The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is one of the world’s largest and rarest birds, with a wingspan of 9 to 10 feet and weight of up to about 25 pounds. The condor is closely related to the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and Andean condor (Vultur gryphus). Like all vultures, the condor feeds on carrion, or dead animals. Their bald heads and necks keep the rotting meat of large, dead mammals from sticking to them. After eating, condors will clean themselves by rubbing their heads or necks on the grass, rocks, or tree branches. These birds also bathe frequently and will spend hours drying their feathers. Condors can live up to 60 years and start reproducing after about 5 or 6 years.
Before the extinction of the late Pleistocene megafauna (large mammals) like mammoths, camels, and sloths, the condor ranged across southern North America. Fossil evidence shows condors once occurred as far east as present-day New York and Florida. Condors and other large scavenging birds disappeared from most of these areas as their food sources became extinct. The species became limited to the Pacific Coast from Canada to Mexico, but began to return to the southwest in the 1700s in response to the introduction of cattle, horses, and sheep. The population began to decline again in the early 1900s because of carrion poisoning meant to eradicate predators, as well as illegal collection of condors and their eggs. The last sighting of a wild condor in Arizona was south of the Grand Canyon in 1924.