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Book Cover
Fauna Series No. 7







Study Area

Isle Royale Mammal History

Methods and Extent of Present Research


Wolf-Moose Coaction




Fauna of the National Parks — No. 7
The Wolves of Isle Royale
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THIS investigation was carried out with the support and cooperation of several institutions and individuals, and it is a pleasure to recognize their contributions. Primary financial support was a National Science Foundation grant to Dr. Durward L. Allen, the responsible investigator, but additional funds were made available by the National Park Service, the Wildlife Management Institute, and the National Wildlife Federation. Purdue University and the Purdue Research Foundation provided my stipends and part of the travel expenses. Personal contributions to the project were made by Lee Smits and Andrew W. Barr of Detroit, Mich.; George W. McCullough of Minneapolis, Minn.; Hugh McMillan, Jr., Sharon, Conn.; and Dr. Robert M. Linn, Houghton, Mich.

Dr. Durward L. Allen of the Department of Forestry and Conservation, Purdue University, conceived the study, enlisted financial support, supervised the research, and assisted with the autumn moose survey and the field work during February 1961. Throughout the investigation, he was available for guidance and useful advice, and his helpful criticisms and suggestions during the preparation of this manuscript were invaluable. For his integral role in this study and for his interest, encouragement, and academic guidance throughout the previous 4 years, I shall remain deeply indebted.

The following faculty members of Purdue University—Dr. Charles M. Kirkpatrick, Wildlife physiologist; Dr. Alton A. Lindsey, plant ecologist; Dr. Raymond M. Cable, parasitologist; and Dr. Meyer X. Zarrow, endocrinologist—all served for 4 years on my advisory committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Allen. They read and criticized most of the manuscript for this publication, when it was submitted as a doctoral dissertation. To them I also extend my gratitude.

Indispensable assistance was furnished by the Isle Royale National Park staff in the form of facilities and manpower. The splendid cooperation of successive Superintendents John G. Lewis and George W. Fry, Chief Ranger Benjamin J. Zerbey, and Chief Naturalist Robert M. Linn in this regard is especially appreciated. Zerbey and Linn also spent several lonely weeks keeping camp facilities operating during the winter study periods, as did District Rangers Roy Stamey, Peter L. Parry, and David G. Stimson. Stimson's offer of the use of his summer residence as a camp during the first two winters was particularly generous.

The most significant aspects of this study depended on the fine service of Northeast Airways, Eveleth, Minn. Arthur C. Tomes, president, took a very personal interest in the study, flew several of the supply trips, and continually strove for the highest standards of safety during winter operations. I also wish to thank Jack Burgess of Tower, Minn., for piloting the research craft during the October moose survey and the first week of the winter study, and for making several of the supply flights.

Especial gratitude is extended to Donald E. Murray of Mountain Iron, Minn., who piloted the research craft for approximately 385 of the 435 hours involved in the investigation. He obtained leaves of absence from his usual occupation and left his family each winter to serve the project. His reliability, experience, and facility with the aircraft under adverse conditions made flying with him a particularly gratifying experience. Almost as important was Don's good humor and companionship and the intense interest he shared with me in pursuit of knowledge about the Isle Royale wolves. It is with sincerity that I extend my thanks to him.

Helpful advice and suggestions on field work were available from the following: Dr. Douglas H. Pimlott and Rodger Stanfield of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests; Laurits W. Krefting of the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife; Milton H. Stenlund, Minnesota Department of Conservation; Raymond D. Schofield, Michigan Department of Conservation; and C. Gordon Fredine, National Park Service. In addition, unpublished reports by Park Service Biologist James E. Cole, who also spent parts of three winters on Isle Royale, were made available for reference. Dr. Pimlott graciously loaned me a translation of Schenkel's (1948) paper on wolf behavior. He also read this manuscript and offered many helpful criticisms.

Numerous Park Service employees and summer residents of Isle Royale recorded observations for me and extended their friendship and hospitality, which were greatly appreciated. In particular, I am grateful to Mr. and Mrs. Edwin C. Holte for allowing my wife and me to occupy their summer residence in 1959, Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Janke for special hospitality to my family and me, Philip C. Shelton for assistance with summer field work in 1960, and Mr. and Mrs. Peter Edisen for their general help and neighborliness.

My wife, Betty Ann, did the illustrations and much of the rough-draft typing despite the burden of three young children, but her most appreciated contributions were her ability to live happily under more primitive circumstances than most women are used to, and her enduring patience in managing our family both while I was away on Isle Royale in winter and especially while I prepared this manuscript.

To all the above-mentioned agencies and individuals, and to all others who directly or indirectly contributed to this investigation, I extend my most sincere gratitude.

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