African American Heritage & Ethnography African Nation Founders: Learning Resources Center—Further Reading


Content Development:

NPS Anthropologist Audrey Brown and NPS Resources Stewardship Careers Program Manager Anthony Knapp (NPS Retired) led an interdisciplinary Curriculum Work Group to outline a series of self-paced learning modules for the Park Service workforce and general public. The Work Group consisted of academicians, anthropologists from the Park Service and academia, historians, and Park Service interpreters, chiefs, superintendents, and partners from community and preservation organizations. African American Heritage and Ethnography, presents the first module to be developed. Jointly funded by the Ethnography Program and the Cultural Resources Stewardship Careers Program, it complements and supplements training courses and programs traditionally sponsored for the education of Park Service staff, the public, and community partners. This self-paced learning resource is designed to provide National Park Service personnel in cultural resource management, interpretation, and planning with knowledge, understanding, awareness, and appreciation of African American heritage that will enhance their ability to manage and interpret resources and to better provide for public enjoyment and positive visitor experience of parks.

The self-paced learning resource identifies the course goals, objectives, and key concepts of heritage preservation and ethnography, and the first module that focuses on historic contexts and cultural patterns of Africans and African Americans living in the southern colonies during the colonial period. The learning resource also offers interactive development activities to assist participants in self-assessment of learning and the application of knowledge and understanding they gain through exploring ethnographic research, and understanding heritage preservation in the Park Service and beyond. The participants then have opportunities for additional exploration of self-selected topics through further readings and links to sites with supplementary information.

Audrey Brown developed the syllabus and module based upon the content outline provided by the Curriculum Work Group. She wrote the Introduction, Key Concepts, Historic Contexts, and three components of Cultural Patterns along with their associated interactive learning experiences, and the section on Heritage Preservation. Ericka Hill wrote two components of the Cultural Patterns section of the module, the associated pop-ups, further readings and links, and developed the glossary and all self-assessment tools. Hill also obtained copyright clearances for all of the images used in the module.

Inspiration for many aspects of the self-paced learning resource came from the designs of:

Ethnographic Research Center developed by:

Sherri Lawson Clark, PhD. Research Associate, Center for Human Development and Family Research in Diverse Contexts, Pennsylvania State University and

Ericka Hill, NCSHPO Contractor, Ethnography Program.


Drawings by Everett Lindsay

GIS Maps by Deidre McCarthy, Historian, Cultural Resources GIS Facility, HABS/HAER/HALS, NPS.

Additional contributors (in alphabetical order) include:

Marianna Blagburn, Cultural Anthropologist Lecturer, American University; Lori Bradley-Augustoni, NCSHPO contactor, Archeology & Ethnography Program; Laura Bruce, Archeology &Ethnography Intern; Valerie Cunningham, Coordinator Community Black Heritage Partnerships, University of New Hampshire; Jeanne Cyriaque, African American Programs Director, Georgia Historic Preservation Division; Diane Dale, Community Historian, Anacostia Historical Society and Community Partner National Capital Parks-East, NPS; Sandy Hoa Dang, Executive Director, Asian American Leadership, Empowerment and Development; Gentry Davis, (Retired) Deputy Director, National Capital Region; Nequella Demery, Archeology & Ethnography Intern; Doris Fanelli, PhD, Chief, Division of Cultural Resource Management, Independence National Historic Park; Leland Ferguson, Ph.D. Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Anthropology, University of South Carolina; Lorenza Fong, Superintendent, Sagamore Hill National Historic Site; John Franklin, Program Manager, Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage and Smithsonian Festival of American Folklore; Iantha Gantt-Wright, Director, Enhancing Cultural Diversity Program, National Parks Conservation Association; Mario Gonzales, PhD, Southwestern University; Steven Gregory, PhD, Associate Professor, Anthropology, Columbia University; John Hale, (Retired) Superintendent, National Capitals Parks East, NPS; Pensri Ho, PhD, Assistant Professor, Anthropology, University of Virginia; Sherry Hutt, NAGPRA Program Director, Cultural Resources, NPS; Annette Kashif, PhD, Bethune-Cookman College; Barbara Johnson, Assistant Curriculum Development Consultant/Contractor; Antoinette Lee, PhD, Assistant Associate Director, Cultural Resources Programs; Richard A. Long Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Interdisciplinary Studies, Emory University, Cynthia Morris, Executive Director, African American Experience Fund, National Park Foundation; Debra Riley, President of the African American Experience Section, National Association for Interpretation; Marie Rust, (Retired) Regional Director, Northeast Region; Janet Sims-Wood, PhD, (Retired) Moorland-Spingarn Library, Howard University; Edward Smith, Chairman, American Studies Program, American University; Allan Spears, National Parks Conservation Association; Lok CD Siu, PhD, Assistant Professor, Anthropology New York University; Michelle Wilkinson, PhD, Program Assistant, National NAGPRA, NPS; Brett Williams, PhD, Professor, Anthropology, American University; Frederick York, PhD, Pacific West Region, NPS;


Jerome Handler, Alice Thomas, Debra Riley, Richard Waldbauer, Audrey L. Brown, and Michelle Wilkinson.

Layout and Development:

Amber Young, Consultant, Web Development, Park Museum Management Program

Everett Lindsay, Consultant, Assistant Web Development, Archeology Program / Ethnography Program, NPS

Matt Burns, Consultant, Assistant Web Development, Archeology Program / Ethnography Program, NPS

Site Management:

Park Ethnography Program, NPS

Special Thanks:

Jan Matthews, Ph.D., Associate Director, Cultural Resources; Randall Biallias, A.I.A. , Assistant Associate Director, Park Resources Programs; Lynn Black, Program Manager, Park Museum Management Program, ; Joan Bacharach, Staff Curator, Park Museum Management Program; Anthony Knapp, NPS (retired); Francis P. McManamon, PhD, Chief Archeologist, Archeology Program; Muriel (Miki) Crespi Ph.D., Chief Ethnographer, NPS 1981-2003 (deceased); Mark Schoepfle, PhD, Anthropologist, Ethnography Program, NPS; Jerome S. Handler, PhD, Senior Fellow, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities; Terry Childs, PhD, Archeologist, Archeology Program, NPS; Barbara Little, PhD, Archeologist, Archeology Program, NPS; Sherry Hutt, Ph.D., J.D., NAGPRA Program Director, Cultural Resources, NPS; Randall Bohnert, M.B.A., Program Analyst, Park Cultural Resources, National Center for Cultural Resources; and Anita Zepp, (formerly) Business Manager, NCSHPO.

Photo Credits:

Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum-Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; Allan Kohl- Art Images for College Teaching; Anne S.K. Brown Military Collection- Brown University Library; Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA); Audrey L. Brown; Baltimore Museum of Art; Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library- Yale University; Black Patriot Foundation; The British Library; The College of Arms, London; Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth; Cultural Tourism DC; Department of Special Collections of the University Libraries of Notre Dame; Documenting the American South-The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries; Exploring Florida-University of South Florida; Folk Arts & Crafts Foundation; Georgia Archives; HABS- National Park Service; Humanities Interactive- Humanities Texas; James Bell Ford Library-University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Jerome Handler- University of Virginia; John Todd, Jr., Resident of Oaxaca; Johns Hopkins University Press; The J. Paul Getty Museum; Karen Colbert/KDC Photography; Leland Ferguson; Library of Congress; The Mariners Museum; Mark P. Leon- Archaeology in Annapolis; Maryland Archeological Conservation Laboratory- Jefferson Patterson Park & Museum; Maryland Historical Society; Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association; Museo de America de Madrid; ; National Archives Records Administration; National Museum of African Art; National Museum of American History; National Park Service; Mark Bealer Photography; National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collection Library- Duke University; Rev. SKM Singh, Seattle Art Museum, Robert B. Ingram , Ph.D. School Board Member District #1, Miami-Dade County School Board; Rosa Wilson, Park Ranger, NACE; Sisters of the Holy Family, South Carolina State Museum; Special Collections Department- Earl K. Long Library of the University of New Orleans- Frank B. Moore Collection; Thomas Cooper Library- University of South Carolina; Thomas Jefferson’s Poplar Forest; Tom Costa-University of Virginia; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Africa Focus; Virginia Department of Transportation; Williams Research Center- Historic New Orleans Collection.

For additional information contact:

Audrey L. Brown
1849 C St., N.W (2276)
Washington, DC 20240-0001
202-354-2104 (voice)
202-371-6485 (fax)