Shipwrecks Sources and Additional Information

 

On This Page Navigation

 

The majority of the content available on the History & Culture: Shipwrecks website at Isle Royale National Park has been derived from the 1987 work, "Submerged Cultural Resources Study: Isle Royale National Park," produced by the Submerged Cultural Resources Unit of the National Park Service and originally edited by Daniel J. Lenihan. The works referenced in that study and on the Shipwrecks website are listed below.

Visit www.worldcat.org to locate these items at a library near you.

Books and Articles Referenced

Abert, J.J. 1848. “Commerce on the Lakes and Western Rivers . Letter from the Secretary of War, January 12, 1848.” 30th Congress, 1st Session, no. 19.

Adams, Charles C. 1909. An Ecological Survey of Isle Royale, Lake Superior . Report of the University of Michigan for the Geological Survey, 1908. Hallenbech, Crawford, Lansing: Wynkoop.

Adams, James T., ed. 1940. Dictionary of American History. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Aitken, Hugh G.J. 1954. The Welland Canal Co. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Albion, Robert G. 1938. Square-Riggers on Schedule. Princeton: Princeton University.

American Bureau of Shipping. 1902. Record of American and Foreign Shipping. New York: American Bureau of Shipping.

———. 1917. Rules for Building and Classifying Vessels, 1914-1917. New York: American Bureau of Shipping.

American Bureau of Shipping 1900 Rules for Building and Classifying Vessels. 1900. New York: American Bureau of Shipping.

“American Fur Company Letters 1834-35.” 1835. In Microfilm Copies from the New York Historical Society Collection. Glenn Black Laboratory of Archeology, Ohio Valley-Great Lakes Ethnohistory Archive, Indiana University.

“Ancient Workings.” 1849. Lake Superior Journal 5 (6).

Anderson, Romola, and R.C. Anderson. 1963. The Sailing Ship. Bonanza, New York.

Andrews, Frank. 1910. “Grain Movements in the Great Lakes Region.” U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Statistics, Bulletin 81.

Andrews, Israel D. 1852. “Report on the Trade and Commerce of British North American Colonies and upon the Trade of the Great Lakes and Rivers.” In Communication from the Secretary of the Treasury. Washington, D.C: U.S. Senate.

Arthurs, David. 1982. Field Notes and Maps of Star Island Reconnaissance Survey. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Ashburn, T.Q. 1925. “Transportation on Inland Waterways.” Transactions of The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 33: 67–90.

Avery, Thomas. 1974. The Mystery Ship From 19 Fathoms. Autrain, Michigan: Avery Color Studios.

Babcock, W.I. 1899. “System of Work in a Great Lakes Shipyard.” Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 7: 173–188.

Baggley, George W. 1927. Report to Director, July 28, 1937. Washington, D.C: National Park Service.

Baier, Louis A. 1955. Contributions of the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering to Great Lakes Shipping. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Baker, W.A., and Tre Tryckare. 1965. The Engine Powered Vessel. Crescent, New York.

Ballert, Albert G. 1962. Bibliography, Great Lakes Research Checklist. Ann Arbor: Great Lakes Commission.

Barkhausen, Henry N. 1947. Great Lakes Sailing Ships . The Ships and Sailing Albums. Vol. Book 2. Kalmbach, Milwaukee.

Barnaby, K.C. 1962. The Institution of Naval Architects 1860-1960. London: Allen and Unwin.

———. 1964. A Hundred Years of Specialized Shipbuilding. London: Hutchison.

Barry, James P. 1973. Ships of the Great Lakes. 300 Years of Navigation. Berkeley: Howell-North.

Barton, John Kennedy. 1914. Naval Reciprocating Engines and Auxiliary Machinery; Textbook for the Instruction of Midshipmen at the U.S. 3rd ed. revised by H.O. Sticknay. Annapolis: Naval Academy.

Bass, George. 1966. Archaeology Under Water. New York: Fredrick A. Praeger.

———. 1983. “A Plea for Historical Particularism in Nautical Archaeology.” In Shipwreck Anthropology, edited by Richard A. Gould, 91–104. Albuquerque: School of American Research/University of New Mexico Press.

Bastian, Tyler. 1961. “Trace Element and Metallographic Studies of Prehistoric Copper Artifacts in North America A Review.” In Lake Superior Copper and the Indians, edited by J.B. Griffin, 151–175. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology.

———. 1963. “Prehistoric Copper Mining in Isle Royale National Park, Michigan.” Ms. thesis, University of Utah.

Bearss, Edwin C. 1966. Hardluck Iron Clad. The Sinking and Salvage of the Cairo. Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press.

Beasley, Norman. 1930. Freighters of Fortune: The Story of the Great Lakes. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Beckles, Henry. 1900. The Great Company 1667-1871. Vol. 2. London: Smith, Elder & Company.

Benson, Barbara E. 1976. “Logs and Lumber: The Development of the Lumber Industry in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula, 1837-1870.” Ph.D. dissertation., Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.

Blue Book of American Shipping. 1900. Cleveland: Marine Review Publishing.

Board of Lake Underwriters. 1866. Rules Relative to the Construction of Lake Sail and Steam Vessels. Matthews and Warren, Buffalo.

Bowen, Dana Thomas. 1940. Lore of the Lakes. Datona Beach: By the Author.

———. 1952. Shipwrecks of the Lakes. Daytona Beach: By the Author.

Boyer, Dwight. 1968. Great Ships of the Great Lakes. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.

———. 1971. True Tales of the Great Lakes. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.

———. 1977. Ships and Men of the Great Lakes. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.

Brady, Edward M. 1960. Marine Salvage Operations. Cambridge: Cornell Maritime Press.

Brainerd, Winthrop. 1986. Recommendations Concerning the Proper Disposition of Human Remains in National Marine Sanctuaries. Washington, D.C: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management.

Brown, Oliver G. 1910. Report of Inspection, Passage Island Light, Lake Superior, Michigan. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of Light-Houses.

Brown, W.Russell. 1945. “Ships at Port Arthur and Fort William.” Inland Seas 11: 45–51.

Bryan, William. 1896. “The Western River Steamboat.” American Society of Mechanical Engineers Transactions 17: 386–397.

Bryant, H.C., Thomas C. Vint, and John D. Coffman. 1935. Report on Isle Royale, Part 1 Isle Royale Administration and Personnel Inspections and Investigations by Headquarters Officers, July 15, 1935. Washington, D.C: National Park Service.

Bryce, George. 1900. The Remarkable History of the Hudson’s Bay Company, Including That of the French: Traders of North-Western Canada and of the North-West, XY, and Astor Fur Companies. London.

Bureau, U. S. Census. 1960. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Bureau Veritas International Reporting of Shipping. 1913. Rules and Regulations for the Building and Classification of Steel Vessels Intended for Inland Navigation. London: Bureau Veritas International Reporting of Shipping.

Burke, John A. 1975. “Barrels to Barrows, Buckets to Belts: 120 Years of Iron Ore Handling on the Great Lakes.” Inland Seas 31 (4).

Butler, B.S., and W.S. Birbank. 1929. “The Copper Deposits of Michigan.” In U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 144. Washington, D.C.

Carrell, Toni. 1983. Shipwrecks of Isle Royale National Park, Thematic Group Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

———. 1986. “Management Strategies for Shipwrecks on Submerged Public Lands.” In Underwater Archaeology: The Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Underwater Archaeology, edited by Calvin R. Cummings, 7:44. Special Publication. San Marino: Fathom Eight.

Carvel, John L. 1950. Stephen of Linthouse: A Record of Two Hundred Years of Shipbuilding 1750-1950. Glasgow: Alexander Stephen and Sons.

Celler, L.Craig. 1975. Classified Structure Field Inventory Report and Historic Structure Worksheet. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Chadwick, F.E. 1891. Ocean Steamships: A Popular Account of Their Construction, Development, Management and Appliances. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Channing, Edward, and Marion F. Lansing. 1909. The Story of the Great Lakes. New York: MacMillan.

Chapelle, Howard I. 1935. The History of American Sailing Ships. New York: Bonanza Books.

———. 1936. American Sailing Craft. New York: Bonanza Books.

———. 1951. American Small Sailing Craft. New York: W. W. Norton.

———. 1967. The Search for Speed Under Sail 1700-1855. London: Conway Maritime Press.

Christian, Sarah B. 1932. Winter on Isle Royale: A Narrative of Life on Isle Royale During the Years of 1874 and 1875. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Civilian Conservation Corps 1936-41 Camp Siskiwit Log. 1939. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Civilian Conservation Corps Report, January 5, 1939, Part 1: Isle Royale Publicity, Statistics, Entertainment. 1939. Washington, DC: National Park Service.

Clowes, G.S. 1927. Catalogue of the Collections in the Science Museum, South Kensington. Water Transport Sec. II. Merchant Steamers. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Cochrane, Timothy. 1978. Memorandum to Files Re: George Mead Lumber Company Logging Operations on Siskiwit Bay, 1935-36. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1982. “The Folklife Expressions of Three Isle Royale Fishermen: A Sense of Place Examination.” Master’s thesis, Western Kentucky University.

———. 1983. “A Study of Folk Architecture on Isle Royale: The Johnson/Holte Fishery.” In National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit. Santa Fe.

Cockrell, Wilburn A. 1980. “The Trouble with Treasure: A Preservationist View of the Controversy.” American Antiquity 45:333-39.

———. 1982. “Archaeology, Sports Diving and Shipwrecks.” Edited by Calvin R. Cummings. Underwater Archaeology: The Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Underwater Archaeology, Special Publication, 4: 124–129.

———. 1983. “A Trial Classificatory Model for the Analysis of Shipwrecks.” In Shipwreck Anthropology, edited by Richard A. Gould, 207–218. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Conary, Kate E.K. 1939. Interview in Daily Mining Gazette , June 21, 1939.

Cotter, John L. 1968. Handbook for Historical Archeology. Vol. Part I. Wyncott, Pennsylvania: Cotter.

Croil, James. 1898. Steam Navigation and Its Relation to the Commerce of Canada and the United States. Toronto: William Briggs.

Cumberland, B. 1913. “Canoe, Sail and Steam: Early Navigation on the Great Lakes.” Canadian Magazine 42: 85–92.

Cummings, Calvin R. 1978. “The Southwest Region Model for National Park Service Cultural Resources Management.” In Paper Presented to the Annual Meeting of American Anthropological Association, Los Angeles. Ms. on File, National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center. Santa Fe.

———. 1981. “Cultural Resources Management: A Statement of Concerns from a Conservation Archeology Perspective.” Journal of Field Archaeology 8 (1).

———. 1983. “Defined Professional Criteria for Underwater Archaeology.” In Proceedings of the Alaskan Marine Archeology Workshop, 83–9:111–124. Alaska Sea Grant Report. Fairbanks: University of Alaska.

———. 1986a. “A Matter of Ethics.” In Underwater Archaeology: The Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Underwater Archaeology, edited by Calvin R. Cummings, 7:. Special Publication. San Marino: Fathom Eight.

———. 1986b. “Research Programs for the Management of Cultural Resources in Marine Protected Areas.” In Paper Presented to International Marine Protected Areas Seminar, June 1-12. In Proceedings.

———. 1986c. Underwater Archeology and Maritime Preservation: Issues and Concerns. A Statement Prepared for the Workshop “Technologies for Underwater Archeology and Maritime Preservation” Office of Technology Assessment. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress.

Cummings, Calvin R., and Edward F. Miller. 1987a. Guidelines for Submitting Applications for Archaeological Research Permits in National Marine Sanctuaries. Washington, DC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Marine and Estuarine Management Division.

———. 1987b. Policies for the Management of Historical and Cultural Resources. Washington, D.C: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Marine and Estuarine Management Division.

Curr, Robert. 1907. “Lake Shipyard Methods of Steel Ship Construction.” Marine Review May 30: 40–42.

———. 1908. “Shipbuilding on the Great Lakes.” Transactions of the Society of Naval and Marine Engineers 16: 195–209.

Curtis, W.H. 1919. The Elements of Wood Ship Construction. New York: McGraw Hill.

Curwood, James O. 1909. The Great Lakes: The Vessels That Plough Them: Their Owners, Their Sailors, and Their Cargoes, Together with a Brief History of Our Inland Seas. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Cuthbertson, George A. 1931. Freshwater, a History and Narrative of the Great Lakes. New York: Macmillan.

Davis, Charles G. 1933. The Built-Up Ship Model. Reprint. Largo, Florida: Edward W. Sweetman.

Delgado, James P. 1986. National Historic Landmark Study: USS MONITOR. Washington, D.C: National Park Service.

———, ed. 1987a. “Maritime Preservation Edition.” The Journal of the Association for Preservation Technology 9 (1).

———. 1987b. Nominating Historic Vessels and Shipwrecks to the National Register of Historic Places. Vol. 20. Bulletin. Washington, D.C: National Park Service.

Denny, Archibald. 1897. “The Design and Building of a Steamship.” Cassier’s Magazine August:393-405.

Desmond, Charles. 1935. Naval Architecture Simplified. New York: Rudder.

Detroit Historical Publishing Company. 1877. Marine History of the Lake Ports. Detroit: Detroit Historical Publishing.

Dickinson, J.N. 1967. “The Canal at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan: Inception, Construction, Operation, and the Canal Grant Lands.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin.

Dohrmann, Donald R. 1976. “Screw Propulsion in American Lake and Coastal Steam Navigation, 1840-1860: A Case Study in the Diffusion of Technological Innovation.” Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.

Doner, Mary F. 1958. The Salvager: The Life of Captain Tom Reid on the Great Lakes. Minnesota: Ross and Haines.

Donovan, Frank R. 1966. River Boats of America. New York: Crowell.

Dorin, Patrick C. 1979. The Lake Superior Iron Ore Railroads: The World’s Heaviest Trains. New York: Bonanza Books.

Dornfield, A.A. 1957. Steamships: A Hundred Years Ago. Vol. 4. New Series. Chicago Historical Society.

Dorr, E.P. 1876. Rules for Construction, Inspection and Characterization of Sail and Steam Vessels. Buffalo: By the Author.

Dustin, Fred. 1932. “A Summary of the Archeology of Isle Royale, Michigan. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science.” Arts and Letter 16: 1–16.

———. 1946. “Isle Royale Place Names.” Michigan History 16 (4).

———. 1957. “An Archeological Reconnaissance of Isle Royale.” Michigan History 41: 1–34.

Eccleston, E.C. 1941. Report to Chief, Park Operations Division. Washington, D.C: National Park Service.

Edwards, V.B., and Fred C. Cole. 1945. “Water Transportation on Inland Rivers.” In Historical Transactions 1893-1941, 400–422. New York.

Eliot, John L. 1985. “Isle Royale: North Woods Park Primeval.” National Geographic 167 (4).

Engman, Elmer. 1976. Shipwreck Guide to the Western Half of Lake Superior. Duluth: Innerspace.

Ericson, Bernard. 1962. The Evolution of Ships on the Great Lakes, Part I: Early History, Great Lakes and Great Rivers and Eastern Canadian Section. Cleveland: The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Pittsburgh Steamship Division.

Estep, H.Cole. 1918. How Wooden Ships Are Built. Cleveland: Penton.

Evans, William H. 1967. “Days of the Steamboats.” Parents Magazine.

Fairbairn, William. 1863. “On the Construction of Iron-Plated Ships.” Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects 4: 1–15.

———. 1865. Treatise on Iron Ship Building: Its History and Progress. London: Longmans, Green.

Feltner, Charles E., and Jeri B. Feltner. 1982. Great Lakes Maritime History: Bibliography and Sources of Information. Dearborn: Seajay Publications.

Finn, J.Leo. 1979. Old Shipping Days in Oswego. Oswego: Oswego County Board of Supervisors.

Fitch, Charles H. 1888. Report on Marine Engines and Steam Vessels in the U.S. Merchant Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Census Office.

Fite, Gilbert C., and Jim E. Reese. 1965. An Economic History of the United States. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Fletcher, Daniel. 1960. “A Study of Package Freight Carriers on the Great Lakes.” Ph.D. dissertation., Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.

Fletcher, R.A. 1910. Steamships: The Story of Their Development to the Present Day. London: Sidwick and Jackson.

Fowles, Otton. 1925. Sault Ste. Marie and Its Great Waterways. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Fox, George R. 1911. “An Ancient Copper Workings on Isle Royale.” Wisconsin Archaeologist 10 (75).

Franchere, Gabriel. 1939. Journal of His Voyage in the BREWSTER to Grand Portage, Isle Royale and the Anse in August, 1839. Houghton: Michigan Technological University Library.

Frederickson, Arthur C., and Lucy F. Frederickson. 1961. Ships and Shipwrecks in Door County Wisconsin. Vol. 2. Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin.

Gale, Phil. 1987. Interview Recorded by Toni Carrell and Ken Vrana, March 17, 1987. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Gilmore, James. 1956. The St. Lawrence River Canals Vessel. Montreal: The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

Gjerset, Knut. 1928. Norwegian Sailors on the Great Lakes. Northfield: Norwegian-American Historical Association.

Goodrich, Carter. 1961. Canals and American Economic Development. New York: Columbia University.

Gould, Richard A., ed. 1983. Shipwreck Anthropology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico.

Graham, C.S. 1958. “The Transition from Paddle-Wheel to Screw Propeller.” Mariner’s Mirror 44: 45–46.

Greenhill, Basil. 1980. Schooners. Annapolis: Naval Institute.

Greenwood, J.O. 1973. Namesakes II: A Sequel to Namesakes of the Lakes. Cleveland: Freshwater Press.

Haber, Gordon. 1962. Field Report on Cemetery Island. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Hakala, D.Robert. 1955. Isle Royale Primeval Prince: A History. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Hall, Henry. 1880. “Report on the Ship-Building Industry of the United States.” U.S. Tenth Census 8: 1–276.

Hall, John W. 1870. Marine Disasters of Western Lakes During the Navigation of 1869. Detroit: Wetunis.

Hall, Stephen P. 1976. Duluth-Superior Harbor Cultural Resources Study. St. Paul: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul District.

Hamilton, Frank E. n.d. Notes on PURITAN/GEORGE M. COX. Richard J. Wright Collection. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University.

Harrison, John Maclean. 1974. The Fate of the GRIFFON. Chicago: The Shallow Press.

Hatcher, Harlan. 1944. The Great Lakes. London: Oxford University.

———. 1945. Lake Erie. New York: Bobbs Merrill.

———. 1950. A Century of Iron and Men. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.

Hatcher, Harlan, and Erich A. Walter. 1963. A Pictorial History of the Great Lakes. New York: Crown Publishers.

Havighurst, Walter. 1944. The Long Ships Passing. New York: MacMillan.

———. 1966. The Great Lakes Reader. New York: Macmillan.

Heden, Karl E. 1966. Directory of Shipwrecks on the Great Lakes. Boston: Bruce Humphries.

Henry, Alfred J., and Norman B. Conger. 1907. Meterological Chart of the Great Lakes. Summary for the Season of 1906. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Weather Bureau.

Heyl, Erik. 1965. Early American Steamers. Vol. 6. Buffalo: By the Author.

Hill, Ralph N. 1953. Sidewheeler Saga. A Chronicle of Steamboating. New York: Rinehart.

Hill, Reubin. 1987. Interview Recorded by Toni Carrell and Ken Vrana, February 3, 1987, Re: Lake Superior Small Craft Construction. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Hoagland, Henry E. 1917. Wage Bargaining on the Vessels of the Great Lakes. Urbana: University of Illinois.

Hodge, William. 1884. The Pioneer Steamboats on Lake Erie. Buffalo: Bigelow Brothers.

Hoge, Anna B. 1984. Interview Recorded by Bruce Weber, July 19, 1984, Re: Passage Island Lighthouse. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Hohman, Elmo P. 1956. History of the American Merchant Seaman. Hamden, Connecticut: Shoestring Press.

Holden, Thomas R. 1974. “Park Interpretation as an Environmental Communication Process with a Sample Interpretive Booklet Text on the Maritime Disaster History of Siskiwit Bay, Isle Royale, Lake Superior.” Master’s thesis, Madison: University of Wisconsin.

———. 1976. “On The Rocks Isle Royale Style.” Nor’Easter 1 (1).

———. 1985. Above and Below: A History of Lighthouses and Shipwrecks of Isle Royale. Houghton: Isle Royale Natural History Association.

———. n.d. “A Shallow Grave for the AMERICA.” The Nordic Diver 1 (2).

Holecek, Donald F., and Susan J. Lothrop. 1980a. Attitudes of a Scuba Diving Population Concerning Government Regulation of Underwater Resources. Ann Arbor: Michigan Sea Grant Technical Report.

———. 1980b. Shipwreck vs. Nonshipwreck Scuba Divers: Characteristics, Behavior, and Expenditure Patterns. Ann Arbor: Michigan Sea Grant Technical Reprort.

Holecek, Donald F., and E.Thomas Smiley. 1982. Management Guidelines for Michigan’s Great Lakes Bottomland Preserves. Ann Arbor: Michigan Sea Grant.

Holte, Ingeborg. 1984. Ingeborg’s Isle Royale. Grand Marais: Women’s Times.

Houghton, Jacob. 1896. Letter to George A. Newett, Ishpeming, Michigan, November 22. Hougton: Isle Royale National Park.

Hruska, Robert. 1987. Personal Correspondence to Ken Vrana 19 January 1987, Re: Oskosh Public Museum Activities on Isle Royale in 1964. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Huber, N.King. 1975. “The Geologic Story of Isle Royale National Park.” Geological Survey Bulletin 1309.

Hull, William J., and Robert W. Hull. 1967. The Origin and Development of the Waterways Policy of the United States. Washington, D.C: National Waterways Conference, Inc.

Hulse, Charles A. 1981. “A Spatial Analysis of Lake Superior Shipwrecks: A Study in the Formative Process of the Archaeological Record.” Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor: Michigan State University. University Microfilms.

Hulse, Charles A., and Donald F. Holecek. 1979. “Underwater Parks Symposium Proceedings.” In Extension Bulletin E-1350. E. Lansing: Michigan State University.

Humins, John H. 1985. “The American Fur Company in the Old Northwest Territory.” Michigan History 69 (2).

Hunter, Louis C. 1949. Steamboats on the Western Rivers: An Economic and Technological History. 1969 reprint. New York: Octagon.

Hutchinson, G.H. 1914. “The Handling of Coal at the Head of the Lakes.” American Society of Mechanical Engineers Transaction s 35: 283–339.

Inches, H.C. 1951. “Wooden Shipbuilding.” Inland Seas 7: 3–12.

———. 1962. The Great Lakes Wooden Shipbuilding Era. Vermillion, Ohio: The Great Lakes Historical Society.

Innes, Harold A. 1930. The Fur Trade in Canada. New Haven.

International Shipmasters Association Directory. 1925. Cleveland: International Shipmasters Association.

“Isle Royale.” 1854. Lake Superior Journal 10 (4).

Ives, William. 1847. Survey Notes and Plats of the 1847 Survey of Isle Royale. Houghton: Michigan Technological University Library.

Jackson, Charles T. 1849. “Report on the Geological and Mineralogical Survey of the Mineral Lands of the United States in the State of Michigan.” 31st Congress, 1st Session, no. 5, vol. 3: 2.

Johns, Edgar. 1965. Interview Recorded by L. Rakestraw, September 30, 1965. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Johnson, Milford, Jr. 1986. Interview Recorded by Ken Vrana, August 23, 1986. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

———. 1987. Interview Recorded by Toni Carrell and Ken Vrana, February 3, 1987. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Johnson, Myrtle. 1986. Interview Recorded by Ken Vrana, August 23, 1986. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Johnston, Paul. 1983. Steam and the Sea. Salem: Peabody Museum of Salem.

Kasson, John F. 1976. Civilizing the Machine: Technology and Republican Values in America 1776-1900. New York: Grossman.

Keel, Bennie. 1979. “A View from the Inside.” American Antiquity 44 (1).

———. 1985. White Paper: Disposition of Human Remains. Washington, DC: National Park Service.

King, Franklin, and A. 1984. “Two Harbors: Minnesota’s First Iron Ore Port.” The Nor’easter 9 (5).

Klein, L. 1841. “Notes on the Steam Navigation Upon the Great Northern Lakes.” American Railroad Journal 12.

Labadie, C.Patrick. 1981. Inventory of Screw Steamers Built Upon the Great Lakes, 1840-1880. C.P. Labadie Collection. Duluth.

———. 1982a. Preliminary Analysis of Great Lakes Lumber Steamers. C.P. Labadie Collection. Duluth.

———. 1982b. Sketch and Measurements of STANLEY, Star Island, June 8, 1982. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

———. 1984. Nineteenth Century Bulk Freighters on the Great Lakes System. Duluth: C.P. Labadie Collection.

Labaree, Benjamin W., ed. 1975. The Atlantic World of Robert G. Albion. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press.

Landon, Fred. 1955. “The End of Coastal Steamer Service on Georgian Bay.” Inland Seas 11 (1).

———. 1970. “Engines Salvaged from Lake Depths Powered the MANITOBA.” Inland Seas 26 (4): 13–3 15.

Lane, Alfred C. 1898. “Geological Report on Isle Royale.” Michigan Geological Survey 6 (1).

Lapham, J.A. 1869. “Disasters on the Lakes. Papers Relative to Losses of Vessels on the Lakes.” 41st Congress, 2nd Session 10.

“Launch and Boat Service, Rock Harbor, Isle Royale.” 1940. In Johnson Brothers Brochure. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Laurent, Jerome K. 1983. “Trade, Transport and Technology: The American Great Lakes, 1866-1910.” The Journal of Transport History 4 (1).

Lavelle, Omer. 1974. Van Homes Road: An Illustrated Account of the Construction and First Years of Operation of the Canadian Pacific Transcontinental Railway. Montreal: Railfare Enterprises.

Lavery, Brian. 1984. The Ship of the Line: Volume II: Design, Construction and Fittings. Conway, London.

Lee, William E. 1983. Letter from Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Recreation, Old Fort William, Thunder Bay, Re: Northwest Fur Company Activities on Isle Royale. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Lenihan, Daniel J., ed. 1974. Underwater Archeology in the National Park Service: A Model for the Management of Submerged Cultural Resources. Santa Fe: National Park Service.

———. 1983a. “Managing Shipwrecks in Parks and Preserves.” Trends in Historic Preservation 20 (2).

———. 1983b. “Rethinking Shipwreck Archaeology: A History of Ideas and Considerations for New Directions.” In Shipwreck Anthropology, edited by Richard A. Gould, 37–64. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

———. 1986. “The CUMBERLAND/CHISHOLM Site: The Results of a Non-Destructive Archaeological Investigation at Isle Royale National Park.” In Underwater Archaeology: The Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Underwater Archaeology, edited by Calvin R. Cummings, 7:105–106. Special Publication. San Marino: Fathom Eight.

Lenihan, Daniel J., Toni Carrell, and Larry Murphy. 1981. Report on a One-Week Field Trip to Test and Evaluate Underwater Archeological Research Approaches for Use at Isle Royale in the 1981 Field Season. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Lidfors, Kate, Thorn Holden, Ellen Maurer, Jerry Livingston, and Larry Murphy. 1982. Report of a Two-Day Underwater Survey of Selected Historical Sites at Apostle Islands National Lakeshore with Considerations for Future Research. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Lindblad, A.F. 1924. “A Critical Analysis of the Factors Affecting Safety and Operation of the Bulk Freight Vessels of the Great Lakes.” Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. University Microfilms.

Linden, Van, and Peter J. 1984. Great Lakes Ships We Remember. Cleveland: Freshwater Press.

Little, John J. 1978. “Island Wilderness: A History of Isle Royale National Park.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toledo.

Lloyds, Inland. 1882. 1882 Vessel Classification of the Inland Lloyd’s American Hulls. Buffalo: Printing House of Matthews, Northrup and Company.

———. 1890. Inland Lloyds Vessel Register. Buffalo: Inland Lloyds.

Log Chips. 1983. Bowling Green, Ohio: Institute for Great Lakes Research, Bowling Green State University.

Luckenbach, Lewis. 1945. “American Bureau of Shipping 1862-1943.” In Historical Transactions 1893-1943. New York: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

Lumby, John R. 1974. Historic Fort William. Belleville, Ontario: Mika.

Lytle, William M., and Forrest R. Holdcamper. 1952. Merchant Steam Vessels of the United States, 1790-1868. The Steamship Historical Society of America.

Maass, Carol. 1982. Undesignated Cultural Sites Inventory Forms. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1984. Isle Royale Interim Cultural Sites Inventory. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

MacElwee, Roger S. 1921. Economic Aspects of the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Ship Canal. New York: Ronald Press.

MacLean, Harrison John. 1974. The Fate of the GRIFFON. Sage/Swallow, Chicago.

Maginnis, Arthur J. 1892. The Atlantic Ferry: Its Ships, Men, and Working. London.

Mahan, John, and Ann Mahan. 1985. “Return to Passage Island.” Lakeland Boating June:47-50.

Malone, John M., Sr. 1986. Interview Recorded by Dave Snyder on January 19, 1986, Re: Isle Royale Lighthouse. Houghton, Michigan: Isle Royale National Park.

Manning, George C. 1943. Manual of Ship Construction. New York: D. Van Nostrand.

Mansfield, J.B. 1899. History of the Great Lakes. 1972 reprint, Freshwater, Cleveland. Vol. 2. Chicago: J. H. Beers.

Martin, Patrick E. 1985. Report on Isle Royale Prehistoric Pot. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Mason, Philip P. 1956. The Lumbering Era in Michigan History 1860-1900. Lansing: Michigan Historical Commission.

———. 1957. The History of Great Lakes Transportation. Ann Arbor: Brown-Branfield.

McCannel, R. 1932. “Shipping on Lake Superior: Shipping out of Collingwood.” Papers and Records Number 28.

McCarty, John Myron. 1971. “Economic Aspects in the Evolution of the Great Lakes Freighter.” Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor: University of Southern California. University Microfilms.

McClellan, Stan. 1979. “Fathom-Five Provincial Park — A Working Example of an Underwater Park.” In Underwater Parks: Symposium Proceedings , Extension Bulletin E-1350, edited by Charles A. Hulse, 54–56. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

McDonald, W.A. 1959. “Composite Steamers Built by Detroit Drydock Company.” Inland Seas 15 (2).

McDowell, W. 1961. The Shapes of Ships. Rev. Hutchinson, New York.

McLuckie, Jane A. 1976. Minong Mine Historic District. Washington, D.C: National Register of Historic Places Nomination.

McPhedran, Phillip. 1952. Cargoes on the Great Lakes. Toronto: MacMillan.

McVey, T.J. 1938a. Camp Inspection Report. Vol. NP-2, May 31, 1938; NP-1, June 1938; NP-1, August 17, 1939; NP-2, August 27, 1940; J. C. Reddock, Camp Inspection Report, NP-2, August 23,24, 1941; NP-3, August 24, 1941. Washington, D.C: National Park Service.

———. 1938b. CCC Camp Educational Report. Vol. May 31, 1938; June 1,1938; August 16, 1939; August 17, 1939; August 25, 1940; August 27, 1940; unsigned CCC Camp Educational Report, August 24, 1941. Washington, D.C: National Park Service.

McWilliam, Scott. 1983. “The Gray Oak. A Report Covering Observations Made During Archaeological Investigations in 1982.” In North Central Region Report 14. Thunder Bay, Ontario: Heritage Branch, Ministry of Citizenship and Culture.

———. 1984. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, September 29, McCargoe Cove. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1985. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, August 11, Siskowit Mine. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Menz, Katherine B. 1983. H Istoric Furnishings Report, Sleeping Bear Point Life-Saving Station, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Frankfort, Michigan. Branch of Historic Furnishings, Harpers Ferry Center, National Park Service, Harpers Ferry.

Merritt, Glenn. 1965. Oral History Tape Recorded by Lawrence Rakestraw, September 28. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Meyer, John R., Merton J. Peck, John Stenason, and Charles Zwick. 1959. The Economics of Competition in the Transportation Industries. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Middleton, Edward N. 1898. "Notes." Duluth: Lake Superior Marine Museum.

Miller, Quenton M. 1986. Letter to Park Historian. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Mills, James Cook. 1908. “Giant Ore Carriers on the Great Lakes.” Cassier’s Magazine 35: 109–119.

———. 1910. Our Inland Seas: Their Shipping and Commerce for Three Centuries. Reprint, Freshwater Press, Cleveland. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co.

Mitchell, C.Bradford, and Kenneth R. Hall. 1975. Merchant Steam Vessels of the United States 1790-1868, The Lytle-Holdcamper List. Staten Island, New York: Steamship Historical Society of America.

Moe, Elvis. 1987. Interview Recorded by Toni Carrell and Ken Vrana, March 16, 1987. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Montreal Register. 1839. Ottawa, Ontario.

Morehead, John M. 1981. “Shipwrecks of Isle Royale: A Manager’s Perspective.” In Underwater Archaeology: The Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Underwater Archeology, edited by Calvin R. Cummings, 4:63–67. Special Publication. San Marino: Fathom Eight.

Morison, Elting E. 1966. Men, Machines, and Modern Times. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Morrison, John H. 1903. History of American Steam Navigation. New York: Argosy-Antiquarian Ltd.

———. 1905. Iron and Steel Hull Steam Vessels of the United States, 1825-1905. Salem: Steamship Historical Society of America.

———. 1958. History of America’s Steam Navigation. New York: Stephen Doyl Press.

Muckelroy, Keith. 1978. Maritime Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Murphy, Larry. 1981. “Isle Royale Shipwreck Management Program, Phase I: Preliminary Assessment.” In Twelfth Annual Conference on Underwater Archeology. New Orleans.

———. 1982. “Isle Royale Shipwreck Management Program: A Pilot Study.” In Thirteenth Conference on Underwater Archeology. Philadelphia.

———. 1983. Shipwrecks as Data Base for Human Behavioral Studies. Edited by Shipwreck Anthropology Richard A. Gould. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Murphy, Larry, Dan Lenihan, and Toni Carrell. 1982. Underwater Archeology of Isle Royale National Park. An Interim Report Covering the 1981 Field Season. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Murphy, Larry, and Allen R. Saltus Jr. 1981. “Phase II Identification and Evaluation of Submerged Cultural Resources in the Tombigbee River Multi-Resource District, Alabama and Mississippi.” Report of Investigations, no. 16.

Murphy, Rowland W. 1966. “The Four Welland Canals.” In The Great Lakes Reader, edited by W. Havighurst, 391–396. London: Collier Macmillan.

Musham, H.A. 1946. “Early Great Lakes Steamboats 1816-1830.” American Neptune 6: 1–18.

Neu, Irene. 1953. “The Building of the Sault Canal: 1952-1955.” Mississippi Valley Historical Review 40 (1): 25–46.

Nichols, John. 1945. “The Development of Marine Engineering.” In Historical Transactions 1893-1943. New York: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

Nimmo, Joseph. 1885. Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Treasury, Bureau of Statistics.

Nordby, Larry V. 1987. Preliminary Analysis of Artifact Clusters Resulting from Star Island Reconnaissance Survey. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

North, Douglass C. 1961. The Economic Growth of the United States 1790-1860. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Northern Michigan University. 1978. Isle Royale Shipwreck Survey. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Nute, Grace Lee. 1944. Lake Superior. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.

O’Brien, T.Michael. 1976. Guardians of the Eighth Sea: A History of the U.S. Coast Guard on the Great Lakes. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Oldham, Joseph R. 1897. “Shipbuilding and Transportation on the Great American Lakes.” Cassier’s Magazine August:499-512.

———. 1907. “American Lake and Ocean Steamship Models.” Cassier’s Magazine January:229-240.

Opheim, Lee Alfred. 1972. “Twentieth Century Shipwrecks in Lake Superior.” Ph.D. dissertation, Ann Arbor: Saint Louis University. University Microfilms.

Paasch, Captain H. 1890. Illustrated Marine Encyclopedia. Reprint, Argus Books, Watford, Herts, England. Chatham: W&J Mackay.

Pankhurst, J.F. 1893. “The Development of Shipbuilding on the Great Lakes.” Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 1: 252–262.

Patterson, Susan S. 1976. Canadian Great Lakes Shipping: An Annotated Bibliography. Ontario: University of Toronto.

Pomeroy, Lawrence A. 1946. “The Bulk Freight Vessel.” Inland Seas 2 (3).

Pred, Allan. 1970. “Toward a Typology of Manufacturing Flows.” In Economic Geography: Selected Readings, edited by Fred E. Dors and Lawrence M. Sommers, 267–286.

Publications, Marshall Cavendish. 1975. The History of the Sailing Ship. New York: Arco.

Purdy, T.C. 1883a. “Report on Steam Navigation in the United States.” U.S. Tenth Census 8: 655–724.

———. 1883b. “Report on the Canals of the United States.” U.S. Tenth Census 8: 725–764.

{No Entries}

Rakestraw, Lawrence. 1964. Historical Background and Documentation for Historical Base Map of Isle Royale. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1965. Historic Mining on Isle Royale . Isle Royale Natural History Association in Cooperation with the U.S. Houghton: Department of Interior, National Park Service.

———. 1967a. Post-Columbian History of Isle Royale, Part I: Mining. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1967b. Post-Columbian History of Isle Royale, Part II: Fishing. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1968. Commercial Fishing on Isle Royale 1800-1967 . Isle Royale Natural History Association in Cooperation with the U.S. Houghton: Department of Interior, National Park Service.

Ratigan, William. 1960. Great Lakes Shipwrecks and Survivals. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.

Ridgley-Nevitt, Cedric. 1981. American Steamships on the Atlantic. Newark: University of Delaware Press.

Rivers, Board, and Harbors. 1930. “Transportation on the Great Lakes.” Transportation Series, no. 1.

Robinson, Orrin W. 1938. Early Days of the Lake Superior Copper Country. Houghton.

Rogers, C.C. 1892. “The Water Route from Chicago to the Ocean.” Scribner’s Magazine, no. :287.

Rosenberg, Nathan. 1972. Technology and American Economic Growth. New York: Harper and Row.

Rowland, K.T. 1970. Steam at Sea. A History of Steam Navigation. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Sadler, Herbert C. 1909. “Some Points in Connection with Shipbuilding on the Great Lakes, U.S.A.” Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects 51: 220–232.

Salmond, John A. 1967. The Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942: A New Deal Case Study. Durham: Duke University Press.

Saltus, Allen R., Jr. 1982. Cultural Resources Survey of a Portion of the Northeast Cape Fear River and Report on the Test Excavation to Evaluate the Steamship SPRAY. Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources.

———. 1986. Submerged Cultural Resource Investigation of the Western Portion of the Maurepas Basin with Intensive Underwater Surveys at Hoo Shoo Too Landing, 16EBr60, Colyell Bay, Catfish Landing, and at the Mouth of Bayou Shene Blanc. Hammond: Southeatern Lousiana University Center for Regional Studies.

Schiffer, Michael B. 1976. Behavioral Archaeology. New York: Academic.

Schuette, Katie. 1979. “Kamloops Goes Missing No Longer.” Anchor News May/June.

Scott, Emmett Hoyt. 1924. Unpublished Memoirs on File. Bloomington: Indiana University, Lilly Library.

Scovill, Douglas H., G.J. Gordon, and K.M. Anderson. 1977. “Guidelines for the Preparation of Statements of Environmental Impact on Archeological Resources.” In Conservation Archaeology: A Guide for Cultural Resource Management Studies, edited by Michael B. Schiffer and George J. Gumerman, 43–62. New York: Academic Press.

See, Horace. 1891. “The Building of the Steamship in America.” Engineering Magazine May.

Shaw, Cornelius G. 1847. C. G. Shaw Papers. Michigan Historical Collections, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Shelvin, Charles. 1937. Report to the Director on Observations and Recommendations for Isle Royale National Park (Proposed), February 17, 1937. Washington, DC: National Park Service.

Sivertson, Stanley. 1987. Interview Recorded by Toni Carrell and Ken Vrana, February 2, 1987, Re: Lake Superior Small Watercraft. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Southwest Cultural Resources Center, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Slyker, Francis J. 1958. “Reinforced Wooden Vessels on the Great Lakes.” Telescope Magazine.

Smiley, E.Thomas, and Donald F. Holecek, eds. 1982. Aquatic Park Management: Symposium Proceedings. Ann Arbor: Michigan Sea Grant.

Smith, Edgar C. 1938. A Short History of Naval and Marine Engineering. Cambridge: University Press.

Smith, William E. 1932. Letter Dated October 2, to Superintendent Stoll, Regarding Burials at Cemetery Island. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Spratt, H.Philip. 1951. Transatlantic Paddle Steamers. Glasgow.

Standard, W.L. 1947. Merchant Seamen: A Short History of Their Struggles. New York: International Publishers.

Stanton, Samuel W. 1962. Great Lakes Steam Vessels. Meriden, Connecticut: Meriden Gravure.

Stonehouse, Frederick. 1974. Isle Royale Shipwrecks. Marquette: Harboridge Press.

Storey, Dana A. 1971. The Building of a Wooden Ship. Barre, Massachusetts: Barre Publishers.

Superintendent’s Orders. 1986. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

Swineford, A.P. 1876. “Early History and Review of the Copper, Iron, Silver, Slate and Other Material Interests of the South Shore of Lake Superior.” Mining Journal.

Tanner, Henry S. 1840. A Description of the Canals and Railroads of the United States Comprehending Notices of All the Works of Internal Improvements throughout the Several States. New York: T.R. Tanner and J. Distumell.

Taylor, George R. 1951. The Transportation Revolution 1815-1860. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Thompson, Douglas G. 1983. The ANNIE FALCONER Archaeological Survey and Salvage Project 1982. Toronto: P.O.W. Kingston Ltd. and Ontario Heritage Foundation.

Towle, Edward L. 1964. Bibliography on the Economic History and Geography of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Drainage Basin. Detroit: University of Rochester, Canadian Studies Program.

Trimble, George. 1907. The Rose Pilot’s Handbook: Useful Pertaining to Great Lakes. Port Huron, Michigan: Riverside.

True, Dwight. 1956. Sixty Years of Shipbuilding. Ann Arbor: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Great Lakes Section.

Tunell, George G. 1898. “Transportation on the Great Lakes.” 55th Congress, 2nd Session:1-106, no. 277.

Tuttle, Charles R., and Detroit. 1873. A General History of the State of Michigan. Site Survey. 20IR29. Ann Arbor: Tyler.

U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1848. “Commerce of the Lakes and Western Rivers . 30th Congress, 1st Session.” House Ex. Doc 3: 516–51.

———. 1930. “Transportation on the Great Lakes.” Transportation Series, no. 1.

———. 1975. Final Environmental Impact Statement: Operation and Maintenance Activities Two Harbors, Minnesota, Lake Superior. St. Paul: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

U. S. Coast Guard. 1977. Marine Casualty Report: S.S EDMUND FITZGERALD: Sinking in Lake Superior on 10 November 1975 with Loss of Life. Washington, D.C: U.S. Coast Guard Marine Board of Investigation Report and Commandant’s Action.

U. S. Department of the Interior. 1926. “Geologic Survey 1926 The Geologic Story of Isle Royale National Park.” Geological Survey Bulletin 1309 (I 19.3:1309).

———. 1945. National Park Service 1945 Isle Royale Rules and Regulations, Fishing, Hunting and Trapping . Title 36, Chapter I, Part 34 Sections 34.1-34.4. Washington, D.C.

U. S. Department of the Navy. 1970. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Vol. 5. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office.

U. S. Light-House Establishment. 1789. Compilation of Public Documents and Extracts from Reports and Papers Relating to Light-Houses, Light-Vessels, and Illuminating Apparatus and to Beacons, Buoys and Fog Signals 1789-1871. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office.

———. 1873. Annual Report of the U.S. Light-House Establishment. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office.

———. 1902. Instructions to Light-Keepers and Masters of Light-House Vessels. Washington, D.C: Government Printing Office.

U. S. Shipbuilding Color Adjustment Board. 1918. Decision as to Wages, Hours and Other Conditions in Atlantic Coast, Gulf and Great Lakes Shipyards . October 1, 1918. Washington, D.C.

University of Michigan. n.d. Archaeological Survey of Isle Royale National Park. Site Survey No. 20IR29. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

U.S. Department of Commerce. 1981. “United States Coast Pilot.” In . Vol. 6: Great Lakes. Washington, D.C: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. 1872. “Steam Vessels in the United States.” 42nd Congress 2nd Session 138.

Van Riemsdijk, J.T., and Kenneth Brown. 1980. The Pictorial History of Steam Power. London: Octopus Books.

Vrana, Kenneth. 1980. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, June 3, Siskowit Mine. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1983a. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, August 8, Ghyllbank Dock Remains, Windigo. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1983b. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, October 7, Cemetery Island. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1984a. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, August 29, McCargoe Cove. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1984b. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, July 16, September 4, McCargoe Cove. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1984c. Record of Dive Form, Isle Royale National Park, September 23, Siskowit Mine. Houghton: Isle Royale Natinal Park.

Walker, Augustus. 1902. “Early Days on the Lakes.” Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society 5: 287–323.

Walker, Fred. 1984. Song of the Clyde: A History of Clyde Shipbuilding. London: W.W. Norton.

Walsh, George Ethelbert. 1899. “American Lake Shipping and Casualties.” Cassier’s Magazine April:499-507.

Ward, Charles. 1909. “Shallow Draught River Steamers.” Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 17: 79–106.

Warner, Thomas D., and Donald F. Holecek. 1975. The Thunder Bay Shipwreck Survey Study Report. Department of Park and Recreation Resources, Michigan State University.

Weber, Bruce E. 1981. Oral History Standards - Isle Royale National Park. Houghton: Isle Royale National Park.

———. 1982. “Isle Royale’s Submerged Resources.” The George Wright Forum 2 (4).

Wells, Homer, Jr. 1938. History of Accidents, Casualties and Wrecks on Lake Superior. Duluth: U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers.

Wheeler, Robert C., Walter A. Kenyon, Alan R. Woolworth, and Douglas A. Birk. 1975. Voices from the Rapids. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society.

White, William H. 1899. “The Progress in Steam Navigation. Presidential Address before the Mechanical Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1899.” San Francisco Maritime Museum.

Whittier, Bob. 1983. Paddle Wheel Steamers and Their Giant Engines. Duxbury: Seamaster Boats.

Williams, David. 1909. “Shipping on the Upper Lakes.” In Papers and Records of the Huron Institute, 1:43–59. Collingwood: Huron Institute.

Williams, E.B. 1962. “The Great Lakes Iron Ore Carrier.” In Spring Meeting of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 1962. Duluth, Minnesota.

Williams, Ralph D. 1907. “Commerce of the Great Lakes in 1905.” In The Saint Marys Falls Canal, edited by Charles Moore, 189–205. Detroit: Semi-Centennial Commission.

Williamson, Samuel H. 1977. “The Growth of the Great Lakes as a Major Transportation Resource, 1870-1911.” Research in Economic History 2: 173–248.

Winkelmann, A. 1978. Shipping Casualties Resulting in Total Loss on the Great Lakes (From 1870 to 1970. Santa Fe: National Park Service, Submerged Cultural Resources Unit.

Wolbrink, Donald, and George Walling. 1937. “Isle Royale Resorts: A Report Prepared at the Request of Chief Architect Thomas C. Vint Covering the Condition of Present Developments and Making Recommendations for Their Future Development.” In Pre-Park Survey of Isle Royale. Isle Royale National Park.

Wolff, Julius F. 1979. The Shipwrecks of Lake Superior. Duluth: Lake Superior Marine Museum Association.

Workman, James C. 1945. “Shipping on the Great Lakes.” In Historical Transactions 1893-1943, 363–388. New York: The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

Wright, Richard J. 1970. Freshwater Whales: A History of the American Ship Building Company and Its Predecessors. Kent: Kent State University.

{No Entries}
{No Entries}
{No Entries}
 

Newspapers Referenced

Ashland Press, Ashland, Wisconsin
Benton Harbor Daily Palladium, Benton Harbor, Michigan
Calumet News, Calumet, Michigan
Canadian Railway and Marine World
Cleveland Herald, Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland Leader, Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland News, Cleveland, Ohio
Cleveland Plain Dealer, Cleveland, Ohio
Cheboygan Tribune, Cheboygan, Michigan
Chicago Inter Ocean, Chicago, Illinois
Chicago Herald and Examiner, Chicago, Illinois
Chicago Tribune, Chicago, Illinois
Cobourg Star, Cobourg, Ontario
Daily Mining Gazette, Houghton, Michigan
Detroit Free Press, Detroit, Michigan
Detroit Daily News, Detroit, Michigan
Detroit Marine Historian, Detroit, Michigan
Detroit Telegram, Detroit, Michigan
Duluth Daily Tribune, Duluth, Minnesota
Duluth Evening Herald, Duluth, Minnesota
Duluth Minnesotian, Duluth, Minnesota
Duluth News Tribune, Duluth, Minnesota
Fort William Daily Times Journal, Fort William, Ontario
Glasgow Herald, Glasgow, Scotland
Holland City News, Holland City, Michigan
Houghton Daily Mining Gazette, Houghton, Michigan
Keewenaw Miner, Calumet, Michigan
Kingston Gazette, Kingston, Ontario
Lake Carriers Association, Cleveland, Ohio
London, Ontario, Free Press, London, Ontario
Manistee News Advocate, Manistee, Michigan
Marine Engineering, Cleveland, Ohio
Marquette Daily Mining Journal, Marquette, Michigan
Meaford Monitor, Meaford, Ontario
Minneapolis Star, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Montreal Gazette, Montreal, Canada
New Orleans Times-Picayune, New Orleans, Louisiana
New York Times, New York, New York
Nordic Diver, Inner Space Society, Duluth, Minnesota
Ontonagon Herald, Ontonagon, Michigan
Owen Sound Advertiser, Owen Sound, Ontario
Owen Sound Daily Sun Times, Owen Sound, Ontario
Owen Sound Times, Owen Sound, Ontario
Portage Lake Mining Gazette, Portage, Michigan
Port Arthur Daily News, Port Arthur, Ontario
Port Arthur Herald, Port Arthur, Ontario
Port Arthur News Chronicle, Port Arthur, Ontario
Port Arthur Sentinal, Port Arthur, Ontario
Port Huron Times, Port Huron, Michigan
Sarnia Observer, Sarnia, Ontario
Sault Daily Star, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Scanner, Toronto Marine Historical Society, Toronto, Ontario
Skillings Mining Review, Duluth, Minnesota
Superior Evening Telegram, Superior, Wisconsin
Thunder Bay Sentinental, Thunder Bay, Ontario
Toledo Blade, Toledo, Ohio
Toronto Daily Star, Toronto, Ontario
Toronto Globe and Mail, Toronto, Ontario
Toronto Mail, Toronto, Ontario
Toronto World, Toronto, Ontario
Traverse City Record Eagle, Traverse City, Michigan
Winnepeg Free Press, Winnepeg, Manitoba
Wisconsin State Journal, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
 

Last updated: September 23, 2020

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

800 East Lakeshore Drive
Houghton , MI 49931

Phone:

906 482-0984

Contact Us

Stay Connected