National Park Service
Kiva, Crown, Crown


The Invaders

The New Mexico: Preliminaries to Conquest

Oñate's Disenchantment

The "Christianization" of Pecos

The Shadow of the Inquisition

Their Own Worst Enemies

Pecos and the Friars

Pecos, the Plains, and the Provincias Internas

Toward Extinction



Appendix II: Notable Natives

1540-1542"Cacique" and "Bigotes"Pecos leaders in dealings with the Coronado expedition
1583-1590s"Pedro Oroz"Abducted by Espejo; taught Mexican donados Pecos language
early 1620sFrancisco Mosoyo"Great idolater" encouraged by Gov. Eulate
late 1630sPuxaviA Pecos interpreter at time of Gov. Rosas
1660El CarpinteroFeted with Diego Romero in Plains Apache ceremonial
1661Francisco JutuPecos crier and interpreter
1680, 1692-94Juan de YePecos gov.; said to have warned Spaniards in 1680; Vargas' most trusted Pueblo ally; failed to return from peace mission to the Taos resisters' camp
1694Diego MarcosGov. installed by Vargas, Sept. 24
1695DamiánCacique at Pecos
1696Lorenzo de YeSon of Juan; rumored plotting revolt
1696-1720sFelipe Antonio Chistoe "Pro-Spanish" Pecos leader; Vargas' ally in 1696; chief of auxiliaries; perpetual governor; bilingual
1696Diego Umbiro, "Cachina," and two not namedLeaders of "anti-Spanish" faction; hanged by Chistoe
1696Pock Face (Caripicado)Young anti-Spanish leader shot by Chistoe; head, foot, and hand presented to Vargas
1690s-1728Pedro de la CruzLong-time Pecos leader
c. 1700-30Juan Diego TindéChistoe's right-hand man; leader; bilingual; d. Feb. 15, age 60
c. 1711PedroPecos governor killed by Apaches
1712-40sJuan Diego de Yescas, alias el GuicoInterpreter, principal man
1712-Antonio de AguateInterpreter
1714AgustínInterpreter who knew both Apache language and Spanish
1729Agustín CacheCacique, "about ninety," died Jan. 11
1731Antonio SidepoviGovernor who testified at Bustamante residencia
1730-50sFrancisco AguilarFirst (?) of the prominent Pecos Aguilar family
1740sAntonio de los ÁngelesPecos governor who owned several Apaches; "a Tano"?
1750Agustín and Antonio PousoiCacique and governor, head 1750 census
1760Agustín GuichíCarpenter and principal man; impersonator of Bishop Tamarón; mauled by bear; buried Sept. 21

Mateo CruPlayed the Father Custos in Guichí's burlesque
1750s-60sLorenzoLong-time interpreter
1780s and 90sLorenzo Tilli, Domingo Aguilar, and Lorenzo SenaFiscales mayores in charge when no missionary at Pecos
1786Juan SandovalLast known Pecos killed by Comanches
1798Juan de Dios Fernandez"Citizen of El Vado and formerly an Indian of Pecos" marries Maria Armijo, Nov. 28
1802JoséSacristán mayor, d. July 1
1802Santiago CalabacitasD. Apr. 18, 1825, without the sacraments "because of the laziness of the Indians"
1810Juan TrébolFiscal
1812Bartolo VigilFirst (?) of Vigil family at Pecos pueblo
1817José ChamaMarried Juana Arias of Santa Fe; residents of Antón Chico, 1829

Miguel Brito and Francisco Moya"Indios y vecinos de Pecos"; Brito a member of El Vado militia, 1821
1821QuanimaElected alcalde of Pecos pueblo "ayuntamiento" under Spanish constitution
1820sJosé CotaWith Rafael Aguilar petitions for return of Pecos lands, 1829; a José Kota among last Pecos emigrants, 1838
1820sRafael AguilarRegidor, 1821, and several times alcalde of Pecos; leads fight to save Pecos lands
1825Agustín Cota
1825Juan Antonio ArmentaMarries widow María de los Ángeles
1826Juan Antonio ToyaLikely the Antonio Toya, "governor," who led the emigration to Jémez in 1838; "full-blooded Comanche" (Bandelier) or captive of Comanches (Parsons)

Juan Domingo Vigil and Juan Manuel ArmentaWith Aguilar appeal to Diputación Provincial to halt giveaway of Pecos lands; Armenta "70" in 1825
1828José Manuel CalabazasGodfather to José Manuel, son of Rafael Aguilar, b. June 2
1834María PetraLast (?) Pecos mentioned in El Vado books; parents "unknown"
1902José Miguel (Vigil) Pecosc(Zu-wa-ng)One of emigrants of 1838 dies at Jémez, uncle of Agustín (Cota) Pecos
1919Agustín (Cota) Pecos (Se-sa-fwe-yah) Last survivor of 1838 Pecos emigration dies at Jémez
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