ferns along a trail
Ferns add an archaic beauty to the forest floor.

Eugene Kobayashi

christmas fern

Christmas Fern, Polystichum acrostichoides

Christmas Fern is an evergreen, native species that is attractive year-round. These ferns are used widely in Christmas decorations. It thrives in shade and in woodland soil, but is able to grow in the sunlight if grown in moist soils.

fiddlehead ferns


The early stages of fern growth are called fiddleheads. They are highly nutritious for both humans and animals. These are fiddleheads of the Christmas Fern.

hay scented fern

Hay-scented Fern, Dennstaedtia punctilobula

Hay Scented Fern is a species of fern native to eastern North America, it is most abundant in the east of its range, with only scattered populations in the west. The English name 'Hay-scented Fern' comes from the fact that crushing it has the aroma of fresh hay.


New York Fern, Thelpteris novaboracensis

These are an aggressive growing fern that requires moist, humus rich soil in sun or shade and is often found in drier areas of swamps. The New York Fern does resemble hay-scented fern and as well as its habit of covering forest floors, but the shape of the fronds distinguishes these ferns from one another.

Last updated: October 16, 2017

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