The Quarai Mission and Convento were established at Quarai in 1626 overseen by Fray Juan Gutierrez de la Chica. Construction began on La Purisma Concepcion de Quarai in 1627 and continued to 1632. Curiously, within the newly built convento, a Square Kiva was built. Like the other Missions of Salinas Pueblo Missions, a combination of disease, drought, famine, and Apache raiding led to the abandonment of Quarai in 1678. Settlers would return to Quarai in the early 1800s constructing the Lucero Structures which included a defensive Torreon and the later Manzano Church.