Estimated total nitrogen and sulfur deposition levels from 2000-2002 (top) compared to the 2019-2021 (bottom) average at GUMO. Estimated values were developed using the National Atmospheric Deposition Program - Total Deposition (TDep) approach that combines measured and modeled data. Estimated values are valuable for analyzing gradients of deposition and the resulting ecosystem risks where monitors are not present.
Air Quality at Guadalupe Mountains National Park
Most visitors expect clean air and clear views in parks. Guadalupe Mountains National Park (NP), Texas—home to portions of the world’s most extensive and significant limestone fossil reef, and diverse biological areas from the Chihuahuan Desert to conifer forest—experiences moderately good air quality. The park is downwind of pollution from oil and gas development, power plants, and even sources in Mexico. The National Park Service works to address air pollution effects at Guadalupe Mountains NP, and in parks across the U.S., through science, policy and planning, and by doing our part.
Nitrogen and Sulfur
Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) compounds deposited from the air may have harmful effects on ecosystem processes. Healthy ecosystems can naturally buffer a certain amount of pollution, but once a threshold is passed the ecosystem may respond negatively. This threshold is the critical load, or the amount of pollution above which harmful changes in sensitive ecosystems occur (Porter 2005). N and S deposition change ecosystems through eutrophication (N deposition) and acidification (N + S deposition). Eutrophication increases soil and water nutrients which causes some species to grow more quickly and changes community composition. Ecosystem sensitivity to nutrient N enrichment at Guadalupe Mountains National Park (GUMO) relative to other national parks is very high (Sullivan et al. 2016); for a full list of N sensitive ecosystem components, see: NPS ARD 2019. Acidification leaches important cations from soils, lakes, ponds, and streams which decreases habitat quality. Ecosystem sensitivity to acidification at GUMO relative to other national parks is high (Sullivan et al. 2016); to search for acid-sensitive plant species, see: NPSpecies.
From 2017-2019 total N deposition in GUMO ranged from 3.2 to 5.2 kg-N ha-1 yr-1 and total S deposition ranged from 1.0 to 1.7 kg-S ha-1 yr-1 based on the TDep model (NADP, 2018). GUMO has been monitoring atmospheric N and S deposition since 1984, see the conditions and trends website for park-specific information.
Arid shrublands and grasslands in GUMO are have shown variable response to excess N. Increases in N have been found to promote the growth of invasive annual grasses and forbs (e.g., Russian thistle) at the expense of native species (Brooks 2003; Schwinning et al. 2005; Allen et al. 2009). Fires occur naturally in the northern Chihuahuan Desert (Gebow and Halvoson 2004), and weed density is known to increase in post-fire environments with higher N levels in soil (Floyd-Hanna et al. 2004). Experiments in oak-pine forests similar to GUMO show that N additions affect the diversity of soil microbes (Zak 2006).
Given the abundance of base cations in underlying soils and rocks in GUMO, surface waters in the park are generally well-buffered from acidification. However, small streams with steep-sided canyon walls have little ability to retain nutrients and water, offering the landscape little opportunity to buffer potentially acidic run-off (Sullivan et al. 2016).
Epiphytic macrolichen community responses
Epiphytic macrolichens grow on tree trunks, branches, and boles. Since these lichens grow above the ground, they obtain all their nutrients directly from precipitation and the air. Many epiphytic lichen species have narrow environmental niches and are extremely sensitive to changes in air pollution. Epiphytic lichen communities are less diverse in arid areas, but are still impacted by air pollution. Geiser et al. (2019) used a U.S. Forest Service national survey to develop critical loads of nitrogen (N) and critical loads of sulfur (S) to prevent more than a 20% decline in four lichen community metrics: total species richness, pollution sensitive species richness, forage lichen abundance, and cyanolichen abundance.
McCoy et al. (2021) used forested area from the National Land Cover Database to estimate the impact of air pollution on epiphytic lichen communities. Forested area makes up 75.8 km2 (21.5%) of the land area of Guadalupe Mountains National Park.
- N deposition exceeded the 3.1 kg-N ha-1 yr-1 critical load to protect N-sensitive lichen species richness in 100% of the forested area.
- S deposition was below the 2.7 kg-S ha-1 yr-1 critical load to protect S-sensitive lichen species richness in every part of the forested area.
For exceedances of other lichen metrics and the predicted decline of lichen communities see Appendices A and B of McCoy et al. (2021).
Additional modeling was done on 459 lichen species to test the combined effects of air pollution and climate gradients (Geiser et al. 2021). A critical load indicative of initial shifts from pollution-sensitive toward pollution-tolerant species occurred at 1.5 kg-N ha-1 yr-1 and 2.7 kg-S ha-1 yr-1 even under changing climate regimes.
Plant species response
Plants vary in their tolerance of eutrophication and acidification, and some plant species respond to nitrogen (N) or sulfur (S) pollution with declines in growth, survival, or abundance on the landscape. Horn et al. (2018) used the U.S. Forest Service national forest survey to develop critical loads of N and critical loads of S to prevent declines in growth or survival of sensitive tree species. Clark et al. (2019) used a database of plant community surveys to develop critical loads of N and critical loads of S to prevent a decline in abundance of sensitive herbaceous plant species. According to NPSpecies, Guadalupe Mountains National Park contains:
- 4 N-sensitive tree species and 14 N-sensitive herbaceous species.
- 6 S-sensitive tree species and 10 S-sensitive herbaceous species.
Change in N and S deposition from 2000 to 2021
The maps below show how the spatial distribution of estimated Total N and Total S deposition in GUMO has changed from 2000-2002 to 2019-2021 (TDep MMF version 2022.02). Slide the arrows in the middle of the image up and down to compare N and S deposition between the two years (Yearly Data).
- Minimum N deposition increased from 2.1 to 2.2 kg-N ha-1 yr-1 and maximum N deposition remained at 3.3 kg-N ha-1 yr-1.
- Minimum S deposition decreased from 1.1 to 0.7 kg-S ha-1 yr-1 and maximum S deposition decreased from 1.8 to 1.1 kg-S ha-1 yr-1.
Pollutants like mercury and pesticides are concerning because they are persistent and toxic in the environment. These contaminants can travel in the air thousands of miles away from the source of pollution, even depositing in protected places like national parks. In addition, while some of these harmful pollutants may be banned from use, historically contaminated sites continue to endure negative environmental consequences.
When deposited, airborne mercury and other toxic air contaminants are known to harm wildlife like birds and fish, and cause human health concerns. Many of these substances enter the food chain and accumulate in the tissue of organisms causing reduced reproductive success, impaired growth and development, and decreased survival.
Mercury concentrations in some fish sampled at Guadalupe Mountains NP exceeded the threshold for human consumption. Mercury concentrations in 10% of fish sampled (n=20) exceeded the US EPA threshold established for human consumption (0.3 ppm ww) (Eagles-Smith and Willacker 2022). Fish consumption advisories may be in effect for mercury and other contaminants (NPS 2022).
The NPS Air Resources Division reports on park conditions and trends for mercury. Visit the webpage to learn more.
Visitors come to Guadalupe Mountains NP to enjoy views of mountain and desert land in West Texas. Park vistas are sometimes obscured by haze, reducing how well and how far people can see. Visibility reducing haze is caused by tiny particles in the air, and these particles can also affect human health. Many of the same pollutants that ultimately fall out as nitrogen and sulfur deposition contribute to this haze. Organic compounds, soot, dust, and wood smoke reduce visibility as well. Significant improvements in park visibility on the clearest days have been documented since the 1990’s. Still, visibility in the park has not improved significantly on the haziest days, and park visibility is a long way from the Clean Air Act goal of no human caused impairment.
- Reduced visibility, at times, due to both natural and human-caused haze and fine particles of air pollution, including dust and wildfires;
- Reduction of the average natural visual range from about 175 miles (without pollution) to about 90 miles because of pollution at the park;
- Reduction of the visual range to below 55 miles on very hazy days.
At ground level, ozone is harmful to human health and the environment. Ground-level ozone does not come directly from smokestacks or vehicles, but instead is formed when other pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, react in the presence of sunlight.
Over the course of a growing season, ozone can damage the leaves of plants, reducing their growth rate and making them less resistant to disease and insect infestations. Some plants are more sensitive to ozone than others. There are a few ozone-sensitive plants in Guadalupe Mountains NP including Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen), Rhus trilobata (skunkbush), and Salix gooddingii (Goodding’s willow). A risk assessment that considered ozone exposure, soil moisture, and sensitive plant species concluded that plants in Guadalupe Mountains NP were at low risk of damage to plant leaves (see network report: Kohut 2004). Generally, dry conditions in the park during peak ozone concentrations are likely to limit ozone uptake by plants. However, along streams and seeps where conditions are wetter, plants may have higher ozone uptake and injury (Kohut et al. 2012). Search ozone-sensitive plant species found at Guadalupe Mountains NP.
Visit the NPS air quality conditions and trends website for park-specific ozone information.
Explore Other Park Air Profiles
There are 47 other Park Air Profiles covering parks across the United States and its territories.
Allen, E. B., L. E. Rao, R. J. Steers, A. Bytnerowicz, and M. E. Fenn. 2009. Impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on vegetation and soils in Joshua Tree National Park. Pages 78–100 in R. H. Webb, L. F. Fenstermaker, J. S. Heaton, D. L. Hughson, E. V. McDonald, and D. M. Miller, editors. The Mojave Desert: ecosystem processes and sustainability. University of Nevada Press, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.
Brooks, M.L. 2003. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Applied Ecology. 40:344–353.
Clark, C.M., Simkin, S.M., Allen, E.B. et al. Potential vulnerability of 348 herbaceous species to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in the United States. Nat. Plants 5, 697–705 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-019-0442-8
Eagles-Smith, C.A. and J.J. Willacker. 2022. Mercury data of individual fish collected in 2 Western National Park Units in 2015 by USGS collaborators. https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2293809
Floyd-Hanna, L., Hanna, D., Romme, W. H., Crews, T. 2004. Non-native invasions following fire in Southwestern Colorado: Long-term effectiveness of mitigation treatments and future predictions. Joint Fire Science Program, product number 1496–BLM2–454.
Gebow, B. S., and W. L. Halvoson. 2004. Managing Fire in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert: A Review and Analysis of the Literature. USGS Open-File Report SBSC-SDRS–2004–1001. U.S. Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Sonoran Desert Research Station, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. Available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1157/.
Geiser, Linda & Nelson, Peter & Jovan, Sarah & Root, Heather & Clark, Christopher. (2019). Assessing Ecological Risks from Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen and Sulfur to US Forests Using Epiphytic Macrolichens. Diversity. 11. 87. 10.3390/d11060087.
Geiser, Linda & Root, Heather & Smith, Robert & Jovan, Sarah & Clair, Larry & Dillman, Karen. (2021). Lichen-based critical loads for deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in US forests. Environmental Pollution. 291. 118187. 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118187.
Horn KJ, Thomas RQ, Clark CM, Pardo LH, Fenn ME, Lawrence GB, et al. (2018) Growth and survival relationships of 71 tree species with nitrogen and sulfur deposition across the conterminous U.S.. PLoS ONE 13(10): e0205296. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205296
Kohut, B. 2004. Assessing the Risk of Foliar Injury from Ozone on Vegetation in Parks in the Sonoran Desert Network. Available at https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2181558.
Kohut, B., C. Flanagan, E. Porter, J. Cheatham. 2012. Foliar Ozone Injury on Cutleaf Coneflower at Rocky Mountain National Park, Utah. Western North American Naturalist 72(1): 32–42.
McCoy K., M. D. Bell, and E. Felker-Quinn. 2021. Risk to epiphytic lichen communities in NPS units from atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur pollution: Changes in critical load exceedances from 2001‒2016. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2021/2299. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. https://doi.org/10.36967/nrr-2287254.
[NADP] National Atmospheric Deposition Program. 2018. NTN Data. Accessed January 20, 2022. Available at http://nadp.slh.wisc.edu/NADP/
[NPS] National Park Service. 2022. Fish Consumption Advisories. https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fishing/fish-consumption-advisories.htm
Porter, E., Blett, T., Potter, D.U., Huber, C. 2005. Protecting resources on federal lands: Implications of critical loads for atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. BioScience 55(7): 603–612. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0603:PROFLI]2.0.CO;2
Schwinning, S., B. I. Starr, N. J. Wojcik, M. E. Miller, J. E. Ehleringer, R. L. Sanford. 2005. Effects of nitrogen deposition on an arid grassland in the Colorado plateau cold desert. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 58: 565–574.
Sullivan, T. J. 2016. Air quality related values (AQRVs) in national parks: Effects from ozone; visibility reducing particles; and atmospheric deposition of acids, nutrients and toxics. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2016/1196. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.
Zak, J. 2006. Impacts of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition and Climate Change on Desert Ecosystems. Big Bend National Park. NPS Final Report. 15 pp.
Part of a series of articles titled Park Air Profiles.
Last updated: August 17, 2023