Southeast Archeological Center a
  • 3D Rendering of Shiloh Mound

    Southeast Archeological Center

    Cultural Resources National Park Service


Further Reading

'Here They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions' cover.Title:
Here They Once Stood: The Tragic End of the Apalachee Missions

Mark F. Boyd, Hale G. Smith, and John W. Griffin

All information on this book taken from the
University Press of Florida web site at:

In the early 17th century, 150 years before Spanish missions were established in California, a chain of missions reached westward from St. Augustine across northern Florida. Today nothing exists of those Florida Franciscan outposts. Our knowledge of them comes only from archival research and information gleaned from archaeological excavations.

Florida's missions came to a fiery end in the first few years of the 18th century, victims of devastating raids by Carolinian militia and their Indian allies. The Apalachee and other mission Indians were slain, some by being burned at the stake or flayed alive. Others were taken back to Charleston as slaves and still others fled. Here They Once Stood, first published in 1951 and a classic example of collaborative research, presents the first-hand accounts describing the horrific fate of the missions. It also offers archaeological reports further documenting the missions and the lives of the native peoples who lived and died as Christians under Spanish rule.

About the Authors:
Mark F. Boyd, a well-known malariologist, was historian for the Florida Park Service and, from 1946 to 1949, president of the Florida Historical Society.

Hale G. Smith, also an employee of the Florida Park Service, was chairman of the Department of Anthropology at Florida State University.

John W. Griffin, the author of pathbreaking writing on the early years of historical archaeology in the Southeast, was the first professional archaeologist employed in the state of Florida, in 1946. In 1993 he received a posthumous Award of Merit from the Society for Historical Archaeology.

•Initially published in 1951 this outstanding book has stood well the test of time, and scholars now regard it as a classic.
--Georgia Historical Quarterly

•The book throws much new light on the final, critical years of the ‘Mission Era’ of northern Florida. . . . [It] fills in a most interesting and important aspect of this story; namely, the difficult life led by the Franciscans, who established their simple, crude outposts among a most inhospitable people. The whole picture of the missionary’s life—his simple mission buildings and the paucity and crudeness of his material blessings—is brought out by these studies. How different a picture than the one so many of us have of the Spanish missionary following in the wake of conquering armies. . . . An important contribution to the history of the Spanish period in America!
--American Antiquity

•An historical-archaeological case study of two Spanish missions and of the area now comprising Leon and Jefferson counties. The authors reaffirm the fact that missions in the region were destroyed in the early 1700s and that they were not largely revived thereafter; and they properly conclude, it seems, that their documents and excavations furnish information on the missions during their heyday.
--Florida Historical Quarterly

Other Information:
1999. 240pp. 6 X 9.
ISBN 0-8130-1725-4

'Hernando de Soto among the Apalachee: The Archaeology of the First Winter Encampment' cover.Title:
Hernando de Soto among the Apalachee: The Archaeology of the First Winter Encampment

Charles R. Ewen and John H. Hann

All information on this book taken from the
University Press of Florida web site at:

Charles Ewen and John Hann chronicle the discovery and excavation of the only known campsite of Hernando de Soto's ten-state odyssey in La Florida during the 16th century. Located in downtown Tallahassee in sight of the state capitol, the site was rescued at the last minute from developers—a story almost as compelling as that of de Soto’s expedition.

The book has three parts: historical background, archaeological excavations at the site, and a retranslation of the 16th-century narratives relating to the winter encampment. A prologue and epilogue fit the work into the wider context of the Contact Period.

John Hann has retranslated the narratives of the De Soto expedition in Apalachee Province--with startling results. Small liberties taken with the original translations presented a misleading picture of the Apalachee and their culture. These versions, coupled with evidence recovered from the winter site, give a new view of the impact of Europeans on the native inhabitants of La Florida.

Of particular interest are the discovery, excavation, and preservation of the site. Showing how luck and timing are crucial factors in some important discoveries, Ewen and Hann describe the interaction of archaeologists with private developers, state and city government, and the public and the media. Although it contains information that will be useful to scholars, the book is written in a popular style that makes it accessible to general readers.

About the Authors:
Charles R. Ewen, associate professor of anthropology at East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina, is the author of From Spaniard to Creole: The Archaeology of Cultural Formation at Puerto Real, Haiti.

John H. Hann is a research historian at the San Luis Historical Site and a leading scholar on the missions of Spanish Florida. He is the author of Apalachee: The Land Between the Rivers (UPF, 1988), Missions to the Calusa (UPF, 1991), and History of the Timucua Indians and Missions (UPF, 1996).

•The authors present scientifically useful information in an extremely accessible style. Recommended for anyone interested in historic archaeology of the Americas.

•Ewen and Hann helpfully include the documentary record of the encounter, drawing the reader into the discussion, just as their clear presentation of the excavation draws the reader happily into the dirt of the site.
--Tampa Bay History

•A fascinating book, the scope of which far transcends the sort of technical archaeological report suggested by the title. . . . Ewen and Hann are to be congratulated for producing a highly readable book that successfully conveys to scholarly and popular audiences alike the excitement of archaeological and historical discovery.
--Sixteenth Century Journal

•Ewen and Hann have captured the excitement, tension, commitment, and scholarship that made excavation of the deSoto/Apalachee Site in Tallahassee a landmark in local preservation. . . a book that will be enjoyed by people interested in archaeology, Florida history, and Spanish enterprise in the New World.
--Florida Heritage

•A genuine tour de force for the integration of anthropology, archaeology and ethnohistory at this first, unequivocal de Soto expedition site.
--Russell K. Skowronek, Santa Clara University

•Indispensable. . . . Will be of interest to southeastern archaeologists, historians of Hispanic America, scholars interested in the early exploration of the Americas . . . and laymen in Florida and surrounding states.
--Charles Hudson, University of Georgia

Other Information:
1998. 256 pp. 6 X 9.
3 maps, 16 black and white photographs, 10 illustrations, bibliography, index.
ISBN 0-8130-1557-X

'The Hernando de Soto Expedition: History, Historiography, and "Discovery" in the Southeast' cover.Title:
The Hernando de Soto Expedition: History, Historiography, and "Discovery" in the Southeast

Patricia Galloway

All information on this book taken from the
University of Nebraska Press web site at:

Hernando de Soto and several hundred armed men cut a path of destruction and disease across the Southeast from Florida to the Mississippi River (1539–1542). The result was the social and demographic collapse or radical transformation of many Native American societies, and the gradual opening of the Southeast to European colonization. Traditionally, studies of the Soto expedition have concentrated on reconstructing its route. While not neglecting this issue, the eighteen contributors to this volume—themselves leading historians, archaeologists, literary critics, anthropologists, and ethnohistorians—investigate broader cultural and literary aspects of the sources themselves. The texts are also used to discuss microhistorical aspects of the expedition (including its daily routine, logistics, and health), and to evaluate their contribution to a better understanding of colonialism and southeastern Native American ethnohistory.

About the Editor:
Patricia Galloway is Special Projects Officer with the Mississippi Department of Archives and History. She is the author of Choctaw Genesis 1500–1700 (Nebraska 1995) and the editor of The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: Artifacts and Analysis (Nebraska 1989).

•This collection of trenchant essays raises the level of debate about Soto, his route, and his effects on Native Americans to new heights of sophistication by critically examining the literary sources and a host of methodological and contextual issues largely ignored in other works.
--Paul E. Hoffman, author of A New Andalucia and a Way to the Orient: The American Southeast during the Sixteenth Century.

•This volume will be a magnificent contribution to de Soto studies. It establishes a modern historiographical foundation from which all future studies must proceed.
--Jeffrey P. Brain, author of Winterville: Late Prehistoric Culture Contact in the Lower Mississippi Valley.

Other Information:
1997, xvi, 457, CIP.LC 96-48194
ISBN 0-8032-2157-6

Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida: The Impact of Colonialism

Clark Spencer Larsen

All information on this book taken from the
University Press of Florida web site at:

These important essays address the biological consequences of the arrival of Europeans in the New World and on the lifeways of native populations following contact in the late 16th century. Moving away from monocausal explanations of population change, they maintain that disease should be viewed as only a facet of a complex problem and that issues relating to diet, nutrition, activity, the work environment, and social and political change are equally important.
The result of a 20-year project directed by the editor, this work involved a team of scientists who explicitly addressed their research to the study of an extensive series of human remains. No comparable body of information currently exists for any other area of the New World.

1. The Ethnohistorical Context of Bioarchaeology in Spanish Florida, by John E. Worth
2. Bioarchaeology of Spanish Florida, by Clark Spencer Larsen
3. Food and Stable Isotopes in La Florida: Diet and Nutrition Before and After Contact, by Clark Spencer Larsen, Dale L. Hutchinson, Margaret J. Schoeninger, and Lynette Norr
4. Pits and Scratches: Microscopic Evidence of Tooth Use and Masticatory Behavior in La Florida, by Mark F. Teaford, Clark Spencer Larsen, Robert F. Pastor, and Vivian E. Noble
5. Reconstructing Behavior in Spanish Florida: The Biomechanical Evidence, by Christopher B. Ruff and Clark Spencer Larsen
6. Patterns of Growth Disruption in La Florida: Evidence from Enamel Microstructure, by Scott W. Simpson
7. Enamel Hypoplasia and Stress in La Florida, by Dale L. Hutchinson and Clark Spencer Larsen
8. Disease in Spanish Florida: Microscopy of Porotic Hyperostosis and Cribra Orbitalia, by Michael Schultz, Clark Spencer Larsen, and Kerstin Kreutz
9. Biological Relationships and Population History of Native Peoples in Spanish Florida and the American Southeast, by Mark C. Griffin, Patricia M. Lambert, and Elizabeth Monahan Driscoll
10. A Spanish Borderlands Perspective on La Florida Bioarchaeology, by Phillip L. Walker

About the Editor:
Clark Spencer Larsen is Distinguished Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Chair of the Department of Anthropology at Ohio State University. In addition, he is a research associate at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. He is the author of Skeletons in Our Closet: Revealing Our Past through Bioarchaeology and Bioarchaeology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human Skeleton and he currently serves as the editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

•An original and an extremely important contribution to the continuing scholarship that chronicles the impact of European colonization and missionization on the health, population history, and lifestyle of Native Americans of the southeastern United States. . . . Makes equally important contributions to the theory and methodology of bioarchaeological research.
--Michael Pietrusewsky, University of Hawaii

Other Information:
August. 320pp. 6 X 9.
66 b&w illustrations, 4 color plates, 47 tables, notes, bibliography, appendixes, index.
ISBN 0-8130-2088-3

'Sinking Columbus: Contested History, Cultural Politics, and Mythmaking during the Quincentenary' cover.Title:
Sinking Columbus: Contested History, Cultural Politics, and Mythmaking during the Quincentenary

Stephen J. Summerhill and John Alexander Williams

All information on this book taken from the
University Press of Florida web site at:

Sinking Columbus describes and analyzes the failure of the 1992 commemoration of the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's voyage from Spain to the New World, once "universally" hailed as the "discovery of America." Despite this failure, the book recognizes the Quincentenary as an important and illuminating event in the recent political and cultural history of the United States, Europe, and Latin America.

The authors draw upon their personal experiences as both organizers and observers of the celebration to explain how and why, in a few short years, the Columbian myth was transformed from a romantic, Eurocentric tradition into a postmodern, multicultural critique of New World history.

The book reviews the U.S. Jubilee Commission, the failed Chicago World's Fair, ethnic controversies in the United States, and various international efforts (especially in Spain, Italy, and Latin America) to commemorate an anniversary whose meaning changed drastically from the time initial planning began until the year it finally took place.

Chronologically, the book ranges over the cultural history of the past century as well as the past decade. Geographically it focuses on the United States, Spain, Italy, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Ultimately, an underlying theme emerges--that the failure of the official Quincentenary is offset by the fact that the anniversary provoked and encouraged a healthy, widespread discussion of major issues such as colonialism, ethnicity, diversity, and the place of indigenous peoples in contemporary societies.

About the Authors:
Stephen J. Summerhill, associate professor of Spanish and Portuguese at Ohio State University, has written scholarly articles on Miguel de Unamuno, Maria Zambrano, Luis Cernuda, and other Spanish authors.

John Alexander Williams, director of the Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Jubilee Commission from 1986 to 1988, is professor of history at Appalachian State University. This is his fourth book.

•An excellent book, lively and well written, and likely to appeal to a wider audience than the typical academic monograph.
--William D. Phillips, Jr., author of The Worlds of Christopher Columbus

Other Information:
2000. 240pp. 6 X 9
17 b&w photos, bibliographic notes, index.
ISBN 0-8130-1799-8

'The French in North America: 1500-1783' cover.Title:
The French in North America: 1500-1783

W. J. Eccles

All information on this book taken from the
Michigan State University Press web site at:

About the Author:
W. J. Eccles has taught at the universities of Manitoba and Alberta, and is professor emeritus at the University of Toronto.

•In The French in the Americas, 1500-1765, W.J. Eccles, known for his powers of trenchant criticism and measured generalization, carries both to new heights and into a wider range. In this masterly analysis of New France and the other French colonies in America, he throws fresh and convincing light at once on the imperial policy of France in North America and also on the profound and enduring foundation of the French identity in Canada and America. No other historian, in my opinion, has attained such insight into the French fact in North American history.
--W.L. Morton, Author of The Canadian Identity

Other Information:
Notes, maps, bibliography, index
300 pages, 6" x 9", 1998
ISBN 0-87013-484-1

Colonial Challenges: Britons, Native Americans, and Caribs, 1759-1775

Robin F. A. Fabel

All information on this book taken from the
University Press of Florida web site at:

In this examination of British colonial practices, Robin Fabel investigates the reactions of native populations to British imperialism in the two decades before the American Revolution. Specifically, he looks at the Cherokees, the small tribes of the Mississippi, and the Black Caribs of the Windward Islands--all groups whose territories bordered on British settlements, all groups who first cooperated with and later resisted British diplomatic and military intrusions.

Fabel reveals the flaws in British imperial policies. Had they learned certain lessons from their experiences with native populations, he argues, they might have been more successful in their dealings with American colonists. He describes, too, how even small tribes could diplomatically-–and successfully--play British and French imperial rivals against each other.

On two significant occasions diplomacy failed and the result was war. In the Cherokee War of 1759-61, that tribe took on but failed to defeat the British and colonial military. In the Carib War of 1772-73, however, the Black Caribs compelled the British to retreat.

This rare glimpse into the military behavior of the Mississippi small tribes and Fabel’s analysis of the ways of war and details of Indian leadership benefits greatly from his use of the Ballindalloch archives. His focus on the crucial naval dimension of the Carib War is also a unique feature of the work. This study will have great appeal for readers of military narratives and will be essential reading for students of Native American diplomacy.

About the Author:
Robin F. A. Fabel is the Hollifield Professor of Southern History at Auburn University. He is the author of The Economy of British West Florida, a contributor to The New History of Florida (UPF, 1996), and the editor of Shipwreck and Adventures of Monsieur Pierre Viaud (UPF, 1990).

Of interest to scholars and readers interested in the relationship of the British and the Cherokees, the Mississippi tribes and the Caribs. Anyone working or studying about British relations with the natives . . . and those interested in the American Revolution would also find this interesting.
--William S. Coker, University of West Florida

Other Information:
2000. 304pp. 6 X 9
7 b&w photos, 4 maps, bibliography, notes, index.