NPS Photo/D. Lehle
Moose (Alces alces shirasi) are the largest members of the deer family in the Yellowstone ecosystem. A male (bull) moose can weigh nearly 1,000 pounds and stand more than seven feet at the shoulder. Both sexes have long legs that enable them to wade into rivers and through deep snow, to swim, and to run fast. Despite its size, a moose can slip through the woods without a sound. Moose, especially cows with calves, are unpredictable and have chased people in the park.
Both sexes are dark brown, often with tan legs and muzzle. Bulls can be distinguished from cows by their antlers. Adults of both sexes have "bells"-a pendulous dewlap of skin and hair that dangles from the throat and has no known function.
In summer, moose eat aquatic plants like water lilies, duckweed, and burweed. But the principle staples of the moose diet are the leaves and twigs of the willow, followed by other woody browse species such as gooseberry and buffaloberry. An adult moose consumes approximately 10-12 pounds of food per day in the winter and approximately 22-26 pounds of food per day in the summer.
Some moose that summer in the park migrate in winter to lower elevations west and south where willow remains exposed above the snow. But many moose move to higher elevations (as high as 8,500 feet) to winter in mature stands of subalpine fir and Douglas-fir. Moose can also move easily in these thick fir stands because the branches prevent snow from accumulating on the ground.
Moose are solitary creatures for most of the year, except during the mating season or rut. During the rut, both bulls and cows are vocal: the cows may be heard grunting in search of a mate, and bulls challenge one another with low croaks before clashing with their antlers. A bull on the offensive tries to knock its opponent sideways. If such a move is successful, the challenger follows through with another thrust of its antlers. The weaker animal usually gives up before any serious damage is done; occasionally the opponent's antlers inflict a mortal wound.
NPS Photo/D. Lehle
Bulls usually shed their antlers in late November or December, although young bulls may retain their antlers as late as March. Shedding their heavy antlers helps them conserve energy and promotes easier winter survival. In April or May, bulls begin to grow new antlers. Small bumps on each side of the forehead start to swell, then enlarge until they are knobs covered with a black fuzz (called velvet) and fed by blood that flows through a network of veins. Finally the knobs change into antlers and grow until August. The antlers are flat and palmate (shaped like a hand). Yearlings grow six to eight inch spikes; prime adult bulls usually grow the largest antlers-as wide as five feet from tip to tip. Then the bull rubs and polishes his antlers on small trees in preparation for the rut.
Cows are pregnant through the winter; gestation is approximately eight months. When ready to give birth, the cow drives off any previous year's offspring that may have wintered with her and seeks out a thicket. She gives birth to one or more calves, each weighing 25-35 pounds. A calf walks a few hours after birth and stays close to its mother. Even so, a moose calf often becomes prey for bears or wolves and less frequently for cougars or coyotes.
NPS Photo/D. Lehle
Moose were reportedly very rare in northwest Wyoming when the park was established in 1872. Subsequent protection from hunting and wolf control programs may have contributed to increased numbers. However, forest fire suppression probably was the most important factor in their population increase because moose depend on mature fir forests for winter survival. The moose population has declined following the fires of 1988.