The following list includes wildflowers that are commonly seen along the trails and around developed areas of Devils Tower National Monument. Blooming periods are approximate. These are the months that you are likely to see the species in bloom during years of average precipitation and temperatures.

Yellow flower
Indigenous peoples planted sunflowers along with maize. The seeds were eaten raw, boiled or roasted. After parching, the seeds were pounded into flour to make cakes.

NPS/Michael Wheeler


Barberry Family (Berberidaceae)

  • Oregon grape Mahonia repens April-May

Buckwheat Family (Polygonaceae)

  • Yellow buckwheat Eriogonum flavum June-July

Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae)

  • Buttercup Ranunculus spp. June-August
  • Sagebrush buttercup Ranunculus glaberrimus March-April

Cactus Family (Cactaceae)

  • Missouri pincushion Coryphantha missouriensis May-June
  • Brittle prickly pear Opuntia fragilis June
  • Plains prickly pear Opuntia polyacantha June

Carrot Family (Apiaceae)

  • Desert biscuitroot Lomatium foeniculaceum April-May

Evening Primrose Family (Onagraceae)

  • Evening primrose Oenothera spp. July

Figwort Family (Scrophulariaceae)

  • Yellow owl's clover Orthocarpus luteus July-August
  • Common mullein Verbascum thapsus June-August

Flax Family (Linaceae)

  • Stiffstem flax Linum australe May-August

Fumitory Family (Fumiariaceae)
  • Golden corydalis Corydalis aurea April-June

Heath Family (Ericaceae)

  • Pinedrops Pterospora andromedea June-July

Mustard Family (Brassicaceae)

  • Western wallflower Erysimum asperum May-August
  • Alpine bladderpod Lesquerella alpina May-June
  • Watercress Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum July-August

Oxalis Family (Oxalidaceae)

  • Wood-sorrel Oxalis spp. June-August

Pea Family (Fabaceae)

  • Yellow sweet clover Melilotus officinalis May-September
  • Prairie goldenpea Thermopsis rhombifolia April-May

Rose Family (Rosaceae)

  • Yellow avens Geum spp. August
  • Cinquefoil Potentilla spp. May-July

Saxifrage Familly (Saxifragaceae)

  • Alumroot Heuchera richardsonii June-July

Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

  • Shining arnica Arnica fulgens, Arnica sororia May-June
  • Arrowleaf balsamroot Balsamorhiza sagittata May-June
  • Curlycup gumweed Grindelia squarrosa July-September
  • Annual sunflower Helianthus annus July-September
  • Hairy goldaster Heterotheca villosa June-August
  • Fineleaf hymenopappus Hymenopappus filifolius May-July
  • Stemless hymenoxys Hymenoxys acaulis May-June
  • False dandelion Agoseris glauca May-June
  • Prairie coneflower Ratibida columnifera June-August
  • Lambstongue groundsel Senecio integerrimus June-July
  • Goldenrod Solidago spp. July-September
  • Dandelion Taraxacum spp. April-September
  • Meadow salsify Tragopogon dubius May-September

Violet Family (Violaceae)

  • Yellow wood violet Viola pubescens April-May
White flower
Sego lily bulbs are edible, either raw or cooked, and were used as food by the Cheyenne. The sweet-tasting bulbs were often dried for later use.

NPS/Michael Wheeler


Borage Family (Boraginaceae)

  • Miner's candle Cryptantha celosioides May-June

Buckwheat Family (Polygonaceae)

  • Fewflower wild buckwheat Eriogonum pauciflorum July-September

Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae)

  • Western virgin's bower Clematis ligusticifolia July-August

Carrot Family (Apiaceae)

  • Cowparsnip Heracleum maximum June-July
  • Biscuitroot Lomatium orientale March-April

Evening Primrose Family (Onagraceae)

  • Evening primrose Oenothera spp. April-July

Lily Family (Liliaceae)

  • Textile onion Allium textile May-June
  • Sego lily Calochortus spp. June-July
  • Fairybells Disporum trachycarpum May
  • Star lily Leucocrinum montanum April-May
  • Starry false Solomon's seal Smilacina stellata May-June
  • Meadow deathcamas Zigadenus venenosus April-June

Loasa Family (Loasaceae)

  • Ten petal blazing star Mentzelia decapetala July-September

Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae)

  • Plains milkweed Asclepias pumila June-August
  • Green milkweed Asclepias viridiflora June-July

Milkwort Family (Polygalaceae)

  • White milkwort Polygala alba June-July

Morning Glory Family (Convolvulaceae)

  • Field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis May-September

Mustard Family (Brassicaeae)

  • Field pennycress Thlapsi arvense April-August

Pea Family (Fabaceae)

  • Groundplum Astragalus crassicarpus April-May
  • Plains orophaca Astragalus gilviflorus April-May
  • Wild licorice Glycyrrhiza lepidota July
  • White sweet clover Melilotus alba June-September
  • Slender crazyweed Oxytropis campestris April-June
  • White prairieclover Petalostemon occidentale July
  • White clover Trifolium repens June-August

Phlox Family (Polemoniaceae)

  • Ballhead gila Ipomopsis congesta April-June
  • Hood's phlox Phlox hoodii March-May

Pink Family (Caryophyllaceae)

  • Prairie chickweed Cerastium arvense June-August

Rose Family (Rosaceae)

  • Wild strawberry Fragaria virginiana May-June

Saxifrage Family (Saxifragaceae)

  • Prairie star Lithophragma parviflorum May-June

Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae)

  • White beardtongue Penstemon albidus June

Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

  • Common yarrow Achillaea millifolium May-September
  • Field pussytoes Antennaria neglecta May-June
  • White prairie aster Aster falcatus August-September
  • Hoary fleabane Erigeron canus May-July

Violet Family (Violaceae)

  • Canada violet Viola canadensis May-June
Purple flower
The leaves of the shell-leaf penstemon were used by indigenous peoples to make a decoction to treat chills and fever. Settlers used this plant to make a home remedy to treat toothaches.

NPS/Michael Wheeler

Blue and Purple

Bellflower Family (Campanulaceae)

  • Harebell Campanula rotundifolia June-September

Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae)

  • Pasque flower Anemone patens April-July
  • Low larkspur Delphinium bicolor April-May

Caper Family (Capparaceae)

  • Rocky mountain Bee Plant Cleome serrulata July-September

Figwort or Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae)

  • Shell-leaf penstemon Penstemon grandiflorus June
  • Slender beardtongue Penstemon gracilis May-June
  • Wyoming kittentails Besseya wyomingensis April-May

Flax Family (Linaceae)

  • Wild blue flax Linum lewisii May-July

Forget-me-not Family (Boraginaceae)

  • Nodding stickseed Hackelia deflexa June-July
  • Lanceleaf bluebells Mertensia lanceolata April-May

Iris Family (Iridaceae)

  • Mountain blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium montanum May-June

Mint Family (Lamiaceae)

  • Field mint Mentha arvensis June-September

Mustard Family (Brassicaceae)

  • Blue mustard Chorispora tenella April-May
  • Dame's rocket Hesperis matronalis May-June

Pea Family (Fabaceae)

  • Standing milkvetch Astragalus adsurgens May-July
  • Silvery lupine Lupinus argenteus May-June
  • Lambert crazyweed Oxytropis lambertii May-June
  • Purple prairie clover Petalostemon purpureum July-August
  • Silverleaf scurf-pea Psoralea argophylla June-July
  • Breadroot scrufpea Psoralea esculenta May-June
  • American vetch Vicia americana May-July

Primrose Family (Primulaceae)

  • Dark throat shooting star Dodecatheon pulchellum April-May

Spiderwort Family (Commelinaceae)

  • Bracted spiderwort Tradescantia occidentalis June

Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

  • Aromatic aster Aster oblongifolius August-September

Vervain Family (Verbenaceae)

  • Wooly vervain Verbena stricta June-September

Violet Family (Violaceae)

  • Hookedspur violet Viola adunca May
  • Prairie violet Viola pedatifida May
Pink flower
Plains tribes used the young shoots, flower buds and and fruits of the showy milkweed in cooking. They were boiled with one or two changes of water to cleanse any toxicity.

NPS/Kayla Rosani

Red, Pink and Rose

Buckwheat Family (Polygonaceae)

  • Western dock Rumex occidentalis May

Evening Primrose Family (Onagraceae)

  • Scarlet gaura Gaura coccinea May-August

Figwort or Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae)

  • Downy painted cup Castilleja sessiliflora May-June

Mallow Family (Malvaceae)

  • Scarlet globemallow Sphaeralcea coccinea May-July

Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae)

  • Showy milkweed Asclepias speciosa June-July

Mint Family (Lamiaceae)

  • Wild bergamot Monarda fistulosa July-August

Phlox Family (Polemoniaceae)

  • Leafy phlox Phlox alyssifolia April-May

Rose Family (Rosaceae)

  • Prairie smoke Geum triflorum May
  • Prairie rose Rosa arkansana June-July

Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

  • Lesser burdock Arctium minus July-August
  • Musk thistle Carduus nutans June-August
  • Canada thistle Cirsium arvense June-August
  • Wavyleaf thistle Cirsium undulatum June-August
  • Pale purple coneflower Echinacea pallida June-July
  • Dotted gayfeather Liatris punctata July-September
  • Rush skeletonplant Lygodesmia juncea June-September
  • Easter daisy Townsendia exscapa March-May
Silver leaf plant
The Cheyenne and other Plains Indians believed the cudweed sagewort had sacred powers and it was burned as incense or drunk as a tea to drive away evil influences. Bathing in a decoction of this plant purified a person who had broken a taboo. A tea of the leaves was used to treat stomach disorders.

Raffi Kojian/http://Gardenology.org

Green or Inconspicuous

Nettle Family (Urticaceae)

Stinging nettle Urtica dioica July

Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae)

Leafy spurge Euphorbia esula May-September

Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

Cudweed sagewort Artemisia ludoviciana August-September

Last updated: August 24, 2019

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