performance interpreters consistently connect multiple
resource meanings to multiple audience interests and
perspectives. Mastery of this competency allows for
full effectiveness of day to day interpretive contacts
and the development of interpretive programs and media.
This ability is also a key building block for interpreting
multiple points of view, critical
resource issues, as well as controversial
the completion of this component the learner will be
how connecting multiple resource meanings with multiple
audience interests and perspectives facilitates
opportunities for audiences to make their own intellectual
and emotional connections to the meanings and significance
inherent in the resource;
KR and KA to establish relevance and provoke additional
personal connections the meanings of the resource.
component applies knowledge and practices described
by the preceding components of this module. A key understanding
for success is that resources possess multiple meanings
(an aspect of KR) and that audiences possess multiple
perspectives (an aspect of KA). Multiple resource meanings
and multiple audience perspectives often overlap and
affect each other. For example, audiences hold different
perspectives on recognized resource meanings. Also,
some resource meanings become more recognized with changing
and diverse audience perspectives. What one might consider
an "inherent" resource meaning or truth may
be viewed by another as an audience perspective. All
resource meanings and audience perspectives provide
the interpreter with opportunities to connect resource
meanings to audience perspectives and interests, establish
relevance, and provoke personal connections.
studies, analysis of existing interpretive products,
and self-analysis can be very helpful in learning the
techniques for connecting multiple resource meanings
to multiple audience interests and perspectives.
Some resource meanings may be inherent, elemental,
intrinsic, or "true."
Example: the Grand Canyon illustrates a dramatic
b) Example: the Lincoln Memorial memorializes Abraham
Some resource meanings are ascribed and/or added
to the resource.
Example: tourist activities and culture on the rim
of the Grand Canyon
b) Example: demonstrations and freedom of speech
forums at the Lincoln Memorial
Information sources, audiences, interpreters, managers,
agencies, experts, tradition, educational institutions,
among others ascribe meanings to the resource.
Interpretive products should be based on the site's
b) To be broadly successful, interpretive products
and the site interpretive themes they are based
on must reflect multiple resource meanings and multiple
audience interests and perspectives.
Each tangible resource may be interpreted in multiple
Audiences have multiple interests and perspectives
Different meanings of the resource are relevant to
different audiences and audience members.
2. Different audiences and audience members consider
different meanings to be inherent or true.
Examples: scientific, creationist, or Native American
explanations of the Grand Canyon
b) Examples: "Great Emancipator," "Savior
of the Union;" or descriptions of Abraham Lincoln
as a racist
Audiences and audience members ascribe meanings
to the resource.
Audiences and audience members think about resource
meanings, discuss those meanings with others, and
create new understandings and meanings for themselves
b) Audiences and audience members ascribe meaning
based on what is relevant to them, their experience
with the resource, their previous experience, their
Interpretation uses multiple resource meanings to connect
to multiple audience interests and perspectives.
Interpreters recognize the right of audience members
to have and maintain their own perspectives.
2. Interpreters use KA to link appropriate resource
meanings (KR) to the interests and perspectives of
the audience and establish the relevance of the resource.
3. Interpreters use other resource meanings (KR) to
provoke consideration of additional perspectives and
emotional and intellectual connections to the resource.
Interpreters must do more than re-enforce or pander
to audience interests and perspectives.
b) In order to create enhanced levels of care about
the resource, audiences must have the opportunity
to ascribe new meaning to the resource.
Use KR to establish relevance and provoke consideration
of new perspectives and/or intellectual and emotional
connections to the resource.
KR is a stockpile of material that can be selected
from to relate to specific audiences and provoke
b) Prepare a repertoire of presentations on the
same topic, theme, or resource using and emphasizing
different elements of KR according to the interests
and perspectives of given audiences.
c) Prepare a repertoire of ways in which different
pieces or presentations of KR can be combined and
sequenced according to the interests and perspectives
of given audiences.
d) Use KA and encourage audience feedback to adjust
presentations, even while presenting, to continue
to address the purpose of the program but also meet
the interests and perspectives of the audience.
Categorize advanced KR into tangibles, intangibles,
and universal concepts.
When encountering a new tangible artifact, feature,
flora, fauna, landmark, place, or aspect of the
resource, brainstorm its potential intangible meanings
and relationship to universal concepts. (See: appropriate
sections of Worksheet
and TIU Process Model)
b) When encountering a new intangible process, system,
idea, value, or other meanings related to the resource,
brainstorm its potential tangible and universal
concept connections. (See: Worksheet
and Process Model)
c) When encountering a new universal concept related
to the resource, brainstorm its potential intangible
and tangible connections. (See: Worksheet
and Process Model.)
d) Share findings and worksheets with other staff
(2) Start a division notebook of worksheets
for future reference.
Application of Advanced KA
Use advanced KA to identify audience interests and
2. Use KA to select relevant KR.
3. Use KA to make a "gesture of respect"
that is recognizable and meaningful to given audiences.
Refer to ideas, events, and perspectives that are
unique or relevant to a given audience.
b) Use language that indicates care for the perspectives,
culture, and interests of a given audience.
c) Acknowledge level of expertise of a given audience.
Use KA to include a variety of perspectives, explanations,
meanings, and interpretations to diverse audiences.
5. Use KA to analyze audience, prior to, during,
and after presentation.
Plan programs for scheduled groups according to
pre-identified audience characteristics.
b) Modify on-going programs based on audience reaction.
Use appropriate questioning techniques (See:
Techniques lesson plan) to solicit audience
(2) Check audience body language
(3) Pre-plan possible transitions and KR substitutions
(4) Adjust programs to be more technical, emotional,
in-depth, basic, etc. at pre-planned moments
of decision based on audience feedback.
(5) Use audience feedback to evaluate effectiveness
of interpretive product.
Determine alternative approaches to audiences
(b) Share encountered audience characteristics
with peers and seek alternative approaches.
Categorize KA into audience perspectives, interests,
and connections to the resource (See: Knowledge
of the Audience component plan section on Organizing
Use intangible meanings indicated as relevant by
audiences to identify tangible resources and universal
concepts that can link to those meanings. Use those
links to create interpretive products that explore
meanings of the resource indicated by specific audiences
as well as provoke consideration of new perspectives
and connections to the meanings of the resource.
(See: Worksheet, and
b) Use interests in the resource indicated by audiences
to identify tangible, intangible, and universal
concepts that might meet those interests. Create
links based on tangible and intangible resources,
and universal concepts. Use links to create interpretive
products that satisfy indicated audience interests.
(See: Worksheet, and
c) Use connections to the resource indicated by
audiences to identify tangible and intangible resources
and universal concepts that might be linked to those
connections. Create links based on tangible and
intangible resources and universal concepts. Use
links to create interpretive products that build
upon and move beyond indicated connections (See:
Worksheet, and Process
Recognize own bias as it affects understanding of
KR and KA as well as interpretive products.
2. Encourage dialogue, recognize the rights of audiences,
and allow audience members to have and maintain
their own perspectives.
3. Seek to understand and, without manipulation,
accurately describe multiple resource meanings and
Based on the interests and perspectives of a given
audience, be prepared to describe all sorts of meanings
ascribed to the resource, including those that are
obscure, unpopular, or bizarre.
b) Establish relevance for and provoke audiences
with diverse members by interpreting a variety of
meanings. [Multiple Points of
Do not attempt to replace an existing resource meaning
or perspective with a new one.
Use existing meanings and perspectives to establish
relevance and comfort before introducing new meanings
b) Controversy often arises from audiences feeling
threatened that their meanings and perspectives
are under attack.
Identify and use universal concepts.
Universal concepts establish common ground between
the interpreter and audience as well as between
b) Universal concepts are most powerful to a given
audience when they are approached through the specific
perspectives and culture of a given audience.
c) Seek to link a single universal concept to multiple
intangible meanings (ideas, processes, values, concepts,
systems, etc.) each of which represents an alternative
Use accurate and respectful language that identifies
the perspective from which information is presented.
Example: "The white South believed "
rather than "The South believed "
b) Example: "Scientists estimate the feature
is 20 million years old " rather than
"The feature is 20 million years old "
c) Example: "Hopi people say " rather
than "Hopi people are "
Seek to balance audience mental comfort with challenge
of impact and effect.
Acknowledge audience perspectives and beliefs with
respect and honesty.
Describe perspective and use supporting KR.
(2) This may take a significant amount of time
Offer new perspectives and differing beliefs after
audience is comfortable, secure, and interested.
c) Realize that new perspectives and differing
beliefs can provoke-resulting connections can
be immediately cultivated if the audience is interested,
but may need to develop through personal reflection.
Often, provocation does not take as long to establish
Primary Interpretive Themes & Subthemes
Primary Parkwide Interpretive Themes
Significance of Park Resources
Sets of Significance& Primary Themes
Suggested Developmental Activities
Evaluate several of your own interpretive products for
the connection of multiple resource meanings and audience
interests and perspectives. Are your products describing
multiple meanings? How? Are they matching advanced KR
to advanced KA? Are you identifying and establishing
relevance in the intended audience? Are your products
acknowledging different audience perspectives about
those meanings? Can you make these products more provocative
by including more resource meanings and/or audience
perspectives? Can you make them more inclusive? Can
you make them address a broader audience? Can you use
them to provide additional gestures of respect? Can
you use them to encourage dialogue between differing
2. Use TIU Worksheet to identify
multiple meanings in your resource. Apply the Process
Model to develop a new interpretive product that presents
multiple resource meanings.
3. Identify, formally or informally, meanings and perspectives
ascribed to your resource by a variety of audiences.
Use TIU Worksheet to link appropriate tangibles and
universal concepts to those audience meanings. Apply
the Process Model to develop a new interpretive product
that addresses multiple audience perspectives. Go through
the same process but begin by identifying audience interests
as well as connections to the resource
4. Prepare a repertoire of ways in which different pieces
or presentations of KR can be combined and sequenced
according to the interests and perspectives of given