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Book Cover
Fauna Series No. 7







Study Area

Isle Royale Mammal History

Methods and Extent of Present Research


Wolf-Moose Coaction




Fauna of the National Parks — No. 7
The Wolves of Isle Royale
National Park Service Arrowhead


Following are descriptions of all observed moose hunts by the Isle Royale wolves. The methods of observation are discussed on page 117, and limitations on page 126. Tables 15—17 summarize information from these accounts. Most hunts involved the large pack or part of it, but there are a few observations of hunts by a lone wolf and one by the pack of three. Successful attacks, described in the text, are referred to by page number in this section. All accounts are edited from field notes, and distances are estimated.

1. (February 24, 1959. Southeast shore of Lake Richie.) Ten of the 15 wolves were traveling southwest on Lake Richie at 1 p.m., when suddenly they dispersed and pointed upwind for a few seconds. Then they regrouped, wagged tails, and started inland, single file, directly upwind toward two adult moose feeding one-quarter of a mile away. When the pack was within 200 yards, the moose fled, one heading toward Lake Richie, the other away. The wolves chased the latter animal through deep snow, but soon all but the first wolf gave up. Eventually it got within 25 to 50 feet of the moose but stopped. The remaining wolves were resting 100 yards behind.

The other moose stood 150 yards away, nose upwind, between the wolves and the lake. The lead wolf returned to the others and then headed toward the south arm of the lake, which it reached minutes before the rest. It raced down the ice to a point downwind of the moose, where it sat and waited for the others. When they appeared, the leader ran to meet them; all stood, nose-to-nose, and wagged tails for a few moments. Then they went to the middle of the lake and rested from 1:35 to 3:30 p.m. Soon after the wolves gave up, the first moose lay down and the other began browsing.

2. See page 126.

3. See page 127.

4. (March 4, 1959. Isle Royale shore about 1-1/2 miles southeast of Rainbow Point.) At 6 p.m., 10 of the 15 wolves were traveling along a beach about 2 miles ahead of the others. Suddenly several pointed inland toward five moose, the closest 30 yards away. As the wolves watched with wagging tails, the moose ran into a nearby stand of thick spruces. Two wolves started toward them a few steps as they disappeared. The moose had been feeding in a clearing full of blowdowns and deep snow, which may have been why the wolves did not follow. When the moose entered the spruces, still only 150 yards away, they stopped and looked toward the wolves, which had continued along the shore.

5. (March 7, 1959. Isle Royale shore opposite Malone Island.) While 5 wolves visited a kill on Wright Island, the other 10 traveled into Malone Bay (6:15p.m.). The leader, 25 yards ahead, started toward Malone Island but suddenly stopped and turned toward shore. A few moments later it was chasing two moose 125 yards inland. The moose separated, and the wolf chased one 125 yards farther, coming within 30 yards of it, but as the moose entered some spruces, the wolf stopped and returned to the pack on shore. All wolves assembled, wagged tails, and ran to Malone Island. See the following account.

6. (March 7, 1959. Malone Island.) At 6:20 p.m. the 10 wolves involved in the previous account filed onto Malone Island and directly toward a cow and calf lying near the opposite side. They had scented the moose about 1/4-mile downwind. As the pack came to within 100 yards, the cow arose and ran to the calf, 25 yards away. The wolves surrounded the moose but did not attack. Slowly the moose moved to thicker cover 25 yards away. The cow stayed close to the calf, protecting its rear, and several times she feinted toward the wolves, making them scurry. The wolves lunged at the moose for 4 minutes but did not attack. Then the wolves headed onto the ice, where they assembled, wagged tails, and lay down. We left them there at 6:30 p.m.

The next day, tracks showed that they had made another try. They had chased the moose onto the ice, where a large area packed with wolf tracks indicated that the moose had stood off the wolves for some time. No blood was seen anywhere. The moose finally had left the island from the north shore and the wolves from the west end.

7. See page 127.

8. See page 128.

9. (February 9, 1960. A ridge southeast of Duncan Bay.) The large pack (15 plus a lone wolf) was heading upwind toward the bay at 3:35 p.m., when 200 yards ahead a moose ran along the shore. The wolves were on a high ridge and probably could see it; they became excited and ran to where the moose had started but did not follow.

10. (February 11, 1960. Half a mile north of Mud Lake.) The 16 wolves left a swamp and struck out into an open burn; they appeared to be on a fresh moose track. When 250 yards crosswind of three adult moose (two lying, one standing), they stopped and scented the air (5:15 p.m.). The first animals lay on a ridge 200 yards from the moose for a minute, while the rest caught up. Then they continued along the trail, noses to the ground. Two wolves remained downwind and about 25 feet ahead of the trackers. All three moose then were lying down, but when the first two tracking wolves got within 25 feet, they arose. Meanwhile the rest of the wolves caught up. The moose ran, one though the burn, and the other two into a dense stand of mature aspens, birches, and spruces; the wolves just stood a few minutes.

Meanwhile the single moose, which had run 100 yards into the burn, started back in a westward arc toward cover and thus toward the resting wolves. It came to within 50 yards of them and then strode back through the burn. The wolves started half-heartedly toward the animal, which continued trotting half a mile into the burn and again circled westward toward cover. By this time the wolves were traveling westward across the animal's intended trail, apparently having given up. The moose got within 25 yards of the two lead wolves, and again ran half a mile into the burn. The wolves tracked the moose 50 yards, lay down, and rested for 5 minutes. The moose then circled far behind the wolves and headed for cover while the pack continued on.

11. (February 12, 1960. About 1-1/2 miles northwest of the west corner of Halloran Lake.) As the 16 wolves passed just south of the Feldtmann Trail at 11:35 a.m., they scented three adult moose 200 yards upwind and started toward them. When they came within 150 yards, the moose ran, two one way and one another. The first two wolves overtook the two moose within 200 yards but did not attack. They continued the chase for half a mile through thick, second-growth birch.

The rest of the pack caught up with the lone moose within 300 yards and pursued it another 300. They ran behind and alongside the animal but did not attack. Suddenly the first wolf stopped and tried to prevent the others from continuing. It actually lunged at the other wolves, which turned and ran. The single moose continued through the dense second growth cover, bypassing an acre of thick spruces. The wolves returned to a nearby trail and assembled. The two that chased the other two moose arrived, and all rested for a few minutes in a nearby swamp. The two moose were slowly moving away. It is not known whether they had outrun or outlasted the wolves or had made a stand.

12. (February 12, 1960. About 200 yards south of the south corner of Halloran Lake.) At 1:40 p.m. the 16 wolves were heading southwest along a ridge 100 yards upwind of a cow (lying) and a calf (standing). The wolves stopped directly upwind and sniffed the wind but could not determine the location of the moose. They stood on the ridge for several minutes until the cow arose; then they immediately ran to it. The cow hurried to the rear of the calf, and the two walked 10 yards through the open burn. The wolves followed, but the cow made short charges and kicked at them. Half a minute later the wolves assembled 25 feet away while the moose stood and watched. The wolves rested in some cover for a few minutes and then left.

13. See page 129.

14. See page 129.

15. (February 22, 1960. Midway between Mud Lake and Ishpeming Point.) At 3:05 p.m. the 16 wolves were traveling through the burn, toward the Greenstone Ridge, 150 yards crosswind of a standing moose. The wolves stopped, milled around, and ran back and forth for 5 minutes, after which they headed away from the moose for half a mile; then they stopped and began backtracking. When the wolves approached to within one-quarter of a mile, the moose bolted and ran steadily for more than half a mile.

At 3:50 p.m. we left to refuel. The wolves were resting on a ridge 50 yards upwind of where the moose had been. Returning at 4:35, we found that the wolves had found the tracks of the moose and followed them. In one place, they had cut downwind paralleling the trail for 100 yards, and then veered back to it. They followed the fresh moose track for one-half a mile before giving up. We found the animals as they were returning on their back trail.

16. (February 22, 1960. About 1-1/2 miles west-southwest of the above location.) The large pack (16) headed along an open ridge just south of a shallow valley on the south side of which a moose was browsing in sparse cover. At 5:10 p.m. the wolves were 1/4-mile crosswind of the animal. They scented its tracks in the valley below and followed them. One wolf, remaining near the top of the ridge downwind of the pack, encountered the moose first. The moose ran a few feet toward the valley when the wolf got within 25 yards; then the rest of the pack surrounded it. The moose stood its ground and charged the wolves repeatedly (figure 1). They deliberated for 5 minutes and then headed toward the Greenstone Ridge at 5:20 p.m.

17. (March 1, 1960, Merritt's Lane.) At 4:15 p.m. the 16 wolves ran through Merritt's Lane and cut inland toward two large moose standing on a ridge 200 yards away. As the wolves started up the steep slope 25 yards from shore, the moose fled for a quarter of a mile. The wolves gave up within a minute, headed back onto the ice, assembled, and continued on.

18. (March 4, 1960. North shore of Siskiwit Bay opposite Francis Point.) The large pack (16) was traveling southwestward along the shore at noon. When 150 yards downwind of two standing moose, they started inland, and the moose ran northward. One headed around the side of a small lake, but the other seemed deliberately to avoid the lake. This moose ran in circles and the wolves soon overtook it. The animal stood at bay and threatened the wolves; they stood around for a minute, assembled, wagged tails, and left.

19. (March 4, 1960. About 200 yards northeast of Halloran Lake.) At 2 p.m., the 16 wolves appeared to be tracking a moose through a row of thick spruces. When they came to within 100 yards of two moose, the moose ran toward Siskiwit Bay; the wolves caught up within a quarter-mile. When the moose split up, the wolves followed the closer animal, which was smaller. It continued over small ridges and depressions in an arc to the right, then veered toward the Siskiwit Bay CCC Camp and ran among the buildings. Four or five wolves remained close behind and beside the running animal, but the rest were far behind. The wolves caught up and stayed with the moose in the open but soon lost ground in thick cover or blowdown.

Wolves nipped at the animal's heels four times but could not hold on. The moose continued through the CCC campground and into Siskiwit Swamp for another half a mile. It stumbled while jumping some down trees and then stopped in a clump of spruces. The wolves (now four) lay near the moose but made no attempt to attack. The moose rested a minute, then left and continued running for at least a mile through second growth cover. The wolves did not follow; instead they assembled and left the area. Total distance of the chase was at least 2-1/2 miles.

20. (March 4, 1960. Half a mile south of the Siskiwit Bay CCC Camp.) Twelve of the 16 wolves had just assembled after chasing the moose in the previous account and had gone a few hundred yards toward Halloran Lake when suddenly they stopped (2:30 p.m.) and rushed toward a moose standing 300 yards upwind. The animal trotted off immediately, and the wolves gave up without overtaking it.

21. (March 4, 1960. Three quarters of a mile south of the south corner of Halloran Lake.) At 4:10 p.m. the large pack (16) appeared to be following a fresh moose trail. The first few animals came up to two large standing moose but did not attack. The moose stood for half a minute, and then one ran about 100 yards and stopped momentarily. The wolves followed this individual, while the other ran in a different direction.

The wolves chased the first animal but did not catch up. It went by a third moose lying in an open area, and when the wolves discovered this animal, they surrounded it. The moose stood its ground, and after a few seconds the pack continued after their original quarry. It was several hundred yards ahead, alternately running and standing to look back. The wolves continued about 200 yards farther (about one-half mile in all), gave up, and headed for shore. Meanwhile, two of the wolves bringing up the rear almost ran into the third moose, but they quickly retreated and continued toward the rest of the pack.

22. (March 4, 1960. Isle Royale shore southeast of Feldtmann Tower.) The 16 wolves, continuing along the shore, suddenly stopped and headed directly upwind toward a moose standing 75 yards inland (4:35 p.m.). The animal ran hesitantly when the wolves were 50 yards away, continued for 25 yards, stopped near a small tree, and threatened the wolves. They stood around the moose for half a minute and then headed back to the shore.

23. (March 4, 1960. Isle Royale shore due south of Feldtmann Tower.) Two moose standing 100 yards inland seemed to sense the pack at 4:40 p.m. soon after it left the moose in the previous account; perhaps they heard the wolves chasing that moose. They ran inland and by the time the pack was directly downwind were at last one-quarter of a mile away. The wolves started toward these animals but were distracted by three other large moose standing nearby. All three ran, and the wolves split up and chased them all. After half a minute they concentrated on one, chasing it through fairly open cover and gradually heading it toward the Lake Superior shore, which it was paralleling. (One or two animals usually kept alongside the moose on the inland side.)

After 1-1/2 miles of chase, the moose ran up a small open ridge, and the lead four or five wolves gave up. However, the animals that had fallen behind took a short cut and continued the pursuit. This seemed to give impetus to the resting leaders, and the whole pack took up the chase; but by then the moose was 100 yards ahead, and after a few seconds the wolves gave up (4:47 p.m.).

24. (March 4, 1960. About one-half mile northeast of Rainbow Point.) The 16 wolves were following the shore east of Rainbow Point when at 6:40 p.m. they veered inland directly upwind toward a cow and calf standing 250 yards away. The moose stood their ground as the pack approached, and for a few seconds, both charged the wolves. Then the moose began to run slowly, cow behind the calf. The cow continually threatened the wolves, which would scramble away but immediately return, and the calf also charged at least once more. After following the cow and calf for one-quarter of a mile, the wolves gave up and continued north through a swamp at 6:45 p.m.

25. (March 4, 1960. About one-half mile southeast of the south corner of Feldtmann Lake.) At 6:55 p.m. the large pack (16) headed upwind toward three standing adult moose. The moose fled when the wolves were within 100 yards. Then one stood, and the wolves chased the other two, which split up. The wolves continued after the closer one, a larger animal, staying within a few yards of it. Most of the wolves had fallen behind, but one finally overtook the moose after chasing it about 1 mile and stopped it. However, as soon as the moose stopped, the wolf scrambled away. Then the moose ran again and all the wolves gave up.

26. (March 6, 1960. About one-half mile northeast of Card Point.) The 16 wolves left their last kill at 4:30 p.m. and started toward the mouth of Washington Harbor. However, at a small bay about three-quarters of a mile northeast of Card Point, they headed inland through a small spruce-cedar swamp directly to a standing moose (5:05 p.m.; there was no wind). The animal stood its ground as the wolves approached. After they deliberated for half a minute, the moose slowly walked off, but the wolves did not follow.

27. (March 9, 1960. Malone Island.) At 2:10 p.m. the 16 wolves were found streaming across Malone Island, while a moose stood nearby in a clump of spruces. One wolf approached and walked on by, but the moose just stood there. The wolves then assembled on the opposite side of the small island, wagged tails, headed back across (only a few feet from the moose), and left. Undoubtedly these wolves had tested the moose and given up just before we arrived.

28. (March 9, 1960. Shore of Isle Royale between Hat and Schooner Islands.) Heading north eastward along the shore about 2:25 p.m., the 16 wolves suddenly cut inland (crosswind). When 50 yards directly downwind of a cow and calf, they veered toward them. The cow went to the calf's rear, and the two ran when the wolves were 25 yards away. They fled toward Siskiwit Lake and then along a ridge, just south of the lake. Their flight was deliberate and not too fast, and the wolves followed beside and behind them for about 2 miles.

Whenever the wolves came close to the heels of the cow, she kicked, stopping them momentarily; but they returned immediately. The cow also charged wolves near the calf's rear. Part of the pack stayed beside the animals, awaiting opportunity to attack the calf. As the cow threatened wolves behind or beside her, others tried for the calf's rump, but the cow charged and made them scatter.

Once or twice the calf got 10 yards ahead of the cow as she fought the wolves. It appeared that if the cow had failed to keep up with the calf, or if the two had separated, the wolves would quickly have pulled down the calf. They did attack it two or three times but were driven off by the charging cow. The calf, which seemed small, chased the wolves that were ahead of it.

After about 2 miles, the moose stopped temporarily (2:40 p.m.) and so did the wolves. Within a minute the moose were off again, but the wolves remained resting. When 150 yards away, the moose began walking, the cow ahead.

A few minutes later, the pack half heartedly started toward the animals again, and the cow returned to the rear of her calf. When the pack was within 150 yards of the moose, the wolves gave up and rested (2:45 p.m.). The moose continued running for at least one-half mile, but the wolves remained where they were until 3:05 p.m.

29. (March 9, 1960. About 200 yards northeast of Wood Lake.) At 5:15 p.m., the large pack started northward across Wood Lake. When 300 yards downwind of two large moose (one lying, one standing) in dense second-growth hardwoods, the wolves suddenly cut inland toward them. The moose ran when the pack was 15 yards away, and the wolves pursued one animal. It stopped within 50 yards, and they continued after the other. They followed for 50 yards, when the moose stopped. Whenever the wolves approached, the moose charged and sent them scurrying. Then it slowly ran a few yards and stopped. The wolves deliberated for 2 minutes and left.

30. (March 10, 1960. One-half mile north of the southwest half of Siskiwit Lake.) The 16 wolves were heading downwind along a high ridge, at 3:20 p.m., 150 yards from a moose lying on the side of the ridge.

They found a fresh trail nearby leading to the moose, so all followed it. The moose arose when the pack was 50 yards upwind, and ran 200 yards before the animals found its bed. It continued for one-half mile, then stood and watched its backtrail. The wolves tracked for 100 yards, lay down, and rested until 4:30 p.m., after which they left.

31. (March 10, 1960. Greenstone Ridge Trail opposite Hatchet Lake.) At 4 p.m. the group of three wolves started upwind along the Greenstone Ridge Trail. When about 50 yards downwind of two adult moose lying on the side of the ridge, the wolves scented them, ran to the edge of the ridge, and looked over for several minutes. Then they headed downwind and sat until 4:25 p.m., when they turned back upwind and started toward the moose. The closer moose arose when they were 20 yards away, and they eventually came to within 10 yards. The moose stood for about a minute while the wolves watched it. Both moose soon ran, but the wolves did not follow.

32. (March 11, 1960. One-half mile northwest of Feldtmann Lake.) The 16 wolves were heading cross wind at 2:40 p.m. when suddenly they spread out and excitedly ran around, more-or-less downwind of a cow and small calf 300 yards away. They may have been on a fresh trail, but this could not be determined. When directly downwind of the moose, they veered toward them.

The moose fled, cow ahead, when the wolves were 150 yards away. The pack caught up 150 yards from where the moose started running, and just then the calf darted ahead of the cow, where it stayed throughout the chase. Most of the wolves remained in line behind the cow, but a few kept cutting out and trying to get alongside the animals. The moose passed through spruce swamps, alder swamps, and stands of mature white birch and aspen, but they continued running. The wolves beside the moose never attempted to attack. Twice the moose stopped momentarily, but the wolves did not assail them. After chasing their quarry about 3 miles, the wolves dropped 50 yards behind, stopped, and rested at 3:08 p.m.; the moose continued running at least one-quarter of a mile farther.

Each wolf rested where it stopped, but 10 minutes later the animals assembled, wagged tails, sniffed noses, and lay down together for another 10 minutes. During the chase the snow seemed to hinder the wolves more than usual, perhaps because of the light crust.

33. (March 11, 1960. Midway between Grace Creek and the middle of the Feldtmann Lake shore.) The large pack (16) discovered fresh moose tracks at 4:01 p.m. and followed them for 1 minute, jumping three large moose standing about 100 yards away in a spruce swamp. All three ran, and the pack pursued one for 50 yards until it stopped; then they started after another. This moose was at least 150 yards ahead in the swamp; the wolves tracked it a few yards, stopped, wagged tails, and gave up.

34. (March 11, 1960. One mile southeast of the mouth of Grace Creek.) About 5 p.m. the 16 wolves were following a wooded ridge toward 2 moose lying downwind. The moose sensed the wolves from 100 yards and ran. The wolves did not detect the moose but eventually discovered their tracks and followed them slowly for 50 yards. One moose ran directly away, but the other went 150 yards, stopped, and watched its backtrail. When the wolves came to within 100 yards, it ran another 200. The wolves rested 10 minutes, and the moose continued on. After resting, the wolves appeared to be trailing the moose, but dense conifers prevented positive determination of this. Eventually they gave up.

35. (March 11, 1960. One mile south-southwest of the mouth of Grace Creek.) At 5:50 p.m. the 16 wolves filed through a stand of spruce and mature white birch. When 300 yards downwind of four standing moose, they suddenly started toward them. The moose ran when the pack was within 100 yards, and the wolves chased one of these for one-half mile. The moose traveled through extensive blowdown (mature trees) quite easily, but this hindered the wolves. Once the animal stopped and charged the wolves, which scattered. It continued running and eventually gained a 100-yard lead; the wolves gave up (6 p.m.), but the moose continued running. The pack rested several minutes and started back toward where they had discovered the moose.

36. (March 11, 1960. Same location as 35.) After the episode described above, the wolves returned to where they had begun the chase. A moose was standing in a nearby clearing 150 yards away, and the pack made an arc until downwind of it (6:45 p.m.). Then they started directly toward the moose and got to within 100 yards before it ran. After they pursued for 25 yards, the moose stood its ground. The wolves stood around for a minute, then left.

37. (March 12, 1960. One-half mile southeast of the Windigo Ranger Station.) At 11 a.m. the 16 wolves were resting 150 yards from a cow and twin calves. Tracks showed that the wolves had either chased or tracked the moose to where we found them, that the moose had stood and the wolves had given up.

38. (March 12, 1960. Grace Creek Swamp, southeast of Windigo.) At 11:15 a.m. the pack either scented or was trailing the two moose standing crosswind of it in the spruce swamp. One ran when the wolves got within 125 yards, but the other, a bull with cervina-type antlers, waited until they were 75 yards away. Both headed into some open hardwoods one-quarter of a mile away, where they stood watching their backtrail. The wolves rested when they came to where the moose had started. They eventually trailed the moose 150 yards but then rested again and gave up. (This was the latest date an antlered bull was seen during this study.)

39. (March 15, 1960. Long Point.) The large pack (16) was cutting across Long Point as usual, heading northeastward, when 150 yards upwind of two large moose in an open alder and spruce flat, they stopped and pointed. Then they continued to the moose, which remained in their beds until the wolves were within a few feet. When the moose stood up, the wolves surrounded them, but both moose charged several times, scattering the wolves. From 3:13 to 3:16 p.m. the wolves held the moose at bay and then gave up and continued along the shore.

40. See page 132.

41. See page 133.

42. (February 3, 1961. One mile south of the Greenstone Ridge midway between Lake Desor and Ishpeming Point.) A single wolf, which probably was a member of the pack of two, was heading upwind on some open ridges when at 5 p.m. it detected two adult moose lying one-quarter of a mile upwind. The wolf sneaked to within 25 yards of one moose and then ran straight toward it. Both moose fled immediately with the wolf in pursuit. After three-eighths of a mile, one moose stopped. The wolf continued after the other but soon fell 15 yards behind and gave up; the moose ran on for about 1 mile.

43. (February 3, 1961. One-half mile south of Ishpeming Point.) The wolf involved in the previous account started up a gentle slope through thick second-growth cover and detected a moose 100 yards upwind at 6 p.m. It walked slowly to within 15 yards of the moose, but the moose strode boldly toward it. The wolf cowered, hesitated, then circled, and continued on.

44. (February 6, 1961. One-quarter of a mile northeast of Lake Harvey.) We discovered the 15 wolves at 4:30 p.m. in some thick second-growth hardwoods just as they had started to chase three moose including a cow and calf. The wolves concentrated on the cow and calf, but these had a 150-yard start. The lead wolf pursued the cow and calf for one-quarter of a mile before giving up. The moose continued on for another quarter of a mile.

45. (February 6, 1961. At the base of the Greenstone Ridge south of Lake Harvey.) The large pack (15) was heading from Lake Harvey toward Greenstone Ridge at 5:43 p.m., when a moose crossed in front of the animals and turned upwind. A minute later the wolves struck its fresh track, but only one animal was interested. It followed the trail for 35 yards and then returned to the pack; all proceeded on.

46. (February 6, 1961. About 200 yards southeast of the Greenstone Ridge Trail opposite the southwest end of Lake Harvey.) At 5:50 p.m. the 15 wolves were traveling along a ridge through dense second-growth hardwoods when a few sensed a moose browsing 200 yards crosswind of them. The moose detected the wolves 150 yards away and fled. The wolves followed hesitantly for 250 yards while the moose traveled one-quarter of a mile. Then the lead wolf sensed two other moose and abandoned the chase.

47. (February 6, 1961. Same location as previous account.) After giving up the previous chase at 5:53 p.m. the "leader" of the pack of 15 started for two adult moose standing 150 yards more-or-less upwind. Immediately the moose ran and the wolf followed. One moose cut to one side and stopped, while the wolf fell 35 yards behind the other. The wolf then started for the first moose. It fled, but the wolf pursued for 150 yards. After the moose gained a 25-yard lead, the wolf gave up. Apparently the rest of the pack had not discovered these moose.

48. (February 6, 1961. Greenstone Ridge Trail about 2 miles northeast of the Hatchet Lake Trail.) The large pack (15) was heading upwind on the trail at 5:56 p.m. when the animals scented a cow and calf browsing one-quarter of a mile ahead. They continued to within 250 yards before the moose became aware of them and started off. The moose ran for one-quarter of a mile, but the wolves did not follow.

49. (North shore of Isle Royale west of Lake Desor.) At 11:45 a.m. the 15 wolves scented an adult moose lying 75 yards inland, about one-quarter of a mile upwind. They continued along the shore until opposite the moose. Although the whole pack sensed that the moose was nearby, only one approached the animal. When it was 10 yards away, the moose arose, and the wolf fled. The action of the pack is unexplained, but possibly the animals had tested this moose 2 days earlier when they last used the route. This was the only moose in the vicinity, and the wolves might have had a recent unsuccessful experience with it.

50. (February 10, 1961. South section of Wright Island.) D. L. Allen saw eight of the large pack detect a moose upwind of them at 2:30 p.m. The animal ran through heavy blowdown and mixed woods while the wolves followed for a few yards and gave up.

51. (February 24, 1961. Flat on northwest side of Houghton Ridge about opposite Little Boat Harbor.) Seven members of the large pack were traveling upwind along the shore. At 4:15 p.m. they scented two adult moose lying 50 yards inland and 250 yards ahead. The moose did not detect the wolves until 4:21, when they were 15 yards away. Both retreated along the narrow strip between shore and a high escarpment, and the wolves pursued 10 yards behind. The moose split up, and we followed the only one we could see. It was running, but no wolves were chasing it. Since the other moose was not seen, it must have stopped in one of the small clumps of conifers in the vicinity. We finally saw the wolves leaving the area. The total distance of the chase was about 300 yards.

52. (February 24, 1961. Top of Houghton Ridge above Little Boat Harbor.) The seven wolves in the above account were crossing Houghton Ridge to the southeast side. When on top of the ridge at 4:39 p.m., they sensed two adult moose lying in a depression 75 yards approximately upwind in sparse conifer cover. Four wolves remained on a knoll while the other three explored the area trying to locate the moose. When they were within 20 yards, the moose bolted, and the wolves floundered through deep snowdrifts in pursuit. The moose quickly gained a 25-yard lead, and the wolves gave up (4:42p.m.).

53. (February 24, 1961. Southeast of the northeast end of Halloran Lake.) As the seven wolves traveled along the Isle Royale shore, they scented a cow and calf lying 150 yards directly upwind at 5:52 p.m. and veered inland through an area of heavy blowdown. Three minutes later, when the wolves were 10 yards away, the moose arose. The cow charged and then went to the rear of the calf, and both walked off a few yards. The wolves followed cautiously, trying to make the moose run, but after half a minute, they gave up. The moose walked away and the wolves returned to shore.

54. (February 24, 1961. Shore of Isle Royale south of the northeast end of Halloran Lake.) A few minutes after leaving the moose mentioned in the previous account, the seven wolves encountered three adult moose standing a few yards inland among sparse conifers and heavy blowdown. The wolves ran 15 yards to the nearest moose, but this animal stood at bay and threatened the wolves. Immediately they headed for the second moose, which started running. However, they soon abandoned pursuit, for the animal had a head start. Then they turned to the third moose, which had watched them chase the other. This animal ran upon their approach and when during the pursuit it charged the wolves, one got ahead of the moose. The moose charged this wolf and chased it down the trail for 50 yards while the rest of the pack pursued it. Finally the moose stood next to a spruce and defied the wolves. Within half a minute they gave up (6:04 p.m.).

55. (February 24, 1961. Isle Royale shore opposite the center of Halloran Lake.) At 6:22 p.m. the seven wolves scented a moose standing in heavy blowdown 50 yards upwind and headed to it. The moose detected the wolves 20 yards away but stood its ground and charged them. They scattered, stood around for half a minute, and then proceeded along the shore.

56. (February 24, 1961. Isle Royale shore south of the southwest end of Halloran Lake.) Three adult moose were standing in an area of heavy blowdown and moderate conifer cover along the shore, and at 6:35 p.m. the seven wolves came within 20 feet of the nearest. The other two animals stood while the wolves chased the closest. This animal ran for 300 yards, and the nearest the wolves came to it was 10 yards. After the moose gained a 50-yard lead, the pack gave up.

57. (February 28, 1961. Half a mile southwest of Little Boat Harbor.) Eight of the large pack were traveling northeast through an area of heavy blowdown and conifer cover along the shore. Trees obscured our view, but at 3:15 p.m. two running moose (unidentified as to age) were seen with wolves within 100 feet. A third moose was making a stand nearby, and 20 feet away the wolves were just leaving it. Evidently some of the wolves had chased the two moose and had given up, while the others held the third animal at bay.

58. (February 28, 1961. Little Boat Harbor.) As the eight wolves continued along the shore, they scented three adult moose (one standing, two lying) 35 yards upwind at the base of a steep, open hill (3:30 p.m.). The moose detected the wolves at the same time, and two got a substantial start up the hill. The third waited until the wolves were within 30 feet before running. The wolves gave chase but floundered in the deep snowdrifts at the base of the hill. They gave up immediately and continued on.

59. (February 28, 1961. Hay Point, about one-half mile from the tip.) Seven of the eight wolves involved in the previous account crossed Siskiwit Bay to the neck of Hay Point. Here they scented three adult moose 200 years upwind at 5:40 p.m. in a moderately open stand of mixed woods. When the wolves were within 50 yards, the moose sensed them. Two ran but the closest stood. The wolves lunged at the moose and tried to make it run. After 2 minutes, the moose bolted and the wolves closed in. One grabbed a hind leg, but the moose kicked loose. The wolves chased the animal for one-quarter of a mile, dropped behind, and gave up at 5:46. The deep snow obviously hindered them.

60. (February 28, 1961. About one-quarter of a mile from the tip of Hay Point.) One of the moose in the previous account was standing 50 yards inland of the southeast shore of Hay Bay when the wolves came up the bay after the last chase. At 5:50 p.m. the wolves scented this animal 150 yards away. A minute later, when they were on the ice 100 yards away, the moose strode deliberately toward them for 70 yards. When the moose was within 30 yards, the wolves left. This is one of the moose which fled when the wolves first approached (see 59).

61. (February 28, 1961. Southeast side of the tip of Hay Point.) At 5:56 p.m. the seven wolves scented a moose 150 yards crosswind, so they cut across the point toward it. They found the animal's track and followed it for 50 yards, but when they were 25 yards away, the moose ran. The wolves chased it for 10 yards, but the deep snow hindered them, and they gave up.

62. (February 28, 1961. Isle Royale shore south of Mud Lake.) The seven wolves were traveling northeastward along the shore at 6:32 p.m. when they scented a moose standing 75 yards upwind in a thick cedar swamp. The moose detected the wolves about the same time and ran. The pack followed, but only one wolf stayed close to the animal. This wolf chased it for 300 yards, out of the swamp and into sparser cover. Suddenly the moose stopped, and immediately the wolf gave up and returned to the others.

63. (March 4, 1961. The Head—a point west of Long Point.) While the large pack (14 or 15) was following the shore westward, the animals discovered four moose lying 150 yards upwind among heavy blowdown and mixed woods at 2:08 p.m. The wolves got to within 50 yards before the moose detected them. All the moose ran. The wolves followed for 50 yards but did not get close; they soon gave up.

64. (March 4, 1961. Rainbow Point.) The 15 wolves were cutting across Rainbow Point at 3:04 p.m. when they discovered the tracks of two large adult moose (both with much hair missing) standing 150 yards downwind. They followed these for 50 yards before the moose sensed them. One moose moved toward the other and stood for half a minute, then both ran. The wolves tried to keep them in the open along the shore. Although the moose had a 30-yard start, the wolves came to within 10 yards of them at times. After a chase of nearly one-half a mile, the moose curved farther inland, and the wolves abandoned the pursuit. A crust hampered the wolves but did not affect the moose.

65. (March 4, 1961. Shore of Grace Harbor.) The 15 wolves were traveling along the shore, and at 4:21 p.m. they scented a moose standing 50 yards upwind in a stand of mixed woods. After they proceeded toward it 10 yards, the animal ran. The wolves followed for a few yards and gave up.

66. (March 5, 1961. About 1 mile north-northeast of Cumberland Point.) At 4 p.m., 13 wolves were heading overland across Cumberland Point. Suddenly they ran, and about 150 yards crosswind of them a moose was running. Trees obscured our view, but apparently the moose had a substantial start. The wolves followed for 25 yards and then gave up.

67. (March 5, 1961. One-half a mile east of Rainbow Point.) As the 13 wolves traveled along the shore, they scented three adult moose standing 200 yards upwind at 5:44 p.m. in open conifer cover. The moose ran when the wolves were within 150 yards, and the wolves chased two of them, while the third stopped. Part of the pack drove the moose in a semicircle, and the rest intercepted one of them. The other continued running, whereas the cornered moose stood and charged the wolves. They surrounded the animal for a minute and then abandoned it (5:46 p.m.).

68. (March 5, 1961. Two miles west of Long Point.) At 6:20 p.m. the large pack (13) was starting through blowdown and conifer cover toward a moose when the animals scented two others lying 200 yards upwind. They got within 100 yards before the moose detected them. One animal ran, but the closer one stood. The wolves surrounded this moose and apparently tried to make it run, but it stood its ground, kicked, and charged, almost connecting with one wolf. Several wolves gathered around the animal's rump, and one grabbed its nose momentarily. The pack spent 5 minutes harassing the moose, but it would not retreat. Finally the wolves left (6:25 p.m.).

69. (March 5, 1961. About 1-1/2 miles west of Long Point.) As they were traveling along the shore at 6:36 p.m., the 13 wolves involved in the previous account scented a moose standing in open conifers 75 yards upwind. When the wolves were within 50 yards, the moose ran; the wolves pursued it for about 50 yards and gave up.

70. (March 12, 1961. About 1-3/4; miles south-southeast of the northeast end of Lake Desor.) A lone wolf was backtracking the large pack to a wounded moose when at 12:23 p.m. it sensed a moose standing 35 yards upwind in a small lowland tangle of blowdown, conifers, and second-growth hardwoods. It approached to within 10 yards before the moose detected it. The moose walked threateningly toward the wolf, which ran and circled to get by it. Tracks showed that the large pack a few days earlier had made an unsuccessful attempt to attack this animal.

71. See page 133.

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