History & Culture Page 2
University of Washington photo
THE LAST GRAND ADVENTURE, cont.
Stampeders faced their greatest hardships on the Chilkoot Trail out of Dyea and the White Pass Trail out of Skagway. There were murders and suicides, disease and malnutrition, and death from hypothermia, avalanche, and, some said heartbreak. The Chilkoot was the toughest on men because pack animals could not be used easily on the steep slopes leading to the pass. Until tramways were built late in 1897 and early 1898, the stampeders had to carry everything on their backs. The White Pass Trail was the animal-killer, as anxious prospectors overloaded and beat their pack animals and forced them over the rocky terrain until they dropped. More than 3,000 animals died on this trail; many of their bones still lie at the bottom on Dead Horse Gulch.
During the first year of the rush an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 goldseekers spent an average of three months packing their outfits up the trails and over the passes to the lakes. The distance from tidewater to the lakes was only about 35 miles, but each individual trudged hundreds of miles back and forth along the trails, moving gear from cache to cache. Once the prospectors had hauled their full array of gear to the lakes, they built or bought boats to float the remaining 560 or so miles downriver to Dawson City and the Klondike mining district where an almost limitless supply of gold nuggets was said to lie.
By midsummer of 1898 there were 18,000 people at Dawson, with more than 5,000 working the diggings. By August many of the stampeders had started for home, most of them broke. The next year saw a still larger exodus of miners when gold was discovered at Nome, Alaska. The great Klondike Gold Rush ended as suddenly as it had begun. Towns such as Dawson City and Skagway began to declines. Others, including Dyea, disappeared altogether, leaving only memories of what many consider to be the last grand adventure of the 19th century.
Many Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park publications are currently available free online through the National Park Service's Park History site.
Thornton, Thomas F. with contributions by Deborah McBride, Saurabh Gupta, Carcross-Tagish First Nations, Chilkat Indian Village, Chilkoot Indian Association, and the Skagua Traditional Council. 2004. Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Ethnographic Overview and Assessment. Anchorage, AK: National Park Service. Available online (PDF 10.1 MB).
Bearss, Edwin C. 1970. Proposed Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park Historic Resource Study. Washington, D. C.: National Park Service. Available online (PDF 24.2 MB).
Blee, Catherine H., Robert L. Spude, and Paul C. Cloyd. 1983 Historic Structure Reports for Ten Buildings. Administrative, Physical History, and Analysis Sections, Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, Skagway, Alaska. Denver, CO: National Park Service. Available online (PDF 35 MB).
Johnson, Julie. 2003. A Wild Discouraging Mess: The History of the White Pass Unit of the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. Anchorage, AK: National Park Service. Available online (PDF 47.4 MB).
Norris, Frank B. 1996. Legacy of the Gold Rush: An Administrative History of Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park. Anchorage, AK: National Park Service. Available online.
Spude, Catherine H., Karl Gurcke, Gwen Hurst, and David Huelsbeck. 2006. The Mascot Saloon: Archaeological Investigations in Skagway, Alaska, Volume 10. Anchorage, AK: National Park Service. Available online (PDF 30 MB).
Spude, Robert L. 1983.Skagway, District of Alaska 1884-1912. Building the Gateway to the Klondike. Occasional Paper No. 36. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, Cooperative Park Studies Unit (Reprint). Available online (PDF 42.1 MB).