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    Southeast Archeological Center

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SEAC: The Confederates Retire


On the battlefield, Lieutenant General Wheeler was involved in organizing his men and trying to retrieve his wounded when he was approached by Lieutenant General Hampton, accompanied by Dibrell’s Brigade. A quick discussion of available options by the two commanders resulted in the opinion that nothing more could be gained by continuing. Lieutenant General Hampton decided "that in view of the probability that Federal infantry would soon be on the scene" (Dodson n.d.), withdrawal was the prudent course of action.

A rider was sent to inform Major General Butler of the decision to withdraw. Lieutenant General Wheeler took command of Dibrell’s Brigade and directed Brigadier General Dibrell to position his brigade south of the Crossroads to cover the withdrawal. Pelote sounded recall as he and Lieutenant General Wheeler rode toward the Crossroads. Orders were shouted to the scattered units to fall back to the Morganton Road.

Individually and in small groups the riders began to pull out of line and make their way to the road. As they fell back, the firing slackened. Dibrell’s Brigade deployed to resist if the Federals tried to pursue. Many of the Federal troopers instinctively moved forward to close on the withdrawing Confederates. But exhausted, out of ammunition, and receiving no encouragement from their commanders, the Federals did not continue the pursuit.

The Sharps Carbine was favored by both Federal and Confederate Cavalry (Source: U.S. Army).

The Confederates quietly formed into a column on the road. Wagons and prisoners were moved to the front. Soon hoarse commands were issued, and the weary Confederate cavalrymen moved forward on Morganton Road, disappearing into the piney woods. Under the command of Lieutenant General Wheeler, the Confederate rearguard remained, allowing the Confederate main body time to move a safe distance from the battlefield. Several moments passed as the Southern cavalrymen sat stoically facing their northern counterparts. Then, with a few quick shots, the Confederate rear guard wheeled round and followed the main body. The muffled thud of the rear guard and the distant rumble of wagons slowly receded. The only remaining sounds were occasional moans from the wounded who were already being moved toward the main house.

The dazed Federal cavalrymen were grateful to hear the sounds of the Confederate column disappear to the east. Colonel Spencer and Lieutenant Colonel Way, free of their barricaded position on the second floor of the house, appeared on the porch. Colonel Spencer viewed the melancholy scene of the many wounded slowly making their way toward the house. Quickly the commanders began issuing orders to assist the wounded and convert the house into a field hospital.

Brevet Major General Kilpatrick soon joined the Brigade commanders. Brevet Major General Kilpatrick, somewhat shaken, expressed the urgency of departing the area as soon as the wounded were tended.

Brigadier General Mitchell’s Brigade, dispatched from XIV Corps to the relief of the camp, approached the battlefield. The firing had ceased while the Brigade was still in route. With no sound of battle to indicate the camp’s location, the infantrymen arrived still in column. Brigadier General Mitchell halted his command. The infantrymen, hunched over their muskets for support, eyed the camp cautiously. Sweat stinging his eyes from the exertion of the rapid cross-country march, Brigadier General Mitchell scanned the camp to determine the situation. He directed an aide to go into the camp and inquire of the cavalrymen’s needs. Adrenaline gave way to soreness as it became apparent to the infantrymen that Lieutenant General Hampton and his men had left.

Major Aaron B. Robinson, 121st Ohio Volunteer Infantry (OR 1885):

We marched briskly and in little over an hour reached the scene of the action, but found the enemy had been repulsed with severe loss, and our cavalry in quiet possession of the field.

Brigadier General Mitchell’s infantrymen were detailed to assist the cavalrymen in preparing the wounded for movement and burying the dead. The dead were taken to several locations near the house where shallow pits had been prepared. With little ceremony, the dead were placed in the pits and covered with sand.

As Brevet Major General Kilpatrick paced the porch, the Division Surgeon and his assistants worked feverishly on the mangled bodies of the wounded.

Pennsylvania Cavalrymen (Source: U.S. Army).The possibility of the Confederates returning, perhaps with infantry, put a sense of urgency into the efforts of the Federal cavalrymen. The arrival of Brigadier Generals Atkins and Jordan relieved some of Brevet Major General Kilpatrick’s anxiety. He ordered them to position their Brigades to defend against the possible return of the Confederates, while Colonel Spencer and Lieutenant Colonel Way prepared to move. Brigadier General Mitchell and his infantry were released to return to XIV Corps.

All the seriously injured were treated by the surgeon and his staff. Those with minor wounds would have to wait to see the surgeon until the Division arrived at its next position. After treatment, the wounded unable to walk or sit a horse were placed in wagons.

As the last casualty requiring immediate treatment was released by the surgeon, Colonel Spencer sent word to Brevet Major General Kilpatrick that he was ready to move. Brevet Major General Kilpatrick mounted a borrowed horse, his string of valuable horses having been taken by the Confederates. As he started toward the Blue’s Rosin Road, Brevet Major General Kilpatrick and his staff passed through the assembled regiments, issuing commands to fall in behind and follow.

The reunited Cavalry Division proceeded south, leaving behind the debris-strewn field they had known but a few hours, but that many would be able to recall vividly decades later.

Moving south, Kilpatrick’s Division soon struck Chicken Road and turned east. Also on the road marching east were elements of the XIV Corps. On this occasion, the spirited ribbing that commonly occurred when the horsemen encountered the foot soldiers did not happen. The infantry stepped aside and allowed the cavalry to pass silently.

Brevet Major General Hugh J. Kilpatrick, U.S.A., holding a rolled paper, poses with his staff and two unidentified women in a more peaceful moment (Source: U.S. Army).The 3rd Cavalry Division continued on for some eight miles. As the command approached the crossing of Little Rockfish Creek, Brevet Major General Kilpatrick instructed his men to cross over and establish camp on the far side.

Soon the sound of axes being enthusiastically used against the pine trees echoed through the woods as a breastwork perimeter was erected.

Care for the wounded continued, with the most seriously injured taken to the nearby home of William Shaw. Three of the men died in the house and were buried in the yard. A Sergeant John W. Swartz was one of them.

The Confederates’ early morning surprise had made an impression on Brevet Major General Kilpatrick. His move south from Monroe’s Crossroads took the 3rd Cavalry Division off the flank of the Army and into the safer vicinity of the Federal Infantry. His selection and fortification of his next position demonstrate a dramatically more cautious man.

On retiring from Monroe’s Crossroads, the Confederate Cavalry proceeded down Morganton Road toward Fayetteville. For the sake of the wounded, the long grey column moved slowly. Out of necessity, the Confederate dead had been left on the battlefield.

Near dusk the cavalrymen passed through the line of Confederate Infantry thrown out to the west of Fayetteville by Lieutenant General Hardee. As they passed by the Old Federal Arsenal, some regiments fell out to make camp on its grounds. The wagons bearing the wounded continued toward town and medical assistance. From the hill that commands the western approach to the town, the cavalrymen could see the Cape Fear River to the east.

Below lay Fayetteville. Coming from hundreds of campfires, a large, dark cloud hung low over the town, attesting to the presence of Lieutenant General Hardee’s main camp and suggesting the mood of the town.

The wagons full of wounded and the file of Federal prisoners were escorted downward into the town.

Josephine Bryan Worth, A Fayetteville schoolgirl (Oates 1981):

It was on this day that a skirmish was fought at Longstreet, twelve miles from Fayetteville. Toward the close of the day the melancholy line of ambulances came in bearing the wounded, and, to me the still more melancholy file of prisoners. I would have liberated them all if I could. I had not made the acquaintance of Mr. Sherman’s bummers then.

Mrs. James Kyle, volunteer matron in one of Fayetteville’s hospitals (Oates 1981):

About 9 o’clock they sent for me to come to the hospital, and the horrible scene I witnessed there I shall never forget. The wounded had been brought in from Longstreet, where a portion of Hardee’s men had an engagement with Sherman’s men. I stayed with them until just before daylight and did all I could to relieve their wants. Even then I did not hear a single murmur. Such fortitude has no parallel in history.

11 March 1865
In the early morning hours, General O.O. Howard, U.S.A., sent his available mounted men to scout Fayetteville. The Confederate forces concen- trated in Fayetteville used the old arsenal as a rallying ground. Many units were ordered across the Cape Fear River, and the town was strategically evacuated (Barrett 1956; Bowman and Irwin 1865; Butler 1909b; Cox 1882; McLauchlin n.d.; OR 1885).

The Federal cavalry scouts entered the town by a secondary road which the Confederates had neglected to picket. They nearly surprised Lieutenant General Hampton, but Scout Hugh Scott rallied a total of seven men and charged the Yankees on one of Fayetteville’s side streets. The Federals were caught by surprise and attempted to withdraw, but unit disintegration set in and eleven were killed and twelve captured.

This little action nearly embarrassed Major General Butler and an aide who were sound asleep in a private home nearby. They were without clothes as well because their uniforms were being laundered by a household servant in the backyard. Major General Butler and his aide hurriedly dressed in boots and overcoats, mounted their horses, and headed away from the skirmish.

Cavalry from the XIV Corps and a mixture of other troops followed the Federal scouts into Fayetteville where they took possession of the arsenal grounds. By late morning the Confederates had retired across the Cape Fear River bridge in good order, leaving only a few cavalry to defend the bridge’s approach.

The Confederates were able to position a section of artillery across the river to defend the bridge and fire on the Federal skirmishers attempting to take the bridge intact.

Major General G.A. Smith, U.S.A., led his brigade into the city and moved toward the bridge. A point of high irony occurred as the Federals deployed to capture the Cape Fear River bridge. Major General Smith’s adjutant’s horse shied and bolted toward the bridge.

The Union soldiers, thinking a general attack was ordered, followed the out-of-control horse and its rider. The few remaining Confederate skirmishers raced across the bridge, which the Confederates had piled high with rosin logs in anticipation of destroying it.

As the last of the Confederates crossed the bridge, their comrades set it afire. By the time the would-be Union charge reached the structure, it was fully engulfed in flames. The bridge was ruined. The Federal pursuit of Confederate forces across the Cape Fear would have to wait.

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