Biological Soil Crust
Don’t Bust the Crust! It’s Alive!
The plant communities of Arches National Park are dependent upon microbial communities called biological soil crusts or cryptobiotic crusts. These communities – made up of cyanobacteria, green algae, fungi, lichens, mosses, and other tiny organisms – create a matted crust atop the sand that retains moisture, creates nutrients, and provides grasses and shrubs a foothold in the sand.
Once damaged, crusts may take many years to grow back. Areas that have been stripped of crusts are vulnerable to erosion, flooding, dust storms, loss of organic materials, and invasion by non-native weeds that thrive on disturbed soil.
Take a Closer Look
Looking through an electron microscope, one can see the sheaths and filaments that make up the crust. Additional scientific analysis reveals how crusts function.
All plants need nitrogen to live. Air is 79% nitrogen, but most plants cannot utilize it. Cyanobacteria and lichens convert the nitrogen into a usable form. Without nitrogen most plants in the area could not survive. Without the plants there would be fewer animals.
Cyanobacteria “holds the place in place.” The process begins when wet filaments start to grow. As they dry, the filaments form sheaths that stick to sand grains. Over time, these sheaths weave an intricate web of subsurface particles that reduce soil erosion.
Without crust, porous desert soils retain little water. Sheaths swell like sponges, absorbing and storing the desert’s limited precipitation. Water infiltration rates are significantly lower in disturbed areas than in pristine areas, resulting in fewer seedlings and greater erosion.
What Can I Do?
Help protect the crust and the plants and animals that depend on it. While exploring Arches National Park and other desert environments, stay on established trails, or walk in dry washes or on bare rock. You can also help us by telling others. Spread the word!
In this activity there are 10 questions about biological soil crust. Choose from the words on the lower left of each question to fill in the blanks. Click on the word that you think is the correct answer.
Last updated: February 24, 2015