Caving at the Lava Beds

Caver in Valentine Cave
Cave entrances can take many forms; from walk-in entrances like Valentine Cave, to entrances that are only accessible by ladders or ropes.

Kenneth Ingham


What You Need To Know Before You Go Caving

  1. Before entering any cave you must be "screened" for white-nose syndrome. If you have boots or other gear used in caves or mines outside of Lava Beds since 2006, or in caves or mines outside of the United States ever, please leave these items at home. This is an effort to prevent the spread of white-nose syndrome, a deadly fungal bat disease.
  2. Most information you need to know is contained in our caving brochure.
  3. Learn what it means to cave safely and cave softly, and put these ethics into practice during your visit.

Current Cave Closures

  • Juniper / Hercules
  • Labyrinth / Lava Brook
  • Sentinel
  • Part of Thunderbolt
  • Sunshine
The reason for this closure is for the protection of hibernating colonies of Townsend's Big-eared bats and is in accordance with the Lava Beds white-nose syndrome (WNS) Response Plan, which calls for targeted cave closures aimed at protecting significant bat hibernation sites in the monument. These closures target caves where populations of Townsend's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii) and other bat species congregate during the winter hibernation season. The intention of these closures is to provide bat populations with undisturbed hibernation and to prevent the possible introduction of Pseudogtmnoascus destructans (the fungus associated with WNS) fungal spores during the time period when bats are most susceptible to WNS. The closure will remain in effect until modified or rescinded. It is anticipated that these caves will be reopened in late spring after surveys have established that these sites are no longer being used by bats for hibernation.

Exploring the Caves

Many of the developed caves contain trails through the cave and stairways or ladders into the cave. Most of the developed caves are located along Cave Loop, a 2-mile road near the visitor center. Just a short walk from the visitor center, Mushpot Cave contains exhibits and is the only lighted cave at Lava Beds. Developed caves are divided into three groups based on their varying levels of difficulty in the hardest section of the cave: least, moderate, and most challenging.

A caver stands in a large, colorful cave passage.
Caves come in all sizes, shapes, and colors. Easy caves are typically defined by high ceilings and smooth floors.

Jesse Barden


Least Challenging

These caves have relatively high ceilings and smoother floors or trails. At the very least you should use the following gear: flashlights, sturdy shoes, and head protection.

Least Challenging Caves:

  • Mushpot
  • Sentinel
  • Valentine
  • Skull
  • Merrill
  • Heppe
  • Big Painted
  • Symbol Bridge
  • Ovis
  • Paradise Alley
NPS staff surveys a wide passage in Golden Dome Cave for microbial life.
Moderately challenging caves may require some stooping and have uneven floors.

Kenneth Ingham


Moderately Challenging

These caves may involve stooping through low sections and/or rough floors. Additional safety gear is recommended for the more difficult spots, including: cave maps, compass, kneepads, and gloves.

Moderately Challenging Caves:

  • Golden Dome
  • Sunshine
  • Indian Well
  • Balcony & Boulevard
  • Blue Grotto
A caver crawls out of a small passage in Catacombs Cave.
Most challenging caves have low, crawling passages and are often easier to get lost in than caves in the other two categories.

Kenneth Ingham


Most Challenging

These caves have some portions which require crawling. Using all recommended safety gear will protect you from injury.

Most Callenging Caves:

  • Labyrinth
  • Lava Brook
  • Hopkins Chocolate
  • Hercules Leg
  • Juniper
  • Catacombs
  • Thunderbolt

How The Caves Were Formed

lave tube formation
Lava Beds National Monument sits on the north face of the Medicine Lake Shield Volcano. The lava tube caves found here were created by flows of smooth lava 10,500 to 65,000 years ago. As the lava flowed it began to cool and solidify on the top and sides. Once the eruption ceased, the tube emptied and drained, and a new lava tube cave is left behind. As the rock cooled, the inner surface of the tube cracked and collapsed, producing openings to the surface.

If you wish to see a lava tube form today, you can take a peak into Lava Beds past by viewing a video of a similar volcano which erupted recently enough for people to be able to capture it on film.

Home To Live In

Grylloblatid 300x152
After cooling, these lava tubes became homes for unique cave life to thrive. When exploring, you may be lucky enough to spot some cave creatures, such as a cave cricket, rubber boa, millipede, or bats. These creatures are not poisonous or dangerous to humans, treat them with respect.

Last updated: October 15, 2019

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

P.O. Box 1240
Tulelake, CA 96134


(530) 667-8113

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