Saint Croix Island Timeline

From time immemorial, the Passamaquoddy and other Wabanaki tribes lived on and with these lands and waters.


Dugua and his company depart from France for North America, outfitted for an ambitious endeavor involving a settlement (“habitation”) and trading post.


Saint Croix Island settlement.


Settlers move to Port Royal. Dugua returns to France to defend his trade monopoly, never again to set foot on North American soil.


Samuel Champlain and Sieur de Poutricourt visit the island and note the gardens are still producing. Dugua’s monopoly is revoked. The settlers return to France, leaving the habitation in care of Membertou, chief of the Mi’kmaq.


Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement, is founded in Virginia.


Dugua’s monopoly is temporarily reinstated. Champlain explores farther west in North America and founds the city of Quebec.


Captain Argall of Virginia carries out orders to drive the French from the coast. He destroys the remaining buildings on Saint Croix Island and sails to Port Royal, burning down the habitation while the French are working in the fields.


Pilgrims arrive in Plymouth.


The Saint Croix River is designated as the boundary between Canada and the United States. The two nations disagree over which river is Saint Croix. Using Champlain’s maps and documents to locate the island, Robert Pagan of Canada finds ruins, French brick, and pottery, thus identifying both the island and the river and resolving the dispute.

The St. Croix River serves as the USA/Canada International boundary. Treaty of 1794 between the Passamaquoddy Tribe & The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The boundary cuts through the middle of the Passamaquoddy Tribes homeland. The Passamaquoddy have occupied this watershed region for at least the past 600+ generations (12,000+ years).


The island is settled and quarried for sand, and a light station is erected. During this time it was said that French brick was visible and that visitors carried much of it away.


Saint Croix Island is declared a national monument.


Light Station burns down. Historical and archeological resources on island are documented.


The island is redesignated an international historic site in recognition of the “historic significance to both the United States and Canada.”


400th anniversary of the French settlement on Saint Croix Island.

Last updated: September 13, 2021

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