online book
Colonel Allensworth
Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California



A.M.E. Church
Noted Individuals

Historic Sites
Selected References


A History of Black Americans in California:

1. California Journals of the Senate and Assembly, 3rd Session, 1852, 75.

2. California Political Code, Section 1669, 1872, provided for the education of Black and Indian children.

3. Homestead Act, California Statutes, 1860, 87.

4. California Constitution, 1849, Article II, Section 1.

5. W.E.B. DuBois, "Of the Faith of Fathers," in The Souls of Black Folk, 1903.

6. Proceedings of the First State Convention of the Colored Citizens of the State of California, Sacramento, 1855, 3.

7. Ibid., 23.

8. The 1852 legislation provided for common public schools to be financed from state funds and directed by a board of trustees.

9. Wysinger v. Crookshank, 82 Cal 588, 720 (1890).

10. El Centro desegregated in 1954 following the Brown v. Topeka Board of Education decision.

11. California Statutes, Chapter XXXIII, 1852, 67-69.

12. San Francisco Elevator, April 10, 1863.

13. This massive emigration, known as the Great Exodus, had been directed by a group of Black men. For years, they had led people to Kansas; however, in 1879 the program accelerated, and thousands more came to Kansas from the South.

14. San Francisco Chronicle, September 11, 1904.

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