"In Massachusetts, a combination of slaves suing for their individual emancipation, an organized slave petition drive, black soldiers fighting against the British, a state constitution that declared the freedom of all men, judicial decree, white’s unease with their ideological hypocrisy, and a mixed economy that condoned but did not require slavery all pushed the decline of human bondage."
~Chernoh Sesay, Jr., “The American Revolution, Race, and the Failed Beginning of a Nation,” Black Perspectives, (2016).
Hill, Samuel, Engraver. View of the court house in Salem Massachusetts / W. Gray, del.; engraved by S. Hill. Salem Massachusetts, 1790. Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2004670231/.
Massachusetts Constitution of 1780:
Hardesty, Jared Ross. Black Lives, Native Lands, White Worlds: A History of New England Slavery. Boston: University of Massachusetts Press. 2019.
Melish, Joanne Pope. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and "Race" in New England, 1780–1860. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1998.
Massachusetts Constitution and the Abolition of Slavery, https://www.mass.gov/guides/massachusetts-constitution-and-the-abolition-of-slavery.
Last updated: February 24, 2023