—New Jersey—Salem County. 5. Cape May County (N.J.)—History, Local. 6. Cumberland County (N.J.)—History, Local. 7. Salem County (N.J.)—History, Local. I. Leach, Sara Amy. II. Title.
F142.N488S42 1991


Reprinted 1995, through a grant made possible by the Delaware River and Bay Authority.


Frontispiece. New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail and the three-county area of South Jersey studied by HABS in 1990. NPS-DSC.

Figure 1. Generalized landform regions of New Jersey showing the Inner and Outer Coastal Plains. Geography.

Figure 2. The Delaware Before Pennsylvania (late 17th century). Geography.

Figure 3. "New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey in 1685," detail of engraving by Nikolaus Visscher. Library of Congress.

Figure 4. The Cedar Plank House (HABS No. NJ-106), made of white cedar from nearby swamps prior to 1701, was moved from the Salem-Hancock Bridge Road to Hancock's Bridge; it was documented by HABS in the 1930s. HABS.

Figure 5. Detail of South Jersey, Evert's Illustrated Historical Atlas, 1876.

Figure 6. Salem Municipal Building (1899)—with contrasting red brick, stone, and white trim—is exemplary Queen Anne styling.

Figure 7. City of Salem, Atlas, 1875.

Figure 8. View of West Broadway, Salem.

Figure 9. William Sharp House (1862), on Market Street, has 19th-century cast-iron fencing found throughout Salem.

Figure 10. Map of Bridgeton. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 11. Jeremiah Buck House (HABS No. NJ-530), 297 E. Commerce St.—a formal, Georgian block with decorative glazing, shutters, dormers, and porches—was documented by HABS in the 1930s. HABS.

Figure 12. Cumberland County Hospital (1899), a massive Georgian Revival building composition, is one the most formal in the area and currently unused.

Figure 13. Bird's-eye view of Millville. Wettstein, 1886.

Figure 14. View of High Street, Millville.

Figure 15. Map of Hancock's Bridge. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 16. Padgett Funeral Home (19th century) is characterized by its boxy lines, flat roof and Italianate detailing.

Figure 17. Map of Greenwich. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 18. This Heislerville house (19th century) has fine Victorian elements in its pointed Gothic windows, gables, and spindlework trim; a store was in the rear.

Figure 19. Mauricetown, named for its Maurice River site, is composed of well-preserved 19th-century structures that deem it worthy of nomination to the National Register. Wettstein, 1950s.

Figure 20. Ichabod Compton (1782-1833), a descendant of the founders of Mauricetown, as well as a waterman, farmer, and sawyer, lived in this house.

Figure 21. Roadstown is the home of the Ware chairmaking family as well as several patterned brick houses.

Figure 22. Map of Shiloh. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 23. Map of Dennisville. U.S. Coast Survey, 1842.

Figure 24. Diagram of schooner and sloop type vessels, identifying sails and rigging. Guidelines for Recording Historic Ships.

Figure 25. Shipyard of F.L. Mulford, Millville. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 26. Del Bay Shipyard, located in Leesburg, repaired and built schooners as well as other vessels, including World War II mine sweepers.

Figure 27. Today WHIBCO Inc., a local sandmining company, uses the Del Bay Shipyard facilities as its headquarters.

Figure 28. Sailmaker Ed Cobb working in the sail loft of a building that is extant in Bivalve. Rutgers Collection, early 20th century.

Figure 29. The CASHIER (ca. 1849), moored in Commercial Township, is believed to be the oldest commercial fishing boat in use in this country. Leach.

Figure 30. Oyster growing areas in the Delaware River-Bay, showing seed beds and planting grounds. Undersail, early 20th century.

Figure 31. Taking up oysters at Bivalve showing the iron rakes, oyster boat, and processing houses of Bivalve in the background. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 32. Canning raw oysters at Port Norris. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 33. Packing oysters in baskets at Port Norris. Wettstein, pre-1904.

Figure 34. Interior of shucking house showing workers in their cubicles and kettles filled with shucked oysters. Undersail, early 20th century.

Figure 35. Shucking house on the Maurice River, where oysters are opened and prepared for shipping. Undersail, 1920s.

Figure 36. Oyster-processing facilities at Bivalve (ca. 1904). Workers bunked upstairs, processing occurred below; the N.J. State Police—Marine Division, is the current tenant.

Figure 37. Sturgeon docks at Caviar/Bayside. Rutgers Collection, ca. 1930.

Figure 38. Fisherman drying nets. Rutgers Collection, early 20th century.

Figure 39. Crabbing pots outside a Bivalve storage building.

Figure 40. East Point Light (1848) today is empty but intact, with its red-brick exterior exposed.

Figure 41. East Point Light when the brick building was stuccoed or painted white. Undersail, ca. 1900.

Figure 42. ShipJohn Light (pre-1876) is a Victorian caisson-type light in the Cohansey River. Undersail.

Figure 43. Cape May Point Light (1859), consists of a free-standing tower and keepers' dwellings. Leach.

Figure 44. Thomas Ludlam House (1743), originally a hall-and-parlor plan, has been enlarged with the addition of four bays and relocated below Dennisville.

Figure 45. Christopher Ludlam House (1776), though plain is an ordered, Georgian five-bay block with gable-end chimneys, center door, and rear additions.

Figure 46. Burcham Farmhouse (ca. 1870), is a vernacular Gothic Revival, block, indicated by the center gable; the bricks were fired on the property.

Figure 47. The drive-in corncrib form, here adapted for use as a garage, housed grain in the flanking compartments; the gable-end opening has been glazed.

Figure 48. Hope Grange, No. 43 (1904), like other rural, municipal and school buildings, is a basic rectangular frame block unadorned and painted white.

Figure 49. The Abbott Tide-Mill Farm House (1845) replaced the earlier John Denn residence, part of which may be enclosed in this three-story Federal block.

Figure 50. Abbotts Dairies' trucks were among the innovative techniques the family used to modernize and expand the business. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 51. Horse-drawn wagons, as here at Roadstown, hauled salt-hay loaders before mechanization; mired horses were often destroyed. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 52. Aerial view, Burcham Farm, a near-island triangle and probably the last working dike farm on the Maurice River; the strip of land (foreground) is all that remains of the adjacent farm. Wettstein, ca. 1950.

Figure 53. U.S.G.S. topographic map showing the Burcham Farm and its tenuous relationship to the Maurice River.

Figure 54. Sluice gates around a drain pipe allow water to escape from fields at low tide; as the tide rises, the gates press shut so as not to flood the fields. Sebold.

Figure 55. Muskrat skins dry on the wall of a trapper's shed; the animals were sought for their meat and skins. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 56. Farmers with wagons filled with tomatoes await the boats that will ship them down the Cohansey River and beyond to urban markets or canneries. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 57. Roadside market, Fairton, is simple but more stylish—with awning and lattice posts—than stands today. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 58. Camp's Big Oaks Farm Market, near Port Elizabeth, is a utilitarian, partially enclosed structure with a shed roof.

Figure 59. Crops were hand-picked by men, women, and children, as here at a bean field near Port Norris. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 60. Produce, including asparagus, was hand-packed by a female workforce at this Fairton farm. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 61. Migrant-worker housing is generally very basic, with running water and electricity introduced late in this century.

Figure 62. Whitall Tatum Company, Lower Works. Many of the buildings shown are today part of Foster-Forbes; most of the Upper Works is lost. Sanborn, 1886.

Figure 63. Maul Brothers' ten-section bottle-making machine, the first of its kind, built in Millville. Wettstein, early 20th century.

Figure 64. Whitall Tatum shop with workers blowing glass. Wettstein, ca. 1900.

Figure 65. Cohansey Glass Manufacturing Company site plan. Sanborn, 1886.

Figure 66. Getsinger and Son's is one of the many South Jersey glassworks sustained by lumbering and sand-mining industries during the 19th century. Sanborn, 1886.

Figure 67. Squash at a Bridgeton cannery. New Jersey: Life, early 20th century.

Figure 68. Map of Quinton's Bridge, showing the proximity of the glassworks, cannery, and company-owned housing. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 69. Inventor Oberlin Smith started the Ferracute Machine-Works in 1863. In 1904 Ferracute moved to its present site after a fire destroyed an earlier complex.

Figure 70. This largest of the Ferracute buildings has Art Nouveau-like signage; though the building is sound, the presses and other equipment have been removed.

Figure 71. David W. Laning started this iron foundry in Bridgeton in 1869, and he operated it until his death in 1883. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 72. Intricate cast-iron architectural elements—porches, fencing, railings—were produced at South Jersey foundries.

Figure 73. The Wood Mansion was built by David Wood in 1804. Today the Wood family continues to use it as the headquarters for WaWa Markets, Inc.

Figure 74. Many of the employees of Millville Manufacturing lived in worker housing. This example is located on Foundry Street in Millville.

Figure 75. Now owned by Wheaton Industries, this complex of buildings includes the pump house once used by Millville Manufacturing Company.

Figure 76. Millville Manufacturing Company's two-family dwelling, Wood Mansion, tenement housing, and general store. Sanborn, 1886.

Figure 77. Windmills such as this derelict one in Leesburg, provided mill power in Cape May and Cumberland counties. Wettstein, 1920s.

Figure 78. South Jersey sand, here hauled by horse and wagon, has played an important role in South Jersey glass manufacturing since the late 18th century. Wettstein, ca. 1900.

Figure 79. During the late 19th century almost every town in South Jersey had a general store such as this one in Millville. Wettstein, early 20th century.

Figure 80. Sand "pitts," or sand mines, such as this one operated by Samuel Hilliard, are still found in Cumberland County in the Maurice River area. Atlas, 1876.

Figure 81. Peterson's Black Smith shop in Millville made horse shoes and axes. Wettstein, ca. 1900.

Figure 82. Hazelhurst & Huckel of Philadelphia designed the present Cumberland National Bank building, which was built in 1886.

Figure 83. Corduroy road remains, such as these along Dennis Creek, are found preserved but buried in layers of mud throughout the tidal marshes. Sebold.

Figure 84. Wood covered bridge. This Dividing Creek crossing carries modern Route 553; passengers were warned of $10 fines for moving "faster than a walk." Wettstein, late 19th century.

Figure 85. Greenwich Ferry Tavern-Jail (1686, 1760, HABS No. NJ-268). Built by Mark Reeve in 1686, the one-story block was probably the jail when Greenwich was the Cumberland County seat after 1748. HABS.

Figure 86. New Bridge Road Alloways Creek Bridge (1905). This unusual metal truss swing bridge is a partial through truss, with a pratt pony-truss approach; it was built by the New Jersey Bridge Company, Manasquan.

Figure 87. Steamship CLIO, of Odessa, Delaware. New Jersey: Life, ca. 1900.

Figure 88. "Map of Rail Roads of New Jersey, 1871." The railroad introduced great industrial changes: In South Jersey, produce and shellfish were shipped to market faster, and glass with less breakage.

Figure 89. Pennsylvania-Reading Seashore Railroad Millville Station (ca. 1870). This depot with deep, braced eaves and large windows was at Broad and High streets. Wettstein, 1958.

Figure 90. Cumberland & Maurice Railroad Co. Mauricetown Freight Station (late 19th century). Small with decorative Victorian "framing," this depot has been moved to Route 47.

Figure 91. The Bridgeton & Millville Traction Co. trolley, shown here at the Union Lake Park stop, provided transportation to Cumberland County residents ca. 1900-22. Wettstein, early 20th century.

Figure 92. Bridgeville & Millville Traction Co. trolley tickets. Gehring, early 20th century.

Figure 93. Working on the roadbed in Millville, Main Street/Route 49 at Fifth Street. Wettstein, 1915.

Figure 94. Noyes [Gulf] Service Station (ca. 1940). This typical rural station is shared with a general store and other roadside businesses; the storefront, gas pumps, and service bay are modern.

Figure 95. Salem Oak Diner (ca. 1940s). This classic glass and steel roadside eatery features an especially noteworthy neon oak leaf in its signage.

Figure 96. Motor homes such as this one, owned by Wally Hiles of Millville, were an alternative to motels at many Atlantic resorts. Wettstein, early 20th century.

Figure 97. Millville Army Airfield, built 1941-42. As seen today, the complex of narrow, one-story concrete-block barracks are plain; hangars of corrugated metal are still used. Wettstein, 1990.

Figure 98. The mosquito was the logo of Millville's World War II airbase, decorated like a banded fighter plane.

Figure 99. Old Stone School House, (1810, HABS No. NJ-222). One and one-half story sandstone walls are ca. 18" thick; shutters and doors are cedar with hand-forged hardware. HABS.

Figure 100. Vine Street School (1906). The two-story, H-plan building has a formal three part brick facade with hipped roof and raised basement.

Figure 101. Detail of Vine Street School, showing wide eaves with beltcourse, and rusticated walls. Sebold.

Figure 102. Mauricetown Academy (1860). The entry is in the gable end, secondary doors to the side; the pediment has a dentiled cornice and semi-lune.

Figure 103. Goshen Public School (1872), with community building in background. Main gable-end entry and seven-bay side facades with banked windows offer improved light and ventilation.

Figure 104. Buckshutem Public School (1875). The traditional gable front with returning cornice is topped by a cupola. Rutgers University, early 20th century.

Figure 105. Lower Hopewell School (1859) has been somewhat altered, but it retains the vernacular Greek Revival form popular during the 19th century. Leach.

Figure 106. Salem Free Public Library (1885). The library is also called the John Tyler building, named after the president of the library board in 1863.

Figure 107. Old Friends Meeting House (1779, HABS No. NJ-105). Two bays by five bays, the front facade is Flemish bond. Separate entries and interior seating are provided for men and women. HABS.

Figure 108. Cohansey Baptist Church (HABS No. NJ-463) is highlighted by frame pediments and pedimented Georgian doorways such as this, plus round-arched windows with nine-over-nine-lights. HABS.

Figure 109. First Presbyterian Church (1856) facade has a projected entrance with a series of recessed facade and cornice lines, decorated steeple base and matching narthex-end walls.

Figure 110. Cold Spring Presbyterian Church (1823, HABS No. NJ-270). Two-story brick, with cornice and pediment with dentils. HABS.

Figure 111. Ironwork in Cold Spring Presbyterian Cemetery includes this Victorian cherub face railing, draped urn, willow tree, reaper figure, and swag-with-tassel.

Figure 112. Cedarville Methodist Church (1863). The two-story gable-front frame block is three bays by four bays, with a deep pediment and decorative cornerboard pilasters.

Figure 113. Goshen Methodist Church (ca. 1870). This church is an example of the irregular Victorian plan with its abundant texture. Leach.

Figure 114. Mt. Pisgah AME Church (1878) is a two-story, three-bay brick block with a gable-front, deep pediment, and stained-glass windows.

Figure 115. Fortescue catered to summer visitors with organized fishing and hunting tours; little remains of this town today. Rutgers University, ca. 1930.

Figure 116. Racetrack below "Coxall's Creek." U.S. Coast Survey, ca. 1885.

Figure 117. Superior Laundry Baseball Team. Millville residents enjoyed local baseball in the early 20th century. Wettstein, 1934.

Figure 118. Wilson's Opera House, located on the corner of High and Sassafras streets, entertained Millville residents until 1898. Wettstein, ca. 1890.

Figure 119. Lee's Ice Cream Parlor was one of the many stores and eateries that served Millville residents. Wettstein, early 20th century.

Figure 120. Bicycling was a popular sport at the turn of the century; here cyclists pose in front of the Old Stone Church-Fairton. Wettstein, ca. 1910.

Figure 121. Map of Riverview Beach, Pennsville. This amusement park/beach offered a scenic view of the Delaware Bay as well as hours of fun. Sanborn, 1923.

Figure 122. Tumbling Dam Amusement Park. This amusement park inspired the invention of the Pretzel Ride and Razzle Dazzle by Leon Cassidy and Marvin Rempfer. Sanborn, 1915.

Figure 123. Union Lake docks offered entertainment and relaxation to all who visited. Wettstein, early 20th century.

Figure 124. Union Lake later became an affordable resort for many middle-class families. Wettstein, early 20th century.

Figure 125. View of Roadstown and the Anais Sayre House (1770), which depicts a characteristically formal Georgian-Quaker patterned brick house.

Figure 126. Padgett House's (1735, HABS No. NJ-234) diamond-diaper gable end; this is one of many patterned brick houses recorded by HABS in the 1930s. HABS.

Figure 127. Nathanial Chambliss House (1730), originally a three-bay block with zigzag-pattern gable end, has two later additions.

Figure 128. Typical stacker house (mid 19th century), Millville, showing the main "stacked" one-cell arrangement with shed units on the side and rear facades.

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