The Philander Chase Knox home is traditionally known as the site of Maxwell's Quarters. Brigadier General William Maxwell, commander of the New Jersey Brigade, established his headquarters near this site during the Valley Forge encampment. A small section of the house may have stood during the encampment.
From 1774 to 1854, the property belonged to John Brown and his heirs. In 1854, it was purchased by a local industrialist, who needed to control the water flow of Valley Creek for his mill. By 1893, the property had changed hands at least six times before Edward and Amanda Mathews make it their home. The Mathews, who became millionaires from the California gold rush, remodeled the 18th century home into a Queen Ann style complete with swimming pool, bath house, and tennis courts.
Two years after Edward's death in 1901, the property was sold to U.S. Attorney General Philander Chase Knox. Knox served as Attorney General under President McKinley and President Theodore Roosevelt. Also, he served as Secretary of State under President Taft. As Attorney General, he was noted for his "trust busting" suit of Northern Securities. As Secretary of State from 1909 to 1913, he promoted policies aimed at increasing U.S. trade abroad.
Knox purchased the property to provide a weekend retreat from Washington D.C. and give his eldest son, Reed, a place to breed horses. When his daughter, Rebekah, married James Tindle, President Theodore Roosevelt was a guest for the ceremonies and spent the night at the house.
After Knox retired in 1913, he started to change the house from a Queen Ann style to the Colonial Revival you see today. In 1965, the house was sold to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and became a part of Valley Forge State Park. In 1976, Valley Forge State Park became Valley Forge National Historical Park.