Precambrian Eon (4500-542 Ma*)
Formation of Arizona
*million years ago
The geologic history of Arizona begins around 1.7 Ga (billion years ago) when a series of volcanic island arcs similar to the Hawaiian islands began colliding with the North American craton (a continental core which makes up ancient North America) known as Laurentia. Previously, Laurentia only extended as far southwest as present day Wyoming, but with these island accretions almost all of southern Arizona was added by 1.4 Ga and permanently welded to Laurentia by a series of granitic intrusions, meaning that magma rising within the earth’s crust met an area with solid rock. This intrusion is akin to an underground volcanic eruption that crystallizes into rock before it reaches the earth’s surface.
The rest of Precambrian history in southern Arizona is largely a mystery because about 850 million years are missing from the geologic record. This gap in geologic history is called an unconformity.
Paleozoic Era (542-251 Ma)
Shallow Seas and Sediments
The oldest rocks exposed within the park are from the Pennsylvanian-Permian age Naco Group (319-251 Ma). Geologic units from this time are sedimentary, layers are deposited above ground and then compressed and recrystallized into rocks. The most prevalent type of rock within the park from this era is limestone, but sandstone, siltstone and shale deposits can also be found within the park. Sandstone, siltstone and shale are all variations of rocks made up of compressed sand with sandstone having the biggest grains, and shale having the smallest.
The Paleozoic was tectonically calm in southwestern North America, meaning there were no regional volcanoes and earthquakes. A warmer climate caused higher sea levels, as water expands when it warms. During most of the Paleozoic southeastern Arizona was flooded by vast shallow seas containing corals, crinoids, shellfish and other marine organisms with calcium carbonate (chemical formula CaCO3) skeletal parts. After their death, the bodies of these organisms dropped to the ocean floor. The organic parts of their bodies decayed, leaving only the skeletons (this includes exterior parts such as shells). Continued accumulation of these skeletal pieces provided enough pressure to recrystallize the skeletal fragments into thick layers of limestone.
Mesozoic Era (251-66 Ma)Triassic Period (251-202 Ma)
Early in the Triassic Period, the shallow seas of the Paleozoic began to recede and southern Arizona entered a period of uplift, resulting in the formation of mountains. Climates were arid, with strong seasonal temperature fluctuations and enormous monsoons that weathered the terrain. The relative tectonic calm of the Paleozoic was interrupted by the rifting of Pangea, initiating the geologic violence that dominated the first half of the Mesozoic. North America drifted west from Eurasia, forming the beginnings of the Atlantic Ocean along its eastern edge while subducting the Farallon Plate along its western margin. This high angle subduction of the Farallon Plate caused extensive dewatering and associated small clusters of volcanoes to form along the western edge of the North American continent.
Jurassic Period (202-146 Ma)
In the mid-late Jurassic, the relatively small volcanoes in southeastern Arizona were replaced by enormously catastrophic caldera-forming volcanic eruptions. One such eruption formed Montezuma Caldera, which spans nearly the entire Memorial and extends north into the Miller Peak Wilderness area. Magma was ejected from 2-4 miles within the crust in a rapid, violent explosion, spattering the air with burning ash and pumice and decimating the surrounding landscape in a raging flood of molten rock and ash. Immediately following was the shattering collapse of the earth above and around the caldera’s magma chamber, as it caved in under its own weight, filling the mile-deep caldera with landslides of the surrounding rock and recently spewed volcanic material. Within the caldera, these landslides of older material (Paleozoic limestones, sandstones and earlier Mesozoic volcanic material) suspended in ashflows, a flow of red hot burning ash-sized pieces of rock fragments mixed with extremely hot gases, cooled and solidified, forming the distinctive footprint of geologic chaos indicative of a collapsed caldera. This makes interpretation of geologic units within the park extremely difficult, as younger formations are not necessarily under the older. This explains the seemingly random distribution of large limestone blocks within brown pumice and ash that makes up the top of Bob Thompson Peak.
Soon after the collapse of the Montezuma Caldera, two smaller calderas erupted to the northwest of Montezuma Pass (now forming the Canelo Hills). Ashflows from these eruptions flowed into Montezuma caldera, depositing the layers that make up the top of the southern ridges of the park (Smuggler’s Ridge).
Cretaceous Period (146-66 Ma)
The explosive geologic events of the mid-late Jurassic settled to a few sparse, small eruptions later in the late Jurassic and early-mid Cretaceous. Small mountains were uplifted and eroded, filling the valleys with an incredibly diverse assortment of geologic material which tumbled down the mountains and accumulated at the bases in alluvial fans. Compaction over time caused this assorted array of material to solidify into a formation called the Glance Conglomerate which spans many of the peaks and ridges along the southwestern boundary of the park. It is a maroon colored rock with pieces of other types of rock embedded in it. It is seen along Joes Canyon Trail, the beginning of the Crest Trail, and – from a distance – along the unpaved section of Montezuma Canyon Road. From the road it appears very rounded, sloping, and red along the southwestern section of the canyon.
As the mountains were flattened by erosion and the valleys filled, meandering streams and rivers cut through the softened landscape. The Gulf of Mexico began a northward encroachment, eventually flooding southern Arizona with a shallow inland sea. Limestone, sandstone, and distinctive maroon shale deposited during this time make up the upper three members of the Bisbee Group (the Morita formation, the Mural Limestone and the Cintura Formation).
Cenozoic Era (66-0 Ma)
Download or view the Coronado National Memorial Geologic History Definition of Terms (.pdf, 91K)
Last updated: September 11, 2017